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stronger reason than mere convenience for Part of my scheme supposes the demolition of changing the common course. Some of the the Gate-house, a building so offensive, that, streets in the old track are so ruinous, that without any occasional reason, it ought to be there is danger lest the houses, loaded as they pulled down, for it disgraces the present magniwill be with people, all pressing forward in the same direction, should fall down upon the procession. The least evil that can be ex

which was covered with gold brocade, and adorned with pected is, that in so close a crowd, some will be

sails of silk, with two rich standards of the king's and trampled upon, and others smothered; and queen's arms at her head and stern, besides a variety of surely a pomp that costs a single life, is too dear- flags and streamers, containing the arms of that company, ly bought. The new streets, as they are more

and those of the merchant adventurers ; besides which, extensive, will afford place to greater numbers the shrouds and ratlines were hung with a number of

small bells: on the left was a barge that contained a very with less danger.

beautiful mount, on which stood a white falcon crowned, In this proposal I do not foresee any objection perched upon a golden stump enriched with roses, being that can reasonably be made. That a longer the queen's emblem : and round the mount sat several march will require more time, is not to be men- beautiful virgins, singing, and playing upon instruments. tioned, as implying any defect in a scheme of The other barges followed in regular order, till they came

below Greenwich. On their return the procession began which the whole purpose is to lengthen the

with that barge which was before the last, in which were march and protract the time. The longest

mayors' and sheriffs' officers, and this was followed by course which I have proposed is not equal to an those of the inferior companies, ascending to the lord bour's walk in the Park. The labour is not mayor's, which immediately preceded that of the queen, such, as that the king should refuse it to his who was attended by the Bachelors, or state barge, with people, or the nobility grudge it to the king. the magnificence of which her majesty was much delight.

ed : and being arrived at the Tower, she returned the Queen Anne went from the palace through the

lord mayor and aldermen thanks, for the pomp with which l'ark to the Hall, on the day of her coronation; she had been conducted thither. and when old and infirm, used to pass on solemn Two days after, the lord mayor, in a gown of crimson thanksgivings from the palace to St. Paul's velvet, and a rich collar of SS, attended by the sheriffs, church.

and two domestics in red and white damask, went to receive the queen at the Tower of London, whence the sheriffs returned to see that every thing was in order. The streets were just before new gravelled from the Tower

to Temple-bar, and railed in on each side, to the intent * In order to convey to the reader some idea how high- that the horses should not slide on the pavement, nor the ly parade and maguificence were estimated by our ances. people be hurt by the horses ; within the rails near Grace. tors, on these solemn occasions, I shall take notice of the church, stood a body of Anseatic merchants, and next to manner of conducting Lady Anne Boleyn from Green- them the several corporations of the city, in their formal. wich, previous to her coronation, as it is recited by Stow. ities, reaching to the aldermen's station at the upper end

King Henry VIII. (says that historian) having divorced of Cheapside. On the opposite side were placed the city Queen Catherine, and married Anne Boleyn, or Boloine, constables dressed in silk and velvet, with staffs in their who was descended from Godfrey Boloine, Mayor of the hands to prevent the breaking in of the mob, or any other city of London, and intending her coronation, sent to disturbance. On this occasion, Gracechurch-street and order the Lord Mayor, not only to make all the prepara. Cornhill were hung with crimson and scarlet cloth, and tions necessary for conducting his royal consort from the sides of the houses of a place then called GoldsmithsGreenwich, by water, to the Tower of London, but to

row, in Cheapside, were adorned with gold brocades, veladorn the city after the most magnificent manner, for her vet, and rich tapestry. passage through it to Westminster.

The procession began from the Tower with twelve of In obedience to the royal precept, the mayor and com- the French ambassador's domestics in blue velvet, the mon-council not only ordered the company of haberdash-trappings of their horses being blue sarsnet, interspersed ers, of which the lord mayor was a member, to prepare a with white crosses; after whom marched those of the magnificent state barge; but enjoined all the city corpora- equestrian order, two and two, followed by judges in their tions to provide themselves with barges, and to adorn robes, two and two; then came the knights of the Bath them in the most superb manner, and especially to have in violet gowns, purfled with menever. Next came the them supplied with good bands of music.

