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their numerous centres, and with the nerves of of organic life, or solar plexus. The roots of these the whole body, they are sometimes called the nerves are in the cerebellum, the seat of motion, Great Sympathetic Nerves, and Nerves of Vege- a receptacle of life. Now, we see why intensity table Life. There are three orders of these of thought, carking cares, &c., impede respiration Nerves: one going to the blood-vessels and other and infringe on the laws of health, for want of the parts of the vascular system; one to the contrac- proper co-operation with the nerves of organic ule tissues or muscles of involuntary motion: life; inducing dyspepsia, and even consumption. and ole to the nerves of organic sensation, con- hence, the painful mode of teaching children to Veyir. the impressions made on the organs. read by a book: away with this false system, na
less you would inhumanly sacrifice the rising generation on the altar of evil; let the ear, or right feeling predominate: please work out the whole; for you can do it: a hint is sufficient for those who think.
6. In this view of the Nerves of Respiration, (originating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an extension of the Cerebellum, (6,) or seat of Voluniary Motion, and of the Cerebrum, (a,) or seat of Rationality,) may be seen the nerve (e;) that goes to the Diaphragm (i,) and is concerned in the office of breathing, which generally acts without the aid of the Will; but yet is controllable by the Will, to a certain extent; for we may breathe fast or slow, lang or short. Next above this, is the Spinal Accessory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c., in respiration; one of its fellow roots goes to the tongue (d,) and is concerned in mastication, swallowing, speaking, &c. [Some nerves are thrown back, the better to be seen.) Next in order is the 17. Here is an excellent representation or the pneumosgastric, or lungs-and-stomach nerve (f: Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, 8, h,) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, la- with the nerves of Organic Life, and the Respirarynx and wind-pipe, (e,) aiso to the cardiac, or tory Nerves, constitute the inmosts of the body; heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right also, a posterior, or back view, of the two brains, of (g); a recurrent branch goes to the larynx, &c.; which is the seat of the Mind, the constituents of other branches go to the face to exhibit the feelings. I which, are Will and Understanding. The letter All interweave, and bring the vocal organs into c, indicates the cerebrum, or large brain, where mportant relations with the leart and lungs, with the Understanding, Rationality, or thought is lofelings and thoughts; while the main body goes cated; and cv, the cerebellum, or Little brain, o the stomach, and wtes with the great centre I under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the Krizontal black line is: here is the seat of the 9. We now descend to the hard parts of the Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the body, which have the least of life in them. This seat of the Motive power of the body; and from is a very correct representation of the Osseous these proceed the spinal marrow, (me,) enveloped system, or the bony parts which may be aptly in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; pb, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the serves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots; the front (anterior,) one serving for motion, and the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a perfect harmony and co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Motary Nerves; hence, the volunsary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connection with those of Respiration.
8. Here is a striking view of the Muscuiar, or fleshy portions, that form the medium of communication between the Nerves and the Bones: there are several hundreds, acting on the bones like ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in perfect subjection to the Sou,
called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid through tha
temple we live in; which is three stories high ; Mind; so that
viz. the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above whatever 18
it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, felt & thought,
the situation and attachment of the different bones may be bodied
of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long forth to the life.
ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human Now let us put
frame, there are 250 bones: they afford us the
means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy these three
between the body and language ? systems, the Nerves, Mus.
10. ZOOLOGY-(the doctrine or science of life,)
is a necessary element of education. Whose cucles and Bones, togeth
riosity has not been excited by the innumerable
living beings, and things, with which we are sur?r, and con
rounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their iemplate the
interiors, and see how they are made, and underwhole
stand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, unit, bound up
a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their in the skin,
differences, in many respects, and their similar and acting in
ties in others: they all have essence, form, use abedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms that mind is subserviev to the Creator of mind. of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral,
is to emancipate the hunian mind from the dark- | constituting the nutritive funci on of which living ness and slavery of ignorance, into the light and bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by evi\berty of rational humanity. The things of the dences too plain to be misunderstood: may we havs Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power to appreciate them, being assured that all power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; truths are in perfect harmony with each other. and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or
12. Here is a representation of the Human grow; they simply exist. 11. Three objects are designed by this erigra- of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more
Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses ving: first, to show the body, clothed in its own beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the continent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism : second, to call attention to the fact that it is full of pores, or little holes, through which passes out of our systems more than half of what we eat
and drink, in the form of what is called insensiblo perspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy mist, emanating from every part of the surface; and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are renewed every seven years
, and the skin being in the succeeding parts of this introduction : how
into the particulars of our subject; which fone the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out particles of the system; the great importance ever, let the reader bear in mind, that only the outof keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy lines of subjects are given in the book, designed condition, by daily washing in soft cold water, for such as are determined to dig for truth and must be evident to every one of reflection, it be- eternal principles, as for hidden treasures ; ing the safety-valve of the body: and thirdly, to whose motto is “Press On.” indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of
Animals and Plants endure for a time, and a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in ac- under specific forms, by making the external cordance with its state ; which is often perceived world a part of their own being; i. e. they have when certain persons are present; also when the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly and when this outward supply ceases they die, wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts; so as having completed their term of duration : hence, w give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive death, to material existences, is a necessary cort with their tones and audible words, ruling in- sequence of life. Not so with minerals: they exmense audiences with absolute sway, and de- ist so long as external forces do not destroy them: monstrating the power of truth and eloquence. and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtapo
Animals and Plants increase by nutrition : sition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh by the action of a force, or power, from withbut a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one out. Has not every thing its circle? How inhundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign sub- teresting must be the history of all things, anistances, are the materials of which our organs mate and inanimate! Oh that we had eyes to see, are composed? In sickness, extreme emaciation and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their around us, within us, and above us ! bulk, and give back to the world what was once 13. If we would have the Mind act on the No own. Thus, composition and decomposition, Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an on
18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells | viscera and diaphragm upwards: the lungs en . the Lungs, laid open and highly magnified. operate with the diaphragm and abdominal mueThe body is formed by Blood, which consists of the cles; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and musnutritious portions
cles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and of our food, and
effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are be18 in the form of
low the diaphragm, and are dependent on it, in a very smal glob
measure, for their actions. ales, or little í round balls: a
19. Here are two attitudes, sitting, and stand- 21. Here is a view of the Heart, nearly sur: ing, passive and active. Beware of too much rounded by the Lungs, with the different blood
vessels going to, and from them: these organs are shown partially separated; tho' when in their natural positions, they are quite compact together,
stiffness, and too much laxity, of the muscles; be natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or forwards, to the right or left: and especially, of resting your head on your hand, with the elbow on something else: by which practice, many have caused a projection of one shoulder, induced spinal affections, &c. Beware of every thing and wholly fill up the cavity of the chest : every that is improper : such as trying how much you one has two hearts, for the two different kinds of can list with one hand, &c.
blood, and each heart has two rooms: a, right 20. Here follows a representation of the position auricle, that receives all the blood from every part of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, of the body, through the vena cava, or large vein, in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left which is made up of the small veins, e, e, e, e, e; engraving, represents the diaphragm in its great it thence passes into the right ventricle, é, thence est descent, when we draw in our breath : 2, mus-into both lungs, where it is purified; after which cles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricle, extent, in inhaling: 1, in the right engraving, the then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subcla diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, vian arteries (u, and v,) to every part of the body. the nuscl.:s of the abdomen in action, forcing the returning every three or four minutes.