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of smugglers in peace, and in war the refuge of terprise impracticable, fleets are silently disfuture Buccaniers. To all this the government peopled, and armies sluggisbly melted away. has now given ample attestation, for the island Thus is a people gradually exhausted, for the has been since abandoned, and perhaps was kept most part, with little effect. The wars of civionly to quiet clamours, with an intention, not lized nations make very slow changes in the then wholly concealed, of quitting it in a short system of empire. The public perceives scarcely time.

any alteration but an increase of debt; and the This is the country of which we have now few individuals who are benefited, are not suppossession, and of which a numerous party pre- posed to have the clearest right to their advaotends to wish that we had murdered thousands tages. If he that shared the danger enjoyed the for the titular sovereignty. To charge any men protit, and after bleeding in the battle grew with such madness, approaches to an accusation rich by the victory, be might show his gains defeated by its own incredibility. As they have without envy. But at the conclusion of a ten been long accumulating falsehoods, it is possible years' war, how are we recompensed for the death that they are now only adding another to the of multitudes and the expense of millions, but heap, and that they do not mean all that they by contemplating the sudden glories of payproress. But of this faction what evil may not masters and agents, contractors and commisbe credited ?. They have bitherto shown no vir- saries, whose equipages shine like meteors, and tue, and very little wit, beyond that mischievous whose palaces rise like exhalations? cunning for which it is held by Hale that chil. These are the men who, without virtue, ladren may be hanged.

bour, or hazard, are growing rich as their counAs war is the last of remedies, cuncta prius ' try is impoverished; they rejoice when obstitentanda, all lawful expedients must be used to pacy or ambition adds another year to slaughter avoid it. As war is the extremity of evil, it is and devastation; and laugh from their desks at surely the duty of those whose station intrusts bravery and science, while they are adding figure them with the care of nations, to avert it from to figure, and cipher to cipher, hoping for a new their charge. There are diseases of animal na contract from a new armament, and computing ture which nothing but amputation can remove; the profits of a siege or tempest. so there may, by the depravation of human Those who suffer their minds to dwell on passions, be sometimes a gangrene in collective these considerations will think it no great crime life for which fire and the sword are the neces- in the ministry that they have not snatched sary remedies; but in what can skill or caution with eagerness the first opportunity of rushing be better shown than preventing such dreadful into the field, when they were able to obtain by operations, while there is yet room for gentler quiet negotiation all the real good that victory methods ?

could have brought us. It is wonderful with what coolness and indif- Of victory indeed every nation is confident ference the greater part of mankind see war before the sword is drawn; and this mutual commenced. Those that hear of it at a distance, confidence produces that wantonness of bloodor read of it in books, but have never presented shed that has so often desolated the world. But its evils to their minds, consider it as little more it is evident, that of contradictory opinions one than a splendid game, a proclamation, an army, must be wrong; and the history of mankind a battle, and a triumph. Some indeed must does not want examples that may teach cautiou perish in the most successful field, but they die to the daring and moderation to the proud. upon the bed of honour, resign their lives amidst Let us not think our laurels blasted by con. the joys of conquest, and, filled with England's descending to inquire, whether we might not glory, smile in death.

possibly grow rather less than greater by attackThe life of a modern soldier is ill represented ing Spain? Whether we should have to contend by heroic fiction. War has means of destruc- with Spain alone, whatever has been promised tion more formidable than the cannon and the by our patriots, may very reasonably be doubted. s:vord. Of the thousands and ten thousands A war declared for the empty sound of an anthat perished in our late contests with France cient title to a Magellanic rock, would raise the And Spain, a very small part ever felt the stroke indignation of the earth against us.

These enof an enemy; the rest languished in tents and croachers on the waste of nature, says our ally ships, amidst damps and putrefaction ; palc, the Russian, if they succeed in their first effort torpid, spiritless, and helpless; gasping and of usurpation, will make war upon us for a title groaning, uppitied among men, made obdurate to Kamschatscha. These universal settlers, says by long continuance of hopeless missry; and our ally the Dane, will in a short time settle were at last whelmed in pits, or heaved into the upon Greenland, and a fleet will batter Copenoccan, without notice and without remembrance. bagen, till we are willing to confess that it alBy incommodious encampments and unwhole- ways was their own. some stations, where courage is useless, and en- In a quarrel like this, it is not possible that