abbots, barons, bishops, earls, and marquises, in their On the 29th of May, the time prefixed for this pompous robes, two and two. Then the lord chancellor, followed procession by water, the mayor, aldermen, and commons, by the Venetian ambassador and the Archbishop of York: assembled at St. Mary-hill; the mayor and aldermen in next the French ambassador and the Archbishop of Canscarlet, with gold chains, and those who were knights, terbury, followed by two gentlemen representing the with the collars of SS. At one, they went on board the dukes of Normandy and Aquitain; after whom rode the city barge at Billingsgate, which was most magnificently lord mayor of London with his mace, and Garter in his decorated, and attended by fifty noble barges, belonging coat of arms; then the Duke of Suffolk, lord high stew. to the several companies of the city, with each its own ard, followed, by the deputy marshal of England, and all corporation on board; and, for the better regulation of the other officers of state in their robes, carrying the sym. this procession, it was ordered, that each barge should bols of their several offices : then others of the nobility in keep twice their lengths asunder.

crimson velvet, and all the queen's officers in scarlet, fol Thus regulated, the city barge was preceded by another lowed by her chancellor uncovered, who immediately mounted with ordnance, and the figures of dragons, and preceded his mistress. other monsters, incessantly emitting fire and smoke, with The queen was dressed in silver brocade, with a mantle much noise. Then the city barge, attended o: the right of the same furred with ermine; her hair was dishevelled, by the haberdashers' state barge, called the B.chelors, and she wore a chaplet upon her head set with jewels of

ficence of the capital, and is a continual nuisance of houses are now let, will be abated, not only to neighbours and passengers.

greater numbers will be admitted to the show, A longer course of scaffolding is doubtless but each will come at a cheaper rate. more expensive than a shorter; but it is hoped Some regulations are necessary, whatever track that the time is now past, when any design was be chosen. The scaffold ought to be raised at received or rejected according to the money that least four feet, with rails high enough to support it would cost. Magnificence cannot be cheap, the standards, and yet so low as not to binder for what is cheap cannot be magnificent. The the view. money that is so spent is spent at home, and the It would add much to the gratification of the king will receive again what he lays out on the people, if the horse-guards, by which all our propleasure of his people. Nor is it to be omitted, cessions have been of late encumbered, and renthat if the cost be considered as expended by the dered dangerous to the multitude, were to be left public, much more will be saved than lost ; for bebind at the coronation ; and if contrary to the the excessive prices at which windows and tops desires of the people, the procession must pass in

the old track, that the number of foot soldiers be diminished ; since it cannot but offend every most honourable of the people, or the king re- as may be expected from servile authority; and quired guards to secure his person from his sub- the impatience of the people, under such immejects. As their station makes them think them- diate oppression, always produces quarrels, tuselves important, their insolence is always such mults, and mischief.

Englishman to see troops of soldiers placed beinestimable value. She sat in a litter covered with silver

tween him and his sovereign, as if they were the tissue, and carried by two beautiful pads clothed in white damask, and led by her footmen. Over the bitter was carried a canopy of cloth of gold, with a silver bell at each corner, supported by sixteen knights alternately by four at a time.

The cavalcade thence proceeded to a great conduit that After her majesty came her chamberlain, followed by stood opposite to Mercers-hall in Cheapside, and upon her master of horse, leading a beautiful pad, with a side that occasion, was painted with a variety of emblems, and saddle and trappings of silver tissue. Next came seven during the solemnity and remaining part of the day, ran ladies in crimson velvet, faced with gold brocade, mount. with different sorts of wine, for the entertainment of the ed on beautiful horses with gold trappings. Then follow populace. ed two chariots covered with cloth of gold, in the first of At the end of Wood-street, the standard there was which were the Dutchess of Norfolk and the Marchioness finely embellished with royal portraitures and a number of Dorset, and in the second four ladies in crimson vel- of flags, on which were painted coats of arms and trophies, vet; then followed seven ladies dressed in the same man- and above was a concert of vocal and instrumental music. ner, on horseback, with magnificent trappings, followed by At the upper end of Cheapside was the aldermen's staanother chariot all in white, with six ladies in crimson tion, where the recorder addressed the queen in a very velvet ; this was followed by another all in red, with eight elegant oration, and, in the name of the citizens, presentladies in the same dress with the former: next came thirty ed her with a thousand marks in a purse of gold tissue, gentlewomen, attendants to the ladies of honour ; they which her majesty very gracefully received. were on horseback, dressed in silks and velvet; and the At a small distance by Cheapside conduit was a pagecavalcade was closed by the horse-guards.

