we have another Sophocles, and in Racine a tres if the French Muses will keep the Greek second Euripides. Thus is tragedy raised from models in their view, and not look with disdain her ashes, carried to the utmost point of great- upon a stage, whose mother is nature, whose Dess, and so dazzling that she prefers herself to soul is passion, and whose art is simplicity: a herself. Surprised to see herself produced again stage, which, to speak the truth, does not perin France in so short a time, and nearly in the haps equal ours in splendour and elevation, but same manner as before in Greece, she is disposed wbich excels it in simplicity and propriety, and to believe that her fate is to make a short tran- equals it at least in the conduct and direction of sition from her birth to her perfection, like the those passions which may properly affect an goddess that issued from the brain of Jupiter. honest man and a Christian.

If we look back on the other side to the rise For my part, I shall think myself well recomof comedy, we shall see it hatched by Margites pensed for my labour, and shall attain the end from the Odyssey of Homer, in imitation of her which I had in view, if I shall in some little eldest sister ; but we see her, under the conduct measure revive in the minds of those who purof Aristophanes, become licentious and petulant, pose to run the round of polite literature, not an taking airs to herself which the magistrates immoderate and blind reverence, but a true taste were obliged to crush. Menander reduced her of antiquity; such a taste as both feeds and poto bounds, taught her at once gayety and polite-lishes the mind, and enriches it by enabling it to ness, and enabled her to correct vice, without appropriate the wealth of foreigners, and to exshocking the offenders. Plautus, among the ert its natural fertility in exquisite productions ; Romans, to whom we must now pass, united such a taste as gave the Racines, the Molieres, the earlier and the later comedy, and joined the Boileaus, the Fontaines, the Patras, the butfoonery with delicacy. Terence, wbo was Pelissons, and many other great geniuses of the better instructed, received comedy from Menan- last age, all that they were, and all that they der, and surpassed his original, as he endeavour- | will always be ; such a taste as puts the seal of ed to copy it. And lastly, Moliere produced a immortality to those works in which it is disDew species of comedy, which must be placed in covered; a taste so necessary, that without it a class by itself, in opposition to that of Aristo- we may be certain that the greatest powers of phanes, whose manner is likewise peculiar to nature will long continue in a state below thembimself.

selves; for no man ought to allow himself to be But such is the weakness of the human mind, flattered or seduced by the example of some men that when we review the successions of the of genius, who have rather appeared to despise drama a third time, we find genius falling from this taste than to despise it in reality. It is true its height, forgetting itself, and led astray by that excellent originals have given occasion, the love of novelty, and the desire of striking without any fault of their own, to very bad out new paths. Tragedy degenerated in Greece copies. No man ought severely to ape either the from the time of Aristotle, and in Rome after ancients, or the moderns : but if it was necesAugustus. At Rome and Athens comedy pro sary to run into an extreme of one side or the duced Mimi, pantomimes, burlettas, tricks, and other, which is never done by a judicious and farces, for the sake of variety; such is the char-well-directed mind, it would be better for a wit, acter, and such the madness of the mind of man. as for a painter, to enrich himself by what he It is satisfied with baving made great conquests, can take from the ancients, than to grow poor and gives them up to attempt others, wbich are by taking all from his own stock; or openly to far from answering its expectation, and only affect an imitation of those moderns whose more enable it to discover its own folly, weakness, and fertile genius has produced beauties peculiar to deviations. But why should we be tired with themselves, and which themselves only can disstanding still at the true point of persection when play with grace: beauties of that peculiar kind, it is attained ? If eloquence be wearied, and that they are not fit to be imitated by others; forgeis berself a while, yet she soon returns to though in those who first invented them they her former point; so will it happen to our thea- I may be justly esteemed, and in them only.

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DR. JAMES'S MEDICINAL DICTIONARY. It is therefore not unlikely that the design of

this address may be mistaken, and the effects of 3 vols. folio. 1743.

my fear imputed to my vanity. They who see your lordship’s name prefixed to my perform

ance, will rather condemn my presumption, than SIR,—That the Medicinal Dictionary is dedi- compassionate my anxiety. qated to you, is to be imputed only to your repu- But whatever be supposed my motive, the tation for superior skill in those sciences which praise of judgment connot be denied me: for, I have endeavoured to explain and facilitate ; to whom can timidity so properly fly for shelter, and you are, therefore, to consider this address, as to him who has been so long distinguished for if it be agreeable to you, as one of the rewards of candour and humanity? How can vanity be so merit ; and if otherwise, as one of the inconve- completely gratified as by the allowed patronage niences of eminence.

of him, whose judgment has so long given a However you shall receive it, my design can standard to the national taste? Or by what other not be disappointed ; because this public appeal means could I so powerfully suppress all oppoto your judgment will show that I do not found sition, but that of envy, as by declaring myself, my hopes of approbation upon the ignorance of my lord, your lordship's obliged and most obemy readers, and that I fear his censure least, dient servant, whose knowledge is most extensive. I am, sir,

THE AUTHOR. your most obedient humble servant,



SHAKSPEARE Illustrated; or, The Novels and

Histories on which the Plays of Snak-
SPEARE are founded ; collected and translated
from the original authors. With Critical
Remarks. By the Author of the FEMALE
QUIXOTE. 1753.




