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CA V E.*
The curiosity of the public seems to demand prank was played was imputed to Cave. When the history of every man who has, by whatever any mischief, great or small, was done, though means, risen to eminence; and few lives would perhaps others boasted of the stratagem when have more readers than that of the compiler of it was successful, yet upon detection or misthe “ Gentleman's Magazine,” if all those who carriage the fault was sure to fall upon poor received improvement or entertainment from Cave. him should retain so much kindness for their At last, his mistress by some invisible means benefactor as to inquire after his conduct and lost a favourite cock. Cave was, with little excharacter.
amination, stigmatised as the thief and mur
derer; not because he was more apparently criEdward CAVE was born at Newton, in War- | minal than others, but because he was more wickshire, Feb. 29, 1691. His father (Joseph) easily reached by vindictive justice. From was the younger son of Mr. Edward Cave, of that time Mr. Holyock withdrew his kindness Cave’s-in-the-Hole, a lone house on the Street- visibly from him, and treated him with harshroad in the same county, which took its name ness, which the crime, in its utmost aggravafrom the occupier; but having concurred with tion, could scarcely deserve ; and which surely his elder brother in cutting off the intail of a he would have forborne, had he considered how small hereditary estate, by which act it was lost hardly the habitual influence of birth and forfrom the family, he was reduced to follow in tune is resisted ; and how frequently men, not Rugby the trade of a shoemaker. He was a wholly without sense of virtue, are betrayed to man of good reputation in his narrow circle, acts more atrocious than the robbery of a henand remarkable for strength and rustic intrepi- roost, by a desire of pleasing their superiors. dity. He lived to a great age, and was in his Those reflections his master never made, or latter years supported by bis son.
made without effect; for under pretence that It was fortunate for Edward Cave, that, hav- Cave obstructed the discipline of the school, by ing a disposition to literary attainments, he was selling clandestine assistance, and supplying exnot cut off by the poverty of his parents from ercises to idlers, he was oppressed with unreaopportunities of cultivating his faculties. The sonable tasks, that there might be an opporschool of Rugby, in which he had, by the rules tunity of quarrelling with his failure; and of its foundation, a right to be instructed, was when his diligence had surmounted them, nc then in high reputation, under the Rev. Mr. regard was paid to the performance. Cave Holyock, to whose care most of the neighbour-bore this persecution a while, and then left the ing families, even of the highest rank, entrusted school, and the hope of a literary education, to their sons. He had judgment to discover, and, seek some other means of gaining a livelihood. for some time, generosity to encourage, the He was first placed with a collector of the genius of young Cave; and was so well pleased excise. He used to recount with some pleasure with his quick progress in the school, that he a journey or two which he rode with him as his declared his resolution to breed him for the clerk, and relate the victories that he gained university, and recommended him as a servitor over the excisemen in grammatical disputations. to some of his scholars of high rank. But pro- But the insolence of his mistress, who employed sperity which depends upon the caprice of him in servile drudgery, quickly disgusted bim others is of short duration. Cave's superiority and he went up to London in quest of more in literature exalted him to an invidious fami. suitable employment. liarity with boys who were far above him in He was recommended to a timber-merchant rank and expectations; and, as in unequal asso- at the Bankside, and, while he was there ju ciations it always happens, whatever unlucky liking, is said to have given hopes of great mer
cantile abilities; but this place he soon left, I
know not for what reason, and was bound ap• This life first appeared in the Gentleman's Maga- prentice to Mr. Collins, a printer of some rezive for 1754, and is now printed from a copy revised putation, and deputy alderman. ny the author, at my request, in 1781.- N.