ant, in which were seated Minerva, Juno, and Venus ; be. This pompous procession being arrived in Fenchurch. fore whom stood the god Mercury; who in their names, street, the queen stopped at a beautiful pageant crowded presented the queen a golden apple. with children in mercantile habits; who congratulated At St. Paul's gate there was a fine pageant, in which her majesty upon the joyful occasion of her happy arrival sat three ladies, richly dressed, with each a chaplet on her in the city.

head, and a tablet in her hand, containing Latin inscripThence she proceeded to Gracechurch corner, where tions. was erected a very maguificent pageant, at the expense of At the east of St. Paul's cathedral, the queen was enthe company of Anseatic merchants, in which was repre- i tertained by some of the scholars belonging to St. Paul's sented mount Parnassus, with the fountain of Helicon, of school, with verses in praise of the king and her majesty, white marble, out of which arose four springs about four with which she seemed highly delighted. feet high, centering at the top in a smali globe, from Thence proceeding to Ludgate, which was finely deco. whence issued plenty of Rhenish wine till night. On the rated, her majesty was entertained with several songs mount sat Apollo, at his feet was Calliope, and beneath adapted to the occasion, sung in concert by men and boys were the rest of the Muses, surrounding the mount, and upon the leads over the gate. playing upon a varicty of musical instruments, at whose At the end of Shoe-lane, in Fleet-strect, a handsome fect were inscribed several epigrams suited to the occa- tower with four turrets was erected upon the conduit, in sion, in letters of goki,

each of which stood one of the cardinal virtues, with their Her majesty then proceeded to Leadenhall, where stood several symbols ; who addressing themselves to the queen, a pageant, representing a hill encompassed with red and promised they would never leave her, but be always her white roses; and above it was a golden stump, upon constant attendants. Within the tower was an excellent which a white falcon, descending from above, perched, concert of music, and thr conduit all the while ran with and was quickly followed by an angel, who put a crown various sorts of wine. of gold upon his head. A little lower on the hillock sat At Temple-bar she was again entertained with songs, St. Anne, surrounded by her progeny, one of whom made sung in concert by a choir of men and boys; and having an oration, in which was a wish that her majesty might from thence proceeded to Westminster, she returned the prove extremely prolific.

lord mayor thanks for his good offices, and those of the The procession then advanced to the conduit in Corn. citizens, that day. The day after, the lord mayor, alderhill; where the graces sat enthroned, with a fountain be. men, and sheriffs, assisted at the coronation, which was fore them, incessantly discharging wine; and under- performed with great splendour, Stow's Annale neath, a poet, who, described the qualities peculiar to each Note, The same historian informs us, that Queen Elias of these amiable deities, and presented the queen with beth passed in the like manner, through the city, to het their several gifts.

coronation,

PREFACE

TO THE

ARTISTS' CATALOGUE, FOR 1762.

The public may justly require to be informed of serve public favour, is here invited to display his the nature and extent of every design, for which merit. the favour of the public is openly solicited. The Of the price put upon this exhibition some acartists, who were themselves the first projectors count may be demanded. Whoever sets his of an exhibition in this nation, and wbo have work to be shown, naturally desires a multitude now contributed to the following catalogue, think of spectators; but his desire defeats its own end, il therefore necessary to explain their purpose, when spectators assemble in such numbers as to and justify their conduct. An exhibition of the obstruct onc another. Though we are far from works of art, being a spectacle new in this king- wishing to diminish the pleasures, or depreciate dom, has raised various opinions and conjectures the sentiments, of any class of the community, among those who are unacquainted with the we know, however, what every one knows, that practice in foreign nations. Those who set out all cannot be judges or purchasers of works of their performances to general view, have been art; yet we have already found by experience, too often considered as the rivals of each other, that all are desirous to see an exhibition. When as men actuated, if not by avarice, at least by the terms of admission were low, our room was vanity, and contending for superiority of fame, thronged with such multitudes as made access though not for a pecuniary prize; it cannot be dangerous, and frightened away those whose apdenied or doubted, that all who offer themselves probation was most desired. to criticism are desirous of praise; this desire is Yet, because it is seldom believed that money not only innocent, but virtuous, while it is unde- is got but for the love of money, we shall tell the based by artifice, and unpolluted by cnvy; and

use wbich we intend to make of our expected of envy or artifice these men can never be ac- profits. cused, who, already enjoying all the honours and Many artists of great abilities are unable to profits of their profession, are content to stand sell their works for their due price; to remove candidates for public notice, with genius yet un

this inconvenience, an annual sale will be apexperienced, and diligence yet unrewarded; who, pointed, to which every man may send his works, without any hope of increasing their own repu

and send them if he will, without his name. tation or interest, expose their names and their | These works will be reviewed by the committee works only that they may furnish an opportunity that conduct the exhibition, A price will be of appearance to the young, the diffident, and secretly set on every piece, and registered by the the neglected.