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any power should favour us, and it is very like od of English greatness, no enterprises against
ly that some would oppose us. The French, we America had any other consequence than that
are told, are otherwise employed: the contests of extending English navigation. Here Caven-,
between the king of France and his own sub- dish perished after all his hazards; and here
jects are sufficient to withhold him from sup- Drake and Hawkins, great as they were in
porting Spain. But who does not know that a knowledge and in fame, having promised hon-
foreign war has often put a stop to civil discords ? our to themselves and dominion to the country,
It withdraws the attention of the public from sunk by desperation and misery in dishonoura-
domestic grievances, and affords opportunities ble graves.
of dismissing the turbulent and restless to dis- During the protectorship of Cromwell, a time
tant employments. The Spaniards have always of whịch the patriotic tribes still more ardent-
an argument of irresistible persuasion. If ly desire the return, the Spanish dominions
France will not support them against England, were again attempted ; but here, and only here,
they will strengthen England against France. the fortune of Cromwell made a pause. His

But let us indulge a dream of idle specula- forces were driven from Hispaniola, his hopes tion, and suppose that we are to engage with of possessing the West Indies vanished, and JaSpain, and with Spain alone ; it is not even yet maica was taken, only that the whole expedi-. very certain that much advantage will be gained. tion might not grow ridiculous.

Spain is not easily vulnerable ; her kingdom, The attack of Carthagena is yet remembered, by the loss or cession of many fragments of where the Spaniards from the ramparts saw dominion, is becoine solid and compact. The their invaders destroyed by the hostility of the Spaniards have, indeed, no fleet able to oppose elements ; poisoned by the air, and crippled by us, but they will not endeavour actual opposi- the dews; where every hour swept away batta-, tion: they will shut themselves up in their own lions; and in the three days that passed between territories, and let us exhaust our seamen in a | the descent and re-embarkation, half an army hopeless siege. They will give commissions to perished. privateers of every nation, who will prey upon In the last war the Havanna was taken ; at our merchants without possibility of reprisal. what expense is too well remembered. May If they think their Plate fleet in danger, they my country be never cursed with such another will forbid it to set sail, and live awhile upon conquest ! the credit of treasure which all Europe knows These instances of miscarriage, and these arto be safe: and which, if our obstinacy should guments of difficulty, may perhaps abate the continue till they can no longer be without it, military ardour of the public. Upon the oppowill be conveyed to them with secrecy and se- nents of the government their operation will be curity by our natural enemies the French, or different; they wish for war, but not for conby the Dutch our natural allies.

quest; victory would defeat their purposes But the whole continent of Spanish America equally with peace, because prosperity would will lie open to invasion ; we shall have no- vaturally continue the trust in those hands thing to do but march into these wealthy re

which had used it fortunately. The patriots gions, and make their present masters confess gratified themselves with expectations that some that they were always ours by ancient right. sinistrous accident, or erroneous conduct, might We shall throw brass and iron out of our bous- diffuse discontent and inflame malignity. Their es, and nothing but silver will be seen among us. hope is malevolence, and their good is evil.

All this is very desirable, but it is not certain Of their zeal for their country we have althat it can be easily attained. Large tracts of ready had a specimen. While they were terriAmerica were added by the last war to the fying the nation with doubts whether it was any British dominions; but, if the faction credit their longer to exist; while they represented invasive own Apollo, they were conquered in Ger- armies as hovering in the clouds, and hostile many. They at hest are only the barren parts fleets as emerging from the deeps. They ob of the continent, the refuse of the earlier adven- structed our levies of seamen, and embarrassed turers, which the French, who came last, had our endeavours of defence. Of such men he taken only as better than nothing.

thinks with unnecessary candour who does not ¢ Against the Spanish dominions we have never believe them likely to have promoted the mis. hitherto been able to do much. A few priva-carriage which they desired, by intimidating oui teers have grown rich at their expense, but no troops or betraying our counsels. scheme of conquest has yet been successful. It is considered as an injury to the public by They are defended not by walls mounted with those sanguinary statesmen, that though the cannons which by cannons may be battered, but fleet has been refitted and manned, yet no hostiby the storms of the deep and the vapours of the lities bave followed; and they who sat wishing land, by the flames of calenture and blasts of for misery and slaughter are disappointed of pestilence.

their pleasure. But as peace is the end of war, In the reign of Elizabeth, the favourite peri- it is the end likewise of preparations for war ;

i

and he may be justly hunted down as the ene-lities established authority will always find my of mankind, that can choose to snatch by vi- abettors. olence and bloodshed, what gentler means can Junius burst into notice with a blaze of imequally obtain.

