« ElőzőTovább »
dressed to a Being residing there, they all joined been of use to his native country, and that so in praying that this harmless and deluded people mild and innocent a people might have been might be brought to the knowledge of the true united to the church of Christ. religion, and the doctrines of our blessed Savi- The kingdom being thus consigned, and the our; after which they sung psalms, a perform-grand affair at an end, the common people left ance so pleasing to their wild audience, that in their king and his domestics with Drake, and all their visits they generally first accosted them dispersed themselves over the camp; and when with a request that they would sing. They they saw any one that pleased them by his apthen returned all the presents which they had pearance more than the rest, they tore their received, and retired.
flesh, and vented their outeries as before, in Three days after this, on June 25th, 1579, our token of reverence and admiration. general received two ambassadors from the They then proceeded to show them their Hiob, or king of the country, who, intending wounds and diseases, in hopes of a miraculous to visit the camp, required that some token and instantaneous cure; to which the English, might be sent him of friendship and peace; this to benefit and undeceive them at the same time, request was readily coinplied with, and soon applied such remedies as they used on the like after came the king, attended by a guard of occasions. about a hundred tall men, and preceded by an They were now grown confident and familiar, pfficer of state, who carried a sceptre made of and came down to the camp every day repeating black wood, adorned with chains of a kind of their ceremonies and sacrifices, till they were bone or horn, which are marks of the highest more fully informed how disagreeable they were honour among them, and having two crowns, to those whose favour they were so studious of made as before, with feathers, fastened to it, obtaining ; they then visited them without adowith a bag of the same berb which was present- ration indeed, but with a curiosity so ardent, ed to Drake at his first arrival.
that it left them no leisure to provide the necesBehind him was the king himself, dressed in saries of life, with which the English were a coat of coney-skins, with a cawl woven with therefore obliged to supply them. feathers upon his head, an ornament so much in They had then sufficient opportunity to reestimation there, that none but the domestics of mark the customs and dispositions of these new the king are allowed to wear it; his attendants allies, whom they found tractable and benevofollowed him, adorned nearly in the same man- lent, strong of body, far beyond the English, ner; and after them came the common people, yet unfurnished with weapons, either for assault with baskets plaited so artificially that they held or defence, their bows being too weak for any water, in which, by way of sacrifice, they thing but sport. Their dexterity in taking fish brought roots and fish.
was such, that, if they saw them so near the Drake, not lulled into security, ranged his shore that they could come to them without men in order of battle, and waited their approach, swimming, they never missed them. who coming nearer stood still while the sceptre- The same curiosity that had brought them in bearer made an oration, at the conclusion of such crowds to the shore, now induced Drake, which they again came forward to the foot of and some of his company, to travel up into the ahe hill, and then the sceptre-bearer began a country, which they found, at some distance song, which he accompanied with a dance, in from the coast, very fruitful, filled with large both which the men joined, but the women deer, and abounding with a peculiar kind of davced without singing.
conies, smaller than ours, with tails like that of Drake now, distrusting them no longer, ad- ) a rat, and paws such as those of a mole; they mitted them into his fortification, where they have bags under their chin, in which they carry continued their song and dance a short time; provisions to their young. and then both the king, and some others of the The houses of the inhabitants are round holes company, made long harangues, in which it ap- dug in the ground, from the brink of which they peared, by the rest of their behaviour, that they raise rafters, or piles shelving towards the midentreated him to accept of their country, and to dle, where they all meet, and are crainmed totake the government of it into his own hands ; gether; they lie upon rushes, with the fire in for the king, with the apparent concurrence of the midst, and let the smoke fly out at the door. the rest, placed the crown upon his head, graced The men are generally naked; but the womeu him with the chains and other signs of author- make a kind of petticoat of bulrushes, which ity, and saluted him by the title of Hioh. they comb like hemp, and throw the skin of a
The kingdom thus offered, though of no far- deer over their shoulders. They are very mother value to bim tban as it furnished him with dest, tractable, and obedient to their husbands. present necessaries, Drake thought it not pru- Such is the condition of this people; and no dent to refuse; and therefore took possession of very different is, perhaps, the state of the greatIt in the name of Queen Elizabeth, not without est part of mankind. Whether more enlighten. ardent wishes that this acquisition might have ed nations ought to look upon them with pity,
as less happy than themselves, some sceptics kept steady by a piece of timber, fixod on each have made, very unnecessarily, a difficulty of side of them, with strong canes, that were fastdetermining. More, they say, is lost by the ened at one end to the boat, and at the other to perplexities than gained by the instruction of the end of the timber. science; we enlarge our vices with our know- The first company that came brought fruits, ledge, and multiply our wants with our attain- potatoes, and other things of no great value, ments, and the happiness of life is better secured with an appearance of traffic, and exchanged by the ignorance of vice than by the knowledge their lading for other commodities, with great of virtue.