This was a trade for wbich men were for. merly qualified by a literary education, and great harshness and severity, but, declining their which was pleasing to Cave, because it furnished questions by pleading his oath of secrecy, was at some employment for bis scholastic attainments. last dismissed. And it must be recorded to his Here, therefore, he resolved to settle, though his honour, that, when he was ejected from bis master and mistress lived in perpetual discord, office, he did not think himself discharged from and their house was therefore no comfortable his trust, but continued to refuse to his nearest habitation. From the inconveniences of these friends any information about the management domestic tumults he was soon released, having of the office. in only two years attained so much skill in his By this constancy of diligence and diversificaart, and gained so much the confidence of his tion of employment, he in time collected a sum master, that he was sent without any superin- sufficient for the purchase of a small printingtendant to conduct a printing office at Norwich, office, and began the “ Gentleman's Magazine," and publish a weekly paper. In this undertak- a periodical pamphlet, of which the scheme is ing he met with some opposition, which produc- known wherever the English language is spoken. ed a public controversy, and procured young To this undertaking he owed the affluence in Cave the reputation of a writer.
which he passed the last twenty years of his life, His master died before his apprenticeship and the fortune which he left behind him, which, was expired, and he was not able to bear the though large, had been yet larger, had he not perverseness of his mistress. He therefore quit- rashly and wantonly impaired it by innumerated her house upon a stipulated allowance, and ble projects, of which I know not that ever one married a young widow, with whom he lived at succeeded. Bow. When his apprenticeship was over, he “ The Gentleman's Magazine,” which has worked as a journeyman at the printing-house now subsisted fifty years, and still continues to of Mr. Barber, a man much distinguished, and enjoy the favour of the world,* is one of the employed by the Tories, whose principles had at most successful and lucrative pamphlets which that time so much prevalence with Cave, that he literary history has upon record, and thereforo was for some years a writer in “Mist's Jour- deserves, in this narrative, particular notice. nal;" which, though he afterwards obtained, by Mr. Cave, when he formed the project, was his wife's interest, a small place in the Post- far from expecting the success which he found; office, he for some time continued. But as in- and others had so little prospect of its conseterest is powerful, and conversation, however quence, that though he had for several years talkmean, in time persuasive, he by degrees inclined of his plan among printers and booksellers, ed to another party; in which, however lie none of them thought it worth the trial. That was always moderate, though steady and deter they were not restrained by virtue from the exmined.
ecution of another man's design, was sufficiently When he was admitted into the Post-office, he apparent as soon as that design began to be gainstill continued, at his intervals of attendance, to ful; for in a few years a multitude of magazines exercise his trade, or to employ himself with arose and perished ; only the London Magazine, some typographical business. He corrected the supported by a powerful association of booksellers, “ Gradus ad Parnassum;" and was liberally rc- and circulated with all the art and all the cunwarded by the Company of Stationers. He ning of trade, exempted himself from the genewrote an “ Account of the Criminals,” which ral fate of Cave's invaders, and obtained, though had for some time a considerable sale ; and pub- not an equal, yet a considerable sale.fi Jished many little pamphlets that accident Cave now began to aspire to popularity; and brought into his hands, of which it would be being a greater lover of poetry than any other very difficult to recover the memory. By the art, he sometimes offered subjects for poems, and correspondence which his place in the Post-office proposed prizes for the best performers. The facilitated, he procured country newspapers and first prize was £50, for which, being but newly sold their intelligence to a Journalist in London, acquainted with wealth, and thinking the influfor a guinea a-week.
ence of £50 extremely great, he expected the He was afterwards raised to the office of clerk first authors of the kingdom to appear as comof the franks, in which he acted with great spirit petitors; and offered the allotment of the prize and firmness; and often stopped franks which to the universities. But when the time came, were given by members of parliament to their
no name was seen among the writers that had friends, because he thought such extension of a ever been seen efore; the universities and sepeculiar right illegal. This raised many com plaints, and having stopped, among others, a frank given to the old dutchess of Marlborough by Mr. Walter Plummer, he was cited before . This was said in the beginning of the year 1781; the House as for a breach of privilege, and and may with truth be now repeated. accused, I suppose very unjustly, of opening + The London Magazine ceased to exist in 1785.