secretary. If the piece exposed is sold for more, The purpose of this exhibition is not to enrich the whole price sball be the artist's; but if the the artists, but to advance the art: the eminent purchasers value it at less than the committee, are not flattered with preference, nor the obscure the artist shall be paid the deficiency from the Insulted with contempt; whoever hopes to de- profits of the exhibition.

OPINIONS ON QUESTIONS OF LAW.

FROM BOSWELL'S LIFE OF JOHNSON.

ON SCHOOL CHASTISEMENT. consults the future happiness of him who is the

immediate subject of correction, but he propa. [ A SCHOOlMaster in Scotland, was, in 1772, by gates obedience through the whole school; and a court of inferior jurisdiction, deprived of his establishes regularity by exemplary justice. The office, for being somewhat severe in the chastise- victorious obstinacy of a single boy would make ment of his scholars. The Court of Session his future endeavours of reformation or instrucconsidering it to be dangerous to the interest of tion totally ineffectual. Obstinacy, therefore, learning and education to lessen the dignity of must never be victorious. Yet, it is well known teachers, and make them afraid of too indulgent that there sometimes occurs a sullen and hardy parents, instigated by the complaints of their resolution, that laughs at all common punishchildren, restored him. His opponent appealed ment, and bids defiance to all common degrees to the House of Lords, where Mr. Boswell was of pain. Corrections must be proportionate to his counsel. On this occasion, Dr. Johnson occasions. The flexible will be reformed by dictated the following paper to Mr. Boswell, as gentle discipline, and the refractory must be some assistance to Mr. B. in his address to the subdued by harsher methods. The degrees of Lords ]