show of honesty and friendship; but having, The fallacy by which such reasoners have im- as they imagined, laid all suspicion asleep, they posed upon themselves, seems to arise from the soon sent another fleet of canoes, of which the comparison which they make, not between two crews behaved with all the insolence of tyrants, men equally inclined to apply the means of hap- and all the rapacity of thieves; for, whatever piness in their power to the end for which Pro- was suffered to come into their hands, they vidence cozferred, them, but furnished in un- seemed to consider as their own, and would equal proportions with the means of happiness, neither pay for it nor restore it; and at length, which is the true state of savage and polished finding the English resolved to admit them no nations, but between two men, of which he to longer, they discharged a shower of stones from whom Providence has been most bountiful de- their boats, whïch insult Drake prudently and stroys the blessings by negligence or obstinate generously returned by ordering a piece of ord. misuse; while the other, steady, diligent, and nance to be fired without hurting them, at virtuous, employs bis abilities and conveniences which they were so territied, that they leaped to their proper end. The question is not, into the water, and hid themselves under the Whether a good Indian or bad Englishman be most happy? but, Which state is most desir- Having for some time but little wind, they able, supposing virtue and reason the same in did not arrive at the Moluccas till the 3d of both?
November, and then, designing to touch at TiNor is this the only mistake which is gener- dore, they were visited, as they sailed by a ally admitted in this controversy, for these rea- little island belonging to the king of Ternate, soners frequently confound innocence with the by the viceroy of the place, who informed them, mere incapacity of guilt. He that never saw, that it would be more advantageous for them or heard, or thought of strong liquors, cannot be to bave recourse to his master for supplies and proposed as a pattern of sobriety.
assistance than to the king of Tidore who was This land was named, by Drake, Albion, in some degree dependant on the Portuguese, from its white cliffs, in which it bore some re- and that he would himself carry the news of semblance to his native country; and the whole their arrival, and prepare their reception. history of the resignation of it to the English Drake was by the arguments of the viceroy was engraven on a piece of brass, then nailed on prevailed upon to alter his resolution, and, on a post, and fixed up before their departure, November 5th, cast anchor before Ternate; and which being now discovered by the people to be scarce was he arrived, before the viceroy, with near at hand, they could not forbear perpetual others of the chief nobles, came out in three lamentations. When the English on the 23d large boats, rowed by forty men on each side, to of July weighed anchor, they saw them climb-conduct the ship into a safe harbour, and soon ing to the tops of hills, that they might keep after the king himself, having received a velvet them in sight, and observed fires lighted up in cloak by a messenger from Drake, as a token many parts of the country, on which, as they of peace, came with such a retinue and dignity supposed, sacrifices were offered.
of appearance as was not expected in those reNear this harbour they touched at some is- mote parts of the world. He was received lands, where they found great numbers of with discharges of cannons and every kind of seals; and, despairing now to find any passage music, with which he was so much delighted, through the northern parts, he, after a general that, desiring the musicians to come down into consultation, determined to steer away to the the boat, he was towed along in it at the stern Moluccas, and setting sail July 25th, he sailed of the ship. for sixty-eight days without sight of land; and The king was of a graceful stature, and regal on September 30th arrived within view of some carriage, of a mild aspect, and low voice; his islands, situate about eight degrees northward attendants were dressed in white cotton or from the line, from wheuce the inhabitants re-calico, of whom some, whose age gave them a sorted to them in canoes, hollowed out of the venerable appearance, seemed his counsellors, solid trunk of a tree, and raised at both ends so and the rest officers or nobles; his guards were high above the water, that they seemed almost not ignorant of fire-ams, but had not many a semicircle'; they were burnished in such a among them, being equipped for the most part manner that they shone like ebony, and were with bows and darts.