MY LORD, -Such is the power of interest over almost every mind, that no one is long without MY LORD,-I HAVE no other pretence to the arguments to prove any position which is ar- honour of a patronage so illustrious as that of dently wished to be true, or to justify any mea- your lordship, than the merit of attempting what sures which are dictated by inclination.

has by some unaccountable neglect been hitherto By this subtle sophistry of desire, I have been omitted, though absolutely necessary to a perfect persuaded to hope that this book may, without knowledge of the abilities of Shakspeare. impropriety, be inscribed to your lordship; but Among the powers that must conduce to conam not certain that my reasons will have the stitute a poet, the first and most valuable is insame force upon other understandings.

vention; the highest seems to be that which is The dread which a writer feels of the public able to produce a series of events.

It is easy censure; the still greater dread of neglect ; and when the thread of a story is once drawn, to di the eager wish for support and protection, which versify it with variety of colours; and when a is impressed by the consciousness of imbecility, train of action is presented to the mind, a little are unknown to those who have never adven- acquaintance with life will supply circumstances tured into the world ; and I am afraid, my lord, and reflections, and a little knowledge of books equally unknown to those who have always furnish parallels and illustrations. To tell over found the world ready to applaud them. again a story that has been told already, and to tell it better than the first author, is no rare recommend a story, that it was får removed froin qualification; but to strike out the first hints of common life, that its changes were frequent, a new fable: hence to introduce a set of char- and its close pathetic. acters so diversified in their several passions and This disposition of the age concurred so hapinterests, that from the clashing of this variety pily with the imagination of Shakspeare, that may result many necessary incidents : to make he had no desire to reform it; and indeed to this these incidents surprising, and yet natural, so as he was indebted for the licentious variety, by to delight the imagination without shocking the which he made his plays more entertaining than judgment of a reader; and finally to wind up those of any other author. the whole in a pleasing catastrophe, produced by He had looked with great attention on the those very means which seem most likely to op-scenes of nature: but his chief skill was in pose and prevent it, is the utmost effort of the human actions, passions, and habits : he was human mind.

therefore delighted with such tales as afforded To discover how few of those writers, who numerous incidents, and exhibited many charprofess to recount imaginary adventures, have acters in many changes of situation. These been able to produce any thing by their own characters are so copiously diversified, and some imagination, would require too much of that of them so justly pursued, that his works may time which your lordship employs in nobler be considered as a map of life, a faithful miniastudies. Of all the novels and romances that ture of human transactions; and he that has wit or idleness, vanity or indigence, have push-read Shakspeare with attention, will perhaps ed into the world, there are very few of which find little new in the crowded world. the end cannot be conjectured from the begin- Among his other excellences it ought to be ning; or where the authors have done more remarked, because it has hitherto been unthan to transpose the incidents of other tales, or noticed, that his heroes are men, that the love strip the circumstances from one event for the and hatred, the hopes and fears, of his chief decoration of another.

personages, are such as are common to other In the examination of a poet's character, it is human beings, and not like those which later therefore first to be inquired what degree of in- times have exbibited, peculiar to phantoms that vention has been exerted by him. With this strut upon the stage. view I have very diligently read the works of It is not perhaps very necessary to inquire Shakspeare, and how presume to lay the result whether the vehicle of so much delight and inof my searches before your lordship, before that struction be a story probable or unlikely, native judge whom Pliny himself would have wished or foreign. Shakspeare's excellence is not the for his assessor to hear a literary cause.

fiction of a tale, but the representation of life : How much the translation of the following and his reputation is therefore safe, till human novels will add to the reputation of Shakspeare, nature shall be changed. Nor can he, who has or take away from it, you, my lord, and men so many just claims to praise, suffer by losing learned and candid like you, if any such can be that which ignorant admiration has unreasonfound, must now determine. Some danger, I ably given him. To calumniate the dead is am informed, there is, lest his admirers should baseness, and to fatter them is surely folly. think him injured, by this attempt, and clamour From flattery, my lord, either of the dead or as at the diminution of the honour of that nation the living, I wish to be clear, and have therewhich boasts itself the parent of so great a poet. fore solicited the countenance of a patron,

That no such enemies may arise against me whom, if I knew how to praise him, I could (though I am unwilling to believe it), I am far praise with truth, and have the world on my from being too confident, for who can fix bounds side; whose candour and humanity are unito bigotry and folly? My sex, my age, have not versally acknowledged, and whose judgment given me many opportunities of mingling in the perhaps was then first to be doubted, when he world: there may be in it many a species of condescended to admit this address from, my absurdity which I have never seen, and among lord, your lordship's most obliged and most them such vanity as pleases itself with false obedient humble servant, praise bestowed on another, and such superstition as worships idols, without supposing them to be gods.