pudence which has rarely glared upon the world The ministry are reproached as not daring to before, and drew the rabble after him as a monprovoke an enemy, lest ill success should discre- ster makes a show. When he had once provid. dit and displace them. I hope that they had ed for his safety by impenetrable secrecy, he had better reasons ; that they paid some regard to nothing to combat but truth and justice, eneequity and humanity; and considered them- mies whom he knows to be feeble in the dark. selves as intrusted with the safety of their fel- Being then at liberty to indulge himself in all low-subjects, and as the destroyers of all that the immunities of invisibility; out of the reach should be superfluously slaughtered. But let of danger, he has been bold; out of the reach of us suppose that their own safety had some in- shame, he has been confident. As a rhetorifluence on their conduct, they will not, how- cian, he has had the art of persuading w ben he ever, sink to a level with their enemies. Though seconded desire ; as a reasoner, he has convinethe motive might be selfish, the act was innoed those who had no doubt before ; as a moracent. They who grow rich by administering list, he has taught that virtue may disgrase ; physic, are not to be numbered with them that and as a patriot, he has gratified the mean by inget money by dispensing poison. If they main- sults on the high. Finding sedition ascendant, tain power by harmlessness and peace, they he has been able to advance it; finding the namust for ever be at a great distance from ruf- tion combustible, he has been able to infiame it. fians who would gain it by mischief and confu- Let us abstract from his wit the vivacity of insion. The watch of a city may guard it for solence, and withdraw from his efficacy the symhire; but are well employed in protecting it pathetic favour of plebeian malignity; I do not from those who lie in wait to fire the streets say, that we shall leave him nothing : the cause and rob the houses amidst the conflagration. that I defend scorns the help of falsehood: but if

An unsuccessful war would undoubtedly have we leave him only his merit, what will be his bad the effect which the enemies of the mi- praise ? nistry so earnestly desire; for who could have It is not by his liveliness of imagery, his pursustained the disgrace of folly ending in misfor- gency of periods, or his fertility of allusion, tune? But had wanton invasion undeservedly that he detains the cities of London, and the prospered, had Falkland's Island been yielded boors of Middlesex. Of style and sentiment unconditionally with every right prior and pos- they take no cognizance. They admire bim fer terior; though the rabble might have shouted, virtues like their own, for contempt of order and the windows have blazed, yet those who and violence of outrage, for rage of defamatien know the value of life, and the uncertainty of and audacity of falsehood. The supporters of public credit, would bave murmured, perhaps the Bill of Rights feel no niceties of composiunbeard, at the increase of our debt and the tion, nor dexterity of sophistry: their faculties loss of our people.

are better proportioned to the bawl of Bellas, at This thirst of blood, however the visible pro- barbarity of Beckford: but they are told that moters of sedition may think it convenient to Junius is on their side, and they are therefore shrink from the accusation, is loudly avowed by sure that Junius is infallible. Those who know Junius, the writer to whom his party owes not whither he would lead them, resolve to folmuch of its pride, and some of its popularity. low him; and those who cannot find his meanof Junius it cannot be said, as of Ulysses, that ing, hope he means rebellion. he scatters ambiguous expressions among the Junius is an unusual phenomenon, on which vulgar; for he cries havock without reserve, some have gazed with wonder and some with and endeavours to let slip the dogs of foreign or terror, but wonder and terror are transitory of civil war, ignorant whither they are going, passions. He will soon be more closely viewed and careless what may be their prey.

or more attentively examined, and what felly Junius has sometimes made his satire felt, but has taken for a comet that from its flaming hair let not injudicious admiration mistake the ve

shook pestilence and war, inquiry will find to be nom of the shaft for the vigour of the bow. He only a meteor formed by vapours of putrifying has sometimes sported with lucky malice; but democracy, and kindled into flame by the efferto him that knows his company, it is not hard

vescence of interest struggling with conviction; to be sarcastic in a mask. While he walks like which after having plunged its followers in a Jack the Giant-killer in a coat of darkness, he bog, will leave us inquiring why we regard it. may do much mischief with little strength. Yet, though I cannot think the style of JuNovelty captivates the superficial and thought-nius secure from criticism, though his expres less ; vehemence delights the discontented and sions are often trite, and bis periods feeble, I turbulent. He that contradicts acknowledged should never have stationed him where he ha truth will always have an audience ; he that vi- placed himself, had I not rated him by bis morals