N. letters to detect them. He was treated with
p. 59. N.
veral private men rejected the province of as- He was a man of a large stature, not only tall signing the prize. * At all this Mr. Cave won- but bulky, and was, when young, of remarkable dered for a while; but his natural judgment, and strength and activity. He was generally healtha wider acquaintance with the world, soon cured ful, and capable of much labour and long applihim of his astonishment as of many other pre- cation; but in the latter years of his life was judices and errors. Nor have many men been afficted with the gout, which he endeavoured seen raised by accident or industry to sudden to cure or alleviate by a total abstinence both riches, that retained less of the meanness of their from strong liquors and animal food. From former state.
animal food he abstained about four years, and He continued to improve his Magazine, and from strong liquors much longer ; but the gout had the satisfaction of seeing its success propor- continued unconquered, perhaps unabated. tionate to his diligence, till, in 1751, his wife His resolution and perseverance were very died of an asthma. He seemed not at first much uncommon; in whatever he undertook, neither affected by her death, but in a few days lost his expense nor fatigue were able to repress him; sleep and his appetite, which he never recovered; but his constancy was calm, and to those who but after having lingered about two years, with did not know him appeared faint and languid ; inany vicissitudes of amendment and relapse, but he always went forward, though he moved fell, by drinking acid liquors, into a diarrhea, slowly. and afterwards into a kind of lethargic insensi- The same chillness of mind was observable in bility, in which one of the last acts of reason his conversation : he was watching the minutest which he exerted was fondly to press the hand accent of those whom he disgusted by seeming that is now writing this little narrative. He inattention; and his visitant was surprised died on the 10th of January, 1754, having just when he came a second time, by preparations to concluded the twenty-third annual collection." execute the scheme which he supposed never to
have been heard.
He was, consistently with his general tran• The deternication was left to Dr. Cromwell Mor. quillity of mind, a tenacious maintainer, though timer and Dr. Birch, and by the latter the award was
not a clamorous demander of his right. In his made, which may be seen in the Gent. Mag. vol. vi. youth having summoned his fellow journeymen
+ Mr. Cave was buried in the church of St. Janies, to concert measures against the oppression of Clerkenwell, without an epitaph; but the following their masters, he mounted a kind of rostrum, inscription at Rugby, from the pen of Dr. Hawkes and harangued them so efficaciously, that they worth, is here transcribed from the “ Anecdotes of determined to resist all future invasions; and Mr. Bowyer,” p. 88.
when the stamp offices demanded to stamp the
| last half sheet of the Magazines, Mr. Cave alone Near this place lies The body of
defeated their claim, to which the proprietors JOSEPH CAVE,
of the rival Magazines would meanly have subLale of this parisb:
mitted. Who departed this Life, Nov. 18th, 1747,
He was a friend rather easy and constant, Aged 79 years,
than zealous and active; yet many instances He was placed by Providence in an humble station ; might be given, where both his money and his But
diligence were employed liberally for others. Industry abundantly supplied the wants of Nature,
His enmity was in like manner cool and delib-
erate; but though cool, it was not insidious, Content and Wealth.
and though deliberate, not pertinacious. As he was an affectionate Father,
His mental faculties were slow. He saw He was made happy in the decline of life little at a time, but that little he saw with great By the deserved eminence of his eldest Son
exactness. He was long in finding the right, EDWARD CAVE, Who without interest, fortune, or connection, By the native force of his own genius,
And who, having survived his eldest brother Assisted only by a classical education,
Inherited from him a competent estate;
And, in gratitude to his benefactor,
Ordered this monument to perpetuate his memory.