But the truth is, that a very small part of the reputation of this mighty genius depends upon the naked plot or story of his plays. He lived

Payne's Introduction to the Game of in an age when the books of chivalry were yet

DRAUGHTS. 1756. popular, and when therefore the minds of bis auditors were not accustomed to balance proba

ROCHFORD, &c. bilities, or to examine nicely the proportion between causes and effects. It was sufficient to MY LORD,-- When I take the liberty of addressy



ing to your lordship “ A Treatise on the Game If this time be ever to come, let it come quick of Vraughts,” I easily foresee that I shall be in ly: a few years longer, and perhaps all endeadanger of suffering ridicule on one part, while Ivours will be vain. We may be swallowed by am gaining honour on the other, and that many an earthquake, we may be delivered to our enewho may envy me the distinction of approach- mies, or abandoned to that discord, which must ing you, will deride the present I presume to inevitably prevail among men that have lost all offer.

sense of divine superintendence, and have no Had I considered this little volume as having higher motive of action or forbearance, than no purpose beyond that of teaching a game, I present opinion of present interest. should indeed bave left it to take its fate without It is the duty of private men to supplicate and a patron. Triflers may find or make any thing propose ; it is yours to hear and to do rigbt. a trifle; but since it is the great characteristic of Let religion be once more restored, and the naa wise man to see events in their causes, to ob- tion shall once more be great and happy. This viate consequences, and ascertain contingencies, consequence is not far distant: that nation must your lordship will think nothing a trifle by always be powerful where every man performs which the mind is inured to caution, foresight, his duty: and every man will perform bis duty and circumspection. The same skill, and often that considers himself as a being whose condithe same degree of skill, is exerted in great and tion is to be settled to all eternity by the laws of little things, and your lordship may sometimes Christ. exercise, on a harmless game, those abilities The only doctrine by which man can be made which have been so happily employed in the wise unto salvation, is the will of God revealed service of your country. I am, my lord, your in the books of the Old and the New Testament. lordship’s most obliged, most obedient, and most To study the Scriptures, therefore, according humble servant,

to his abilities and attainments, is every man's duty, and to facilitate that study to those whom nature hath made weak, or education has left | ignorant, or indispensable cares detain from

regular processes of inquiry, is the business of The EvanGELICAL History of Jesus CHRIST those who have been blessed with abilities and harmonized, explained, and illustrated. learning, and are appointed the instructors of

the lower classes of men, by that common father, 2 vols. 8vo. 1758.

who distributes to all created beings their quali. TO THE LORDS SPIRITUAL AND TEMPORAL, AND

fications and employments; who has allotted some to the labour of the hand, and some to the

exercise of the mind; has commanded some to That we are fallen upon an age in which cor-teach, and others to learn; has prescribed to ruption is barely not universal, is universally some the patience of instruction, and to others confessed. Venality skulks no longer in the the meekness of obedience. dark, but snatches the bribe in public; and pros- By what methods the unenlightened and igtitution issues forth without shame, glittering norant may be made proper readers of the word with the ornaments of successful wickedness. of God, has been long and diligently considered. Rapine preys on the public without opposition, Commentaries of all kinds have indeed been and perjury betrays it without inquiry. Irre-copiously produced : but there still remain mulligion is not only avowed, but buasted; and the titudes to whom the labours of the learned are pestilence that used to walk in darkness, is now of little use, for whom expositions require an destroying at noon-day

expositor. To those, indeed, who read the diShall this be the state of the English nation, vine books without vain curiosity, or a desire to and shall her lawgivers behold it without re- be wise beyond their powers, it will always be gard ? Must the torrent continue to roll on till easy to discern the strait path, to find the words it shall sweep us in the gulph of perdition? of everlasting life. But such is the condition of Surely there will come a time when the careless

our nature, that we are always attempting what shall be frighted, and the sluggish shall be roused; it is difficult to perform : he who reads the when every passion shall be put upon the guard Scripture to gain goodness, is desirous likewise by the dread of general depravity; when he who to gain knowledge, and by his impatience of laughs at wickedness in his companion, shall ignorance, falls into error. siart from it in his child: when the man who This danger has appeared to the doctors of the fears not for his soul, shall tremble for his pos- | Romish church, so much to be feared, and so sessions : when it shall be discovered that re- difficult to be escaped, that they have snatched ligion only can secure the rich from robbery, the Bible out of the hands of the people, and and the poor from oppression : can defend tire confined the liberty of perusing it to those whom state from treachery, and the throne from as literature has previously qualified. By this exsassination.