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rather than his faculties. Wbat, says Pope, ' yielded unconditionally all that was required,
must be the priest, where a monkey is the god ? we might have been satisfied; but what would
What must be the drudge of a party, of which Europe have judged of their submission ? that
the heads are Wilkes and Crosby, Sawbridge they shrunk before us as a conquered people
and Townshend ?

who having lately yielded to our arms, wen
Janius knows his own meaning, and can now compelled to sacrifice to our pride. The
therefore tell it. He is an enemy to the minis- honour of the public is indeed of high import-
try, he sees them growing hourly stronger. He ance; but we must remember that we have had
knows that a war at once unjust and unsaccess- to transact with a mighty king and a powerful
ful would have certainly displaced them, and is nation, who have unluckily been taught to think
therefore, in his zeal for his country, angry that that they have honour to keep or lose as well as
war was not unjustly made, and unsuccessfully ourselves.
conducted. But there are others whose thoughts When the Admiralty were told in June of the
are less clearly expressed, and whose schemes warning given to Hunt, they were, I suppose,
perhaps are less consequentially digested; wbo informed that Hunt had first provoked it by
declare that they do not wish for a rupture, yet warning away the Spaniards, and naturally
condemn the ministry for not doing that, by considered one act of insolence as balanced by
which a rupture would naturally have been another, without expecting that more would be
made.

done on either side. Of representations and res
If one party resolves to demand what the other monstrances there would be no end, if they were
resolves to refuse, the dispute can be determined to be made whenever small commanders are un-
only by arbitration; and between powers who civil to each other; nor could peace ever be en-
have no common superior, there is no other joyed, if upon such transient provocations it be
arbitrator than the sword.

imagined necessary to prepare for war. We
Whether the ministry might not equitably might then, it is said, have increased our force
have demanded more, is not worthy a question. with more leisure and less inconvenience; but

The utmost exertion of right is always invidious, this is to judge only by the event. We omitted
and where claims are not easily determinable, is to disturb the public, because we did not suppose
always dangerous. We asked all that was ne that an armament would be necessary.
cessary, and persisted in our first claim without Some months afterwards, as has been told,
mean recession, or wanton aggravation. The Buccarelli, the governor of Buenos Ayres, sent
Spaniards found us resolute, and complied after against the settlement of Port Egmont a force
a short struggle.

which ensured the conquest. The Spanish com-
The real crime of the ministry is, that they mander required the English captains to depart,
have found the means of avoiding their own but they, thinking that resistance necessary
ruin: but the charge against them is multifari-which they knew to be useless, gave the Span-
ous and confused, as will happen, when malice iards the right of prescribing terms of capitula-
and discontent are ashamed of their complaint. tion. The Spaniards imposed no new condition,
The past and the future are complicated in the except that the sloop should not sail under
censure. We have heard a tumultuous clamour twenty days; and of this they secured the per-
about honour and rights, injuries and insults, formance by taking off the rudder.
the British flag, and the Favourite's rudder, To an inhabitant of the land there appears
Buccarelli's conduct, and Grimaldi's declara- nothing in all this unreasonable or offensive. If
tions, the Manilla ransom, delays and repara- the English intended to keep their stipulation,
tion.

how were they injured by the detention of the
Through the whole argument of the faction rudder? If the rudder be to a ship what his tail
runs the general error, that our settlement on is in fables to a fox, the part in which honour is
Falkland's Is and was not only lawful but un- placed, and of which the violation is never to be
questionable; that our right was not only certain endured, I am sorry that the Favourite suffered
but acknowledged ; and that the equity of our an indignity, but cannot yet think it a cause for
conduct was such, that the Spaniards could not which nations should slaugliter one another.
blame or obstruct it without combating their When Buccarelli's invasion was known, and
own conviction, and opposing the general opi- the dignity of the crown infringed, we demanded
nion of mankind.

reparation and prepared for war, and we gained If once it be discovered that, in the opinion of equal respect by the moderation of our terms, the Spaniards, our settlement was usurped, our and the spirit of our exertion. The Spanish claim arbitrary, and our conduct insolent, all minister immediately denied that Buccarelli had that has happened will appear to follow by a received any particular orders to seize Port Egnatural concatenation. Doubts will produce mont, nor pretended that he was justified otherdisputes and disquisition, disquisition requires wise than by the general instructions by which delay, and delay causes inconvenience.

the American governors are required to exclude Had the Spanish government immediately the subjects of other powers.