The king, having spent some time in admir- | against returning, unless Heaven, in attestation ing the multitude of new objects that presented of his innocence, should enable him to bring themselves, retired as soon as the ship was back to the king some intelligence that might be brought to anchor, and promised to return on to the honour and advantage of the empire of the day following ; and in the mean time the China. In search of such informatinn he had inhabitants, having leave to traffic, brought now spent three years, and had left Tidore for down provisions in great abundance.
the sake of conversing with the English general, At the time when the king was expected, his from whom he hoped to receive such accounts brother came aboard, to request of Drake that as would enable him to return with honour and he would come to the castle, proposing to stay safety. himself as a hostage for his return. Drake re- Drake willingly recounted all his adventures fused to go, but sent some gentlemen, detaining and observations, to which the Chinese exile the king's brother in the mean time.
listened with the utmost attention and delight, These gentlemen were received by another of and, having fixed them in his mind, thanked the king's brothers, who conducted them to the God for the knowledge he had gained. He then council-house near the castle, in which they proposed to the English general to conduct him were directed to walk: there they found three- to China, recounting, by way of invitation, the score old men, privy counsellors to the king, wealth, extent, and felicity of that empire ; but and on each side of the door without stood four Drake could not be induced to prolong his old men of foreign countries, who served as in- voyage. terpreters in commerce.
He therefore set sail on the 9th of November In a short time the king came from the castle, in quest of some convenient harbour, in a desert dressed in cloth of gold, with his hair woven island, to refit his ship, not being willing, as it into gold rings, a chain of gold upon his neck, seems, to trust the generosity of the king of and on his bands rings very artificially set with Ternate. Five days afterwards he found a very diamonds and jewels of great value ; over his commodious harbour in an island overgrown head was borne a rich canopy: and by his chair with wood, where he repaired his vessel and of state, on which he sat down when he had refreshed his men without danger or interentered the house, stood a page with a fan set ruption. with sapphires, to moderate the excess of the Leaving this place the 12th of December, they heat. Here he received the compliments of sailed towards the Celebes ; but, having a wind the English, and then honourably dismissed not very favourable, they were detained among them.
a multitude of islands, mingled with dangerous The castle, which they had some opportunity sballows, till January 9th, 1580.
When they of observing, seemed of no great force; it was thought themselves clear, and were sailing for built by the Portuguese, who, attempting to rewards with a strong gale, they were at the beduce this kingdom into an absolute subjection, ginning of the night surprised in their course by murdered the king, and intended to pursue their a sudden sbock, of which the cause was easily scheme by the destruction of all his sons ; but discovered, for they were thrown upon a shoal, the general abhorrence, which cruelty and per- and by the speed of their course fixed too fast fidy naturally excite, armed all the nation against for any hope of escaping. Here even the intrethem, and procured their total expulsion from pidity of Drake was shaken, and his dexterity all the dominions of Ternate, which, from that baffled; but his piety, however, remained still time increasing in power, continued to make the same, and what he could not now promise new conquests, and to deprive them of other ac- himself from his own ability, he hoped from the quisitions.
assistance of Providence. The pump was plied, While they lay before Ternate, a gentleman and the ship found free from new leaks. came on board attended by his interpreter. He The next attempt was to discover towards the was dressed somewhat in the European manner, sea some place where they might fix their boat, and soon distinguished himself from the natives and from thence drag the ship into deep water ; of Ternate, or any other country that they bad but upon examination it appeared that the rock, seen, by civility and apprehension. Such a vis-on which they had struck, rose perpendicularly itant may easily be imagined to excite their curi- from the water, and that there was no anchorosity, which he gratified by informing them that age, nor any bottom to be found a boat's length he was a native of China, of the family of the from the ship. But this discovery, with its king then reigning; and that being accused of a consequences, was by Drake wisely concealed capital crime, of which, though he was innocent, from the common sailors, lest they should abanhe had not evidence to clear himself, he had pe- don themselves to despair, for which there was, titioned the king that he might not be exposed indeed, cause; there being no prospect left but to a trial, but that his cause might be referred that they must there sink with the ship, which to Divine Providence, and that he might be al- must undoubtedly be soon dashed to pieces, or lowed to leave his country, with a prohibition | perish in attempting to reach the shore in their
boat, or be cut in pieces by barbarians if they In this hazardous voyage they had spent two should arrive at land.