He lived a patriarch in his numerous race,
And showed in charity a Christian's grace:
lo what he gain'd and gave, he taught mankind, Tie body of WILLIAM CAVE,
A grateful always is a generous mind. Secoud Son of the said Joseph Care, Here rest his clay! bis soul must ever rest, Who died, May 2d, 1757, aged 62 years; Who bless'd when living, dying must be blest.-N.
but seldom failed to find it at last. His affec- hide his faults, concealed his virtues : but such tions were not easily gained, and his opinions he was, as they who best knew him have most not quickly discovered. His reserve, as it might | lamented.
KING OF PRUSSIA.*
CHARLES FREDERICK the present King of To review this towering regiment was his daiPrussia, whose actions, and designs now keep ly pleasure, and to perpetuate it was so much his Europe in attention, is the eldest son of Frede- care, that when he met a tall woman he immerick William by Sophia Dorothea, daughter of diately commanded one of his Titanian retinue George the First, King of England. He was to marry ber, that they might propagate proceborn, January 24, 1711-12. Of his early years rity, and produce heirs to the father's habili. nothing remarkable has been transmitted to ments.
As he advanced towards manhood, he be- In all this there was apparent folly, but there came remarkable by his disagreement with his was no crime. The tall regiment made a fine father.
show at an expense not much greater, when The late king of Prussia was of a disposition once it was collected, than would have been beviolent and arbitrary, of narrow views, and ve- stowed upon common men. But the king's mihement passions, earnestly engaged in little pur- litary pastimes were sometimes more pernicious. suits, or in schemes terminating in some speedy He maintained a numerous army, of which be consequence, without any plan of lasting advan- made no other use than to review and to talk of tage to himself or his subjects, or any prospect of it; and when he, or perhaps his emissaries, saw distant events. He was therefore always busy, a boy, whose form and sprightliness promised a though no effects of his activity ever appeared ; future soldier, he ordered a kind of badge to be and always eager, though he had nothing to gain. put about his neck, by which he was marked His behaviour was to the last degree rough and out for the service, like the sons of Christian savage. The least provocation, whether design-captives in Turkey; and his parents were fored or accidental, was returned by blows, which bidden to destine bim to any other mode of life. he did not always forbear to the Queen and This was sufficiently oppressive, but this was Princesses.
not the utmost of his tyranny. He had learned, From such a king and such a father it was not though otherwise perhaps no very great politiany enormous violation of duty in the immediate cian, that to be rich was to be powerful; but heir of a kingdom sometimes to differ in opinion, that the riches of a king ought to be seen in the and to maintain that difference with decent per- opulence of his subjects, he wanted either ability tinacity. A prince of a quick sagacity and com- or benevolence to understand. He therefore prehensive knowledge must find many practices raised exorbitant taxes from every kind of comin the conduct of affairs which he could not ap-modity and possession, and piled up the money prove, and some which he could scarcely forbear in his treasury, from which it issued no more. to oppose.
How the land which had paid taxes once The chief pride of the old king was to be mas- was to pay them a second time, how imposts ter of the tallest regiment in Europe. He there could be levied without commerce, or commerce fore brought together from all parts men above continued without money, it was not his custom the common military standard. To exceed the to inquire. Eager to snatch at money, and deheight of six feet was a certain recommendation lighted to count it, he felt new joy at every reto notice, and to approach that of seven a claim ceipt, and thought himself enriched by the imto distinction. Men will readily go where they poverishment of his dominions. are sure to be caressed ; and he had therefore By which of these freaks of royalty the prince such a collection of giants as perhaps was never was offended, or whether, as perhaps more freseen in the world before.
quently happens, the offences of which he complains were of a domestic and personal kind, it is not easy to discover. But his resentment,
whatever was its cause, rose so high, that he re. • First printed in the Literary Magazine for 1756. H. / solved not ouly to leave his father's court, but
his territories, and to seek á refuge among the by the external ceremony, obstinately and perneighbouring or kindred princes. It is general. petually during the life of his father refrained ly believed that his intention was to come to from her bed. The poor princess lived about England, and live under the protection of his seven years in the court of Berlin, in a state uncle, till his father's death, or change of con- which the world has not often seen, a wife duct, should give him liberty to return.