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To have inquired whether our settlement at for two centuries to the European powers, was Port Egmont was any violation of the Spanish not obtained in a basty wrangle about a petty rights, had been to enter upon a discussion settlement. which the pertinacity of political disputants The ministry were too well acquainted with might have continued without end. We there- / negotiation to fill their heads with such idle ex Tore called for restitution, not as a confession of pectations. The question of right was inexpliright, but as a reparation of honour, which re- cable and endless. They left it as it stood. To quired that we should be restored to our former be restored to actual possession was easily pracstate upon the island, and that the king of Spain ticable. This restoration they required and ob should disavow the action of his governor. tained.

In return to this demand, the Spaniariis ex. But they should, say their opponents, have pected from us a disavowal of the menaces with insisted upon more; they should have exacted which they had been first insulted by Ilunt; and not only reparation of our honour, but repas. if the claim to the island be supposed doubtful, ment of our expense. Nor are they all satisfied they certainly expected it with equal reason. with the recovery of the costs and damages of This, however, was refused, and our superiority, the present contest; they are for taking this op of strength gave validity to our arguments. portunity of calling in old debts, and reviving

But we are told that the disavowal of the king our right to the ransom of Manilla. of Spain is temporary and fallacions ; that Buc- The Manilla ransom has, I think, been most carelli's armament had all the appearance of re- mentioned by the inferior bellowers of sedities. gular forces and a concerted expedition; and Those who lead the faction, know that it cannot that he is not treated at home as a man guilty be remembered much to their advantage. The of piracy, or as disobedient to the orders of his followers of Lord Rockingham remember that master.

his ministry began and ended without obtaining That the expedition was well planned, and it; the adherents to Grenville would be told, the forces properly supplied, affords no proof of that he could never be taught to understand our communication between the governor and his claim. The law of nations made little of bis court. Those who are intrusted with the care of knowledge. Let him not, however, be depre kingdoms in another hemisphere, must always ciated in his grave. If he was sometimes be trusted with power to defend them.

wrong, he was often right. As little can be inferred from his reception at Of reimbursement the talk has been more the Spanish court. Ble is not punished indeed, confident, though not more reasonable. The for what has he done that deserves punishment? expenses of war have been often desired, bare He was sent into America to govern and de- been sometimes required, but were never paid ; fend the dominions of Spain. He thought the or never but when resistance was hopeless, and English were encroaching, and drove them there remained no choice between submission away. No Spaniard thinks that he has ex- and destruction. ceeded his duty, nor does the king of Spain Of our late equipments I know not from eharge him with excess. The boundaries of whom the charge can be very properly expected. dominion in that part of the world have not. The king of Spain disavows the violence which yet been settled; and he mistook, if a mistake provoked us to arm, and for the mischiefs there was, like a zealous subject, in his master's which he did not do, why should be pas? favour.

Buccarelli, though he had learned all the arts But all this inquiry is superfluous. Consi- of an East-Indian governor, could hardly hare dered as a reparation of honour, the disavowal collected at Buenos Ayres a sum sufficient to of the king of Spain, made in the sight of all satisfy our demands. ' If he be honest, he is Europa is of equal value whether true or false. hardly rich; and it he be disposed to rob, he There is indeed no reason to question its vera- has the misfortune of being placed where rol city; they, however, who do not believe it, must bers bave been before him. allow the weight of that influence by which a The king of Spain, indeed, delayed to comply great prince is reduced to disown his own com

with our proposals, and our armament was mission.

made necessary by unsatisfactory answers and But the general orders upon which the go- dilatory debates. The delay certainly increased vernor is acknowledged to have acted, are

our expenses, and it is not unlikely that the inneither disavowed nor explained. Why the crease of our expenses put an end to delay. Spaniards should disavow the defence of their But this is the inevitable process of human own territories, the warmest disputant will find affairs. Negotiation requires time. What is it difficult to tell ; and if by an explanation is not apparent to intuition, must be found by inmeant an accurate delineation of the southern quiry. Claims that have remained doubtful for empire, and the limitation of their claims be- ages, cannot be settled in a day. Reciprocal yond the line, it cannot be imputed to any very complaints are not easily adjusted but bg reciculpable remissoess, that what has been denied procal compliance.

The Spaniards thinking

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