years, ten months, and some odd days; but were In the midst of this perplexity and distress, recompensed for their toils by great riches, and Drake directed that the sacrament should be ad- the universal applause of their countrymen. ministered, and his men fortified with all the Drake afterwards brought his ship up to Deptconsolation which religion affords; then per- ford, where Queen Elizabeth visited him on suaded them to lighten the vessel by throwing board his ship, and conferred the bonour of into the sea part of their lading, which was knighthood upon him; an honour in that illuscheerfully complied with, but without effect. Attrious reign not made cheap by prostitution, nor length, when their hopes had forsaken them, even bestowed without uncommon merit. and no new struggles could be made, they were It is not necessary to give an account equally on a sudden relieved by a remission of the wind, particular of the remaining part of his life, as he which, having hitherto blown strongly against was no longer a private man, but engaged in the side of the ship which lay towards the sea, public affairs, and associated in his expeditions beld it upright against the rock; but when the with other generals, whose attempts, and the blast slackened (being then low water) the ship success of them, are related in the histories of lying higher with that part which rested on the those times. rock than with the other, and, being borne up In 1585, on the 12th of September, Sir Franno longer by the wind, reeled into the deep cis Drake set sail from Plymouth with a flect of water, to the surprise and joy of Drake and his five and twenty ships and pinnaces, of which companions.
himself was admiral, Captain Martin Forbisher This was the greatest and most inextricable vice-admiral, and Captain Francis Knollis reardistress which they had ever suffered, and made admiral; they were fitted out to cruise upon the such an impression upon their minds, that for Spaniards; and, having touched at the isle of some time afterwards they durst not adventure Bayonne, and plundered Vigo, put to sea again, to spread their sails, but went slowly forward and on the 16th of November arrived before St. with the utmost circumspection.
Jago, which they entered without resistance, They thus continued their course without any and rested there fourteen days, visiting in the observable occurrence, till on the 11th of March mean time San Domingo, a town within the they came to an anchor before the island of land, which they found likewise deserted; and, Java, and, sending to the king a present of cloth carrying off what they pleased of the produce of and silks, received from him, in return a large the island, they at their departure destroyed the quantity of provisions; and the day following town and villages, in revenge of the murder of Drake went himself on shore, and entertained one of their boys, whose body they found manthe king with his music, and obtained leave to gled in a most inhuman manner. store his ship with provisions.
From this island they pursued their voyage to The island is governed by a great number of the West Indies, determining to attack St. Dopetty kings, or raias, subordinate to one chief; mingo, in Hispaniola, as the richest place in that of these princes three came on board together a part of the world: they therefore landed a thoufew days after their arrival ; and, baving upon sand men, and with small loss entered the town, their return recounted the wonders which they of which they kept possession for a month withhad seen, and the civility with which they had out interruption or alarm ; during which time a been treated, incited others to satisfy their curio- remarkable accident happened, which deserves sity in the same manner; and raia Donan, the to be related. chief king, came himself to view the ship with Drake, having some intention of treating with the warlike armaments and instruments of na- the Spaniards, sent to them a negro-boy with a vigation.
flag of truce, which one of the Spaniards so little This intercourse of civilities somewhat retard regarded, that he stabbed him through the body ed the business for which they came; but at with a lance. The boy, notwithstanding his length they not only victualled their ship, but wound, came back to the general, related the cleansed the bottom, which, in the long course, treatment which he had found, and died in his was overgrown with a kind of shell-fish that im- sight. Drake was so incensed at this outrage, peded her passage.