pedient they have formed a kind of uniformity,



I am afraid too much like that of colours in the recommend to the unlearned reader to consult dark: but they have certainly usurped a power us when he finds any difficulty, as men who have which God has never given them, and precluded laboured not to deceive ourselves, and who are great numbers from the highest spiritual conso- without any temptation to deceive him : but as lation.

men, however, that, while they mean best, may I know not whether this prohibition has not be mistaken. Let him be careful, therefore, to brought upon them an evil which they themselves distinguish what we cite from the gospels, from have not discovered. It is granted, I believe, by what we offer as our own: he will find many difthe Romanists themselves, that the best com- ficulties removed ; and if some yet remain, let mentaries on the Bible have been the works of him remember that “God is in heaven, and we Protestants. I know not, indeed, whether, since upon earth," that “our thoughts are not God's the celebrated paraphrase of Erasmus, any scho-thoughts,” and that the great cure of doubt is lar has appeared amongst them, whose works are an humble mind. much valued, even in his own communion. Why have those who excel in every other kind of knowledge, to whom the world owes much of the increase of light which has shone upon these latter ages, failed, and failed only when they ANGELL'S STENOGRAPHY, OR SHORT-HAND have attempted to explain the scriptures of God ?

IMPROVED. 1758. Why, but because they are in the church less read and less examined, because they have another rule of deciding controversies, and institu

MOND, LENNOX, AUBIGNY, &c. ting laws.

Of the Bible some of the books are prophet- MAY IT PLEASE YOUR GRACE–The improveical, some doctrinal and historical, as the gospels, ment of arts and sciences has always been esof which we have in the subsequent pages at-teemed laudable; and in proportion to their utitempted an illustration. The books of the evan-lity and advantage to mankind, they have genegelists contain an account of the life of our rally gained the patronage of persons the most blessed Saviour, more particularly of the years distinguished for birth, learning, and reputation of his ministry, interspersed with bis precepts, in the world. This is an art undoubtedly of doctrines, and predictions. Each of these bis- public utility, and which has been cultivated by tories contains facts and dictates related likewise persons of distinguished abilities, as will appear in the rest, that the truth might be established from its history. But as most of their systems by concurrence of testimony; and each bas have been defective, clogged with a multiplicity likewise facts and dictates which the rest omit, of rules, and perplexed by arbitrary, intricate, to prove that they were wrote without commu- and impracticable schemes, I have endeavoured nication.

to rectify their defects, to adapt it to all capaThese writers, not affecting the exactness of cities, and render it of general, lasting, and exchronologers, and relating various events of the tensive benefit. How this is effected, the follow-, same life, or the same events with various cir- ing plates will sufficiently explain, to which I cumstances, have some difficulties to him, who, have prefixed a suitable introduction, and a conwithout the help of many books, desires to col. cise and impartial history of the origin and prolect a series of the acts and precepts of Jesus gressive improvements of this art. And as I Christ; fully to know his life, whose example have submitted the whole to the inspection of acwas given for our imitation ; fully to understand curate judges, whose approbation I am honoured his precepts, which it is sure destruction to dis- with, I most humbly crave leave to publish it to obey. In this work, therefore, an attempt has the world under your grace's patronage; not been made, by the help of harmonists and ex- merely on account of your great dignity anu positors, to reduce the four gospels into one series high rank in life, though these receive a lustre of narration, to form a complete history out of from your grace's humanity; but also from a the different narratives of the evangelists, by in- knowledge of your grace's disposition to encouserting every event in the order of time, and con

rage every useful art, and favour all true pronecting every precept of life and doctrine, with

moters of science. That your grace may long the occasion on which it was delivered ; showing, live the friend of learning, the guardian of lias far as history or the knowledge of ancient berty, and the patron of virtue, and then transcustoms can inform us, the reason and propriety mit your name with the highest bonour and esof every action; and explaining, or endeavouring teem to latest posterity, is the ardent wish to explain, every precept and declaration in its of your grace's most humble, &c. true meaning.

Let it not be hastily concluded, that we intend to substitute this book for the gospels, or obtrude our own expositions as the oracles of God. We

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