scholastic, as of military punishment, no stated “ The charge is, that this schoolmaster has rules can ascertain. It must be enforced till it used immoderate and cruel correction. Correc-overpowers temptation; till stubbornness become tion, in itself, is not cruel : children, being not flexible, and perverseness regular. Custom and reasonable, can be governed only by fear. To reason have, indeed, set some bounds to schoimpress this fear, is therefore one of the first lastic penalties. The schoolmaster inflicts no duties of those who have the care of children. capital punishments; nor enforces his edicts by It is the duty of a parent; and has never been either death or mutilation. The civil law has thought inconsistent with parental tenderness. wisely determined, that a master who strikes as It is the duty of a master, who is in his bighest a scholar's eye shall be considered as criminal. exaltation when he is loco parentis. Yet, as But punishments, however severe, that produce good things become evil by excess, correction, no lasting evil, may be just and reasonable, beby being immoderate, may become cruel. But cause they may be recessary. Such have been when is correction immoderate ? When it is the punishments used by the respondent. No more frequent or more severe than is required scholar has gone from him either blind or lame, ad monendum et docendum, for reformation and or with any of his limbs or powers injured or iminstruction. No severity is cruel which obsti- paired. They were irregular, and he punished nacy makes necessary; for the greatest cruelty them : they were obstinate, and he enforced his would be to desist, and leave the scholar too punishment. But however provoked, be never careless for instruction, and too much hardened exceeded the limits of moderation, for he inflicted for reproof. Locke, in his Treatise of Education, nothing beyond present pain; and how much of mentions a mother, with applause, who whipped that was required, no man is so little able to dean infant eight times before she had subdued it: termine as those who have determined against for had she stopped at the seventh act of cor-him-the parents of the offenders. It has been rection, her daughter, says he, would have been said, that he used unprecedented and improper ruined. The degrees of obstinacy in young instruments of correction. Of this accusation minds, are very different; as different must be the meaning is not very easy to be found. No the degrees of persevering severity. A stubborn instrument of correction is more proper than scholar must be corrected till he is subdued. unother, but as it is better adapted to produce The discipline of a school is military. There present pain without lasting mischief. Whatever must be either unbounded license, or absolute were his instruments, no lasting mischief has enauthority. The master, who punishes, not only sued : and therefore, however unusual, in hands 80 cautious they were proper. It has been ob- | which came before that Court, in 1772, Mr. jected, that the respondent admits the charge of Boswell had laboured to persuade the judges to cruelty, by producing no evidence to confute it. return to the ancient law. It was his opinion Let it be considered, that his scholars are either that they ought to adhere to it, but he exhausted dispersed at large in the world, or continue to all his powers of reasoning in vain. Dr. Johninhabit the place in which they were bred. son thought as he did, and in order to assist him Those who are dispersed cannot be found: those in his application to the Court for a revision who remain are the sons of his prosecutors, and and alteration of the judgment, dictated to Mr are not likely to support a man to whom their | Boswell the following argument.] fatbers are enemies. If it be supposed that the “ This, we are told, is a law which has its enmity of their fathers proves the justness of the force only from the long practice of the Court; charge, it must be considered how often experi- and may, therefore, be suspended or modified as ence shows us, that men who are angry on one the Court shall think proper. ground will accuse on another; with how little “ Concerning the power of the Court to make kindness, in a town of low trade, a man who or to suspend a law, we have no intention to inlives by learning is regarded ; and how implicit- quire. It is sufficient for our purpose that every ly, where the inhabitants are not very rich, a just law is dictated by reason; and that the rich man is hearkened to and followed. In a practice of every legal court is regulated by place like Campbelltown, is easy for one of equity. It is the quality of reason to be invarithe principal inhabitants to make a party. It is able and constant; and of equity, to give to one easy for that party to heat themselves with man what, in the same case, is given to another. imaginary grievances. It is easy for them to The advantage which humanity derives from oppress a man poorer than themselves ; and law is this : that the law gives every man a rule natural to assert the dignity of riches, by per- of action, and prescribes a mode of conduct sisting in oppression. The argument which at- which shall entitle him to the support and protempts to prove the impropriety of restoring bim tection of society. That the law may be a rule to the school, by alleging that he has lost the of action, it is necessary that it be known: it is confidence of the people, is not the subject of necessary that it be permanent and stable. The juridical consideration ; for he is to suffer, if he law is the measure of civil right: but if the musť suffer, not for their judgment, but for his measure be changeable, the extent of the thing own actions. It may be convenient for them to measured never can be settled. have another master; but it is a convenience of “ To permit a law to be modified at discretheir own making. It would be likewise con- tion, is to leave the community without law. It venient for him to find another school; but this is to withdraw the direction of that public wis. convenience he cannot obtain. The question is dom, by which the deficiences of private undernot what is now convenient, but what is gener- standing are to be supplied. It is to suffer the ally right. If the people of Campbelltown be rash and ignorant to act at discretion, and then distressed by the restoration of the respondent, to depend for the legality of that action on the they are distressed only by their own fault; by sentence of the judge. He that is thus governed, turbulent passions and unreasonable desires ; by lives not by law, but by opinion: not by a certyranny, which law has defeated, and by malice, tain rule to which he can apply his intention which virtue has surmounted.”

before he acts, but by an uncertain and variable [The decree of the Court of Session was re- opinion, which he can never know but after he versed in the House of Lords, April 14, 1772, has committed the act on which that opinion and the schoolmaster consequently deprived of shall be passed. He lives by a law (if a law it bis situation.]

be) which he can never know before he has of. fended it. To this case may be justly applied that important principle, misera est servitus ubi

jus est aut incognitum aut vagum. If intromisON VICIOUS INTROMISSION. sion be not criminal till it exceeds a certain

point, and that point be unsettled, and conse[It was held of old, and continued for a long quently different in different minds, the right period to be an established principle in Scotch of intromission, and the right of the creditor law, that whoever intermeddled with the effects arising from it, are all jura vaga, and, by conof a person deceased, without the interposition saquence, are jura incognita ; and the result can of legal authority to guard against embezzle- be no other than a misera servitus, an uncerment, should be subjected to pay all the debts of tainty concerning the event of action, a servile the deceased, as having been guilty of wbat was dependance on private opinion. technically called viciouS INTROMISSION. The “ It may be urged, and with great plausibiliCourt of Session had gradually relaxed the ty, that there may be introinission without strictness of this principle, where the interfer-| fraud ; which, bowever true, will by no means ence proved had been inconsiderable. In a case justify an occasional and arbitrary relaxation of

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