that he ordered two friars, then his prisoners, to Leaving Java on March 26, they sailed home- be conveyed with a guard to the place where the wards by the Cape of Good Hope, which they crime was committed, and hanged up in the sight saw on June the 5th, on the 15th of August of the Spaniards, declaring that two Spanish passed the Tropic; and on the 26th of Septem- prisoners should undergo the same death every ber arrived at Plymouth, where they found that, day till the offender should be delivered up by by passing through so many different climates, them: they were too well acquainted with the they had lost a day in their account of time, it character of Drake pot to bring him on the day being Sunday by their Journal, but Monday following, when, to impress the shame of such by the general computation.
actions more effectually upon them, he compelled them to execute him with their own hands. Of crews, amoanted to slx pounds each man. So this town, at their departure, they demolished cheaply is life sometimes hazarded. part, and admitted the rest to be ransomed for The transactions against the Armada, 1588, five and twenty thousand ducats.
are in themselves far more memorable, but less From thence they sailed to Carthagena, where necessary to be recited in this succinct narrative; the enemy having received intelligence of the only let it be remembered, that the post of vicefate of St. Domingo, had strengthened their for admiral of England, to which Sir Francis tifications, and prepared to defend themselves Drake was then raised, is a sufficient proof, with great obstinacy; but the English, landing that no obscurity of birth, or meanness of forin the night, came upon them by a way wbich tune, is unsurmountable to bravery and dili, they did not suspect, and being better armed, gence. partly by surprise, and partly by superiority of In 1595, Sir Francis Drake and Sir John order and valour, became masters of the place, Hawkins were sent with a fleet to the West where they stayed without fear or danger six Indies, which expedition was only memorable weeks, and at their departure received a hundred for the destruction of Nombre de Dios, and the and ten thousand ducats for the ransom of death of the two commanders, of whom Sir Franthe town.
cis Drake died January 9, 1597, and was thrown They afterwards took St. Augustin, and into the sea in a leaden coffin, with all the pomp touching at Virginia, took on board the governor, of naval obsequies. It is reported by some that Mr. Lane, with the English that had been left the ill success of this voyage hastened his death, there the year before by Sir Walter Raleigh, and Upon what this conjecture is grounded does not arrived at Portsmouth on July 28th, 1586, hav- appear; and we may be allowed to hope, for the ing lost in the voyage seven hundred and fifty honour of so great a man, that it is without men. The gain of this expedition amounted to foundation ; and that he, whom no series of sucsixty thousand pounds, of which forty were the cess could ever betray to vanity or negligence, share of the adventurers who fitted out the ships, could have supported a change of fortune withand the rest, distributed among the several out impatience or dejection.
Having not been able to procure materials for a great a benefit as the improvement of education. complete life of Mr. Barretier, and being never- If Mr. Le Fevre thought the method in which he theless willing to gratify the curiosity justly taught his children worthy to be communicated raised in the public by his uncommon attain to the learned world, how justly may Mr. Barments, we think the following extracts of let- retier claim the universal attention of mankind ters, written by his father, proper to be inserted to a scheme of education that has produced such in our collection, as they contain many remark- a stupendous progress! The authors, who have able passages, and exhibit a general view of his endeavoured to teach certain and unfailing rules genius and learning.
for obtaining a long life, however they have failJohn Philip BarRETIER was born at Schwa ed in their attempts, are universally confessed to bach, January 19, 1720-21. His father was a bave, at least, the merit of a great and noble de Calvinist minister of that place, who took upon sign, and to have deserved gratitude and honour. himself the care of his education. What arts How much more then is due to Mr. Barretier, of instruction he used, or by what method he who has succeeded in what they have only atregulated the studies of his son, we are not able tempted ? for to prolong life, and improve it, are to inform the public; but take this opportunity nearly the same. If to have all that riches can of intreating those, who have received more purchase, is to be rich; if to do all that can be complete intelligence, not to deny mankind so done in a long time, is to live long; he is equally
a benefactor to mankind, who teaches them to protract the duration, or shorten the business of
life. * This account was first published in the Gent.
That there are few things more-worthy our Mag. for 1740, 1741, 1742.
curiosity than this method, by which the father