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This work contains various enquiries upon the prevention of crime*:In the chapter on the culture of benevolencet

the author says,

If the legislator be desirous to inspire humanity amongst the citizens, let him set the example ; let him shew the utmost respect not only for the life of man, but for every circumstance by which the sensibility can be influenced. Sanguinary laws have a tendency to render men cruel, either by fear, by imitation, or by revenge.

But laws dictated by mildness humanize the manners of a nation and the spirit of government.

The legislator ought to interdict every thing which can lead to cruelty. The barbarous spectacles of the gladiators, introduced in Rome towards the later times of the republic, contributed without doubt to give to the Romans that ferocity which they displayed in their civil wars. Will a people, accustomed to despise human life in its sports, respect it amidst the fury of passion ?

* Je vais proposer les moyens indirects par lesquels on peut influer sur la volonté sons la forme de problêmes politiques ou moraux, et j'én montrerai la solution par divers exemples.

1. Problème. Detourner le cours des désirs dangereuse, et diriger les inclinations vers les amusemens les plus conformes à l'intérêt public.

II. Faire en sorte qu’un desir donné se satisfasse sans prejus dice, ou avec le moindre prejudice possible.

III. Eviter de fournir des encouragemens aux crimes.

IV. Augmenter la responsibilité des personnes à mesure qu'elles sont plus exposées à la tentation de nuire.

V. Diminuer la sensibilité à l'égard de la tentation.
VI. Fortifier l'impression des peines sur l'imagination:
VII. Faciliter la connoisance du corps du délit.

+ Chap. xvi. vol. 3.

In his chapter upon the power of pardoning, he sdys,

The severity of punishment must vary in versely as the cere tainty of its being inflicted.

What can be said of a power established to render punishment uncertain ? such is, however, the immediate consequence of the power of pardoning.

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In society, as with individuals, the age of passion precedes the

agc of reason. The first penal laws were dictated by anger and revenge. But when these barbarous laws, founded upon caprice and antipathies, begin to shock an enlightened public, the power to pardon, offering a protection against the rigour of sanguinary laws, becomes a comparative good; and is adopted without any examination of the evils entailed by this pretended remedy,

When laws are too severe, the power of pardoning is a corrective; but this corrective is a new evil. Enact good laws, and break the magic wand by which they are paralized. If the punishment is necessary, it ought not to be remitted : if it is not necessary, it ought not to be pronounced.

VIII. Empêcher un délit en donnant a plusieures personnes un intérêt a le prevenir.

IX. Faciliter les moyens de reconnoître et retrouver les indi. vidus.

X. Augmenter pour les delinquans la difficulté de l'evasion.
XI. Diminuer l'incertitude des procédures et des peines.

XII. Prohiber les délits accessoires pour prevenir le délit prin. cipal.

Après ces moyens, dont l'objet est spécial, nous en indiquerons d'autres plus généraux, tels que la culture de la bienveillance, la culture de l'honneur, 'l'emploi du mobile de la religion, l'usage qu'on peut tirer de la puissance de l'instruction et de celle de l'edu. cation.-Chap. iii. Vol. 3.

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TOTAL ACCOUNT OF PRISONERS Burnt in the hand-Whipped

Acquitted-Discharged by Proclamation--or against whom Bills have been returned Not foundin the Counties of HERTFORD, Essex, Kent, SUSSEX, and SURREY, for seven years, from the Year 1764 to 1770 Inclusive.

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An Account of the number of Prisoners Tried and Acquittedof Prisonert

Convicted and Sentenced to be Burnt in the Hand and Discharged-of Pri. soners Sentenced to be Whipped and Discharged—and of Prisoners Discharged by Proclamation-at the several Assizes and General Gaol Deliveries held in and for the several Counties and Cities within the OXFORD CIRCUIT for Seven Years, ending at Michaelmas 1771.

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