without a husband, married so far as to engage His design, whatever it was, he concerted her person to a man who did not desire her afwith an officer, in the army, whose name was fection, and of whom it was doubtful whether Kat, a man in whom he placed great confidence, he thought himself restrained from the power and whom, having chosen him for the companion of repudiation by an act performed under evident of his Alight, he necessarily trusted with the compulsion. preparatory measures. A prince cannot leave Thus he lived secluded from public business, his country with the speed of a meaner fugitive. in contention with his father, in alienation from Something was to be provided, and something his wife. This state of uneasiness he found the to be adjusted. And, whether Kat found the only means of softening. He diverted his mind agency of others necessary, and therefore was from the scenes about him by studies and liberal constrained to admit some partners of the secret; amusements. The studies of princes seldom whether levity or vanity incited him to disbur- produce great effects, for princes draw with den himself of a trust that swelled in his bosom, meaner mortals the lot of understanding; and or to show to a friend or mistress his own im- since of many students not more than one can portance; or whether it be in itself difficult for be hoped to advance far towards perfection, it is princes to transact any thing in secret; so it scarcely to be expected that we should find that was, that the king was informed of the intended one a prince; that the desire of science should flight, and the prince, and his favourite, a little overpower in any mind the love of pleasure, before the time settled for their departure, were when it is always present, or always within arrested, and confined in different places. call; that laborious meditation should be pre
The life of princes is seldom in danger, the ferred in the days of youth to amusements and hazard of their irregularities falls only on those festivity; or that perseverance should press forwhom ambition or affection combines with them. ward in contempt of flattery: and that he, in The king, after an imprisonment of some time, whom moderate acquisitions would be extolled set his son at liberty; but poor Kat was ordered as prodigies, should exact from bimself that exto be tried for a capital crime. The court excellence of which the whole world conspires to amined the cause, and acquitted him; the king spare bim the necessity. remanded him to a second trial, and obliged his In every great performance, perhaps in every judges to condemn him. In consequence of the great character, part is the gift of nature, part sentence thus tyrannically extorted, he was the contribution of accident, and part, very often publicly beheaded, leaving behind him some not the greatest part, the effect of voluntary papers of reflections made in the prison, which election, and regular design. The King of were afterwards printed, and among others an Prussia was undoubtedly born with more than admonition to the prince, for whose sake he common abilities; but that he has cultivated suffered, not to foster in himself the opinion of them with more than common diligence, was destiny, for that a Providence is discoverable in probably the effect of his peculiar condition, of every thing round us.
that which he then considered as cruelty aná This cruel prosecution of a man who had misfortune. committed no crime, but by compliance with In this long interval of unhappiness and obinfluence not easily to be resisted, was not the scurity, he acquired skill in the mathematical only act by which the old king irritated his son. sciences, such as is said to put him on the level A lady with whom the prince was suspected of with those who have made them the business of intimacy, perhaps more than virtue allowed, their lives. This is probably to say too much : was seized, I know not upon what accusation, the acquisitions of kings are always magnified. and, by the king's order, notwithstanding all His skill in poetry and in the French language the reasons of decency and tenderness that oper- has been loudly praised by Voltaire, a judge ate in other countries, and other judicatures, without exception, if his honesty were equal to was publicly whipped in the streets of Berlin. his knowledge. Music he not only understands,
At last, that the prince might feel the power but practises on the German flute in the highest of a king and a father in its utmost rigour, he perfection; so that, according to the regal cenwas, in 1733, married against his will to the sure of Philip of Macedon, he may be ashamed Princess Elizabetha Christina of Brunswick to play so well. Lunenburg Beveren. He married her indeed He may be said to owe to the difficulties of at his father's command, but without possessing his youth an advantage less frequently obtained for ber either esteem or affection, and consider-by princes than literature and mathematics. ing the claim of parental authority fully satisfied The necessity of passing his time without poup,