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45. AUSTRIAN SLANDERS AND HUNGARIAN the final catastrophe; he, who marked their BRAVERY.-- Kossuth. While, during our holy behaviour, towards the victors, when all was lost; struggle, we were secluded from the world, our he, who knows what sore curses is mixed in the enemies, wanting to cover their crimes by lies, prayers of the Magyar, and what kind of sentitold you the tale, that in Hungary, we are but ment is burning alike in the breast of the old an insignificant party-and this party fanaticized and of the child, of the strong man and of the by myself. Well, I feel proud at my country's tender wife, and ever will be burning on, till the strength. They stirred up, by foul lelusions, hour of national resurrection strikes; he, who even to the fury of civil war, our Croat, Wallack, is aware of all this, will surely bow before my Serb, and Slovack brethren against us: but this people with respect, and will acknowledge, with did not suffice. The house of Austria poured all me, that such a people wants not to be inspired, its forces upon us; but this would not do; we but that it is itself an everlasting source of beat them down. The proud dynasty was forced inspiration. Such are the people of Hungary. to stoop at the foot of the Czar. He thrust his And for me, my only glory is, that this people legions upon us; and still we could have been a found in myself, the personification of their own match for them: One thing there was, that we, sentiments. the plain children of straight-uprightness, could not match; that is, the intrigues of Russian 746. CAPABILITIES OF HUNGARY AND HER diplomacy, which knew how to introduce treason SYMPATHISERS -Kossuth. Some have questioned into our ranks. This caused us to fail, combined the capabilities of Hungary, to maintain herself with Russian arms. But still we were styled a as an independent nation. But she has all the party, fanaticized by me. “Well, I thank them elements of independence. She has four thousand for the word.” You may judge by this, what German square miles, and a population of thirteen will then be, when not a mere party, but together, millions, who are brave and industrious. She all the Magyars, the Croats, Wallacks, Serbs, and has no debt of her own; and she is not liable for Slovacks, united into one body, will range under the debts of Austria. True, we created a debt, the standard of freedom and right. And be ye during our recent struggle ; but the house of sure they will. Humanity, with its childish faith, Austria burnt the greater part of it; so, (thanks can be deluded for a moment; but the bandage to them,) we are free from that. Then, Hungary soon falls from its eyes, and it will be cheated no is, in consequence of her municipal institutions,
accustomed to cheap government. Municipal Afterward, the scorned party turned out to be a government is always cheap; while centralized nation, and a valiant one. But still our enemies governments are always dear. Again, she has said, it was I, who inspired it. Perhaps there great resources; she is rich in mines, and could might be some glory in inspiring such a nation, supply the whole world with the purest salt, for and to such a degree. But I cannot accept the ten thousand years. Then, she has large national praise. No: it is not I who inspired the Hun- estates, which might be distributed so as to garian people,-it was the Hungarian people who increase the revenue very materially. The prin. inspired me. Whatever I thought and still ciple of self-government is so strongly implanted think, whatever I felt and still feel, is but a in the Hungarians, that nothing can eradicate it. feeble pulsation of that heart, which beats in the And let it not be forgotten, that the freedom breasts of my people. The glory of battles, in of Hungary is intimately connected with the history, is ascribed to the leaders; theirs are the question of freedom in Europe, and the principles laurels of immortality. And yet, on meeting the of self-government: and while you will not danger, they kpew, that alive or dead, their interfere in the self-government of foreign nations, names will live upon the lips of the people for you will determine not to allow other countries to ever. How different, how much purer, is the interfere. To this extent, I wish to see the people light spread on the image of thousands of people's of this country turn their attention to foreign sons, who, knowing that where they fall they will affairs, and exercise their influence to spread the lie unknown, their names unhonored and unsung, principles of freedom and self-government.but who, nevertheless, animated by the love of Remember, that, with every down-beaten nation, freedom and fatherland, went calmly on, singing one ram part of liberty falls. national anthems, against batteries, whose cross- I therefore rely upon your active sympathy fire vomited forth death and destruction, and most confidingly. I rely upon it, in the name of took them, without firing a shot; they who fell, all who suffer oppression and languish for freefalling with the shout-" Hurrah for Hungary! dom, like my people and myself. All they are And so they died by thousands,--the unnamed my brethren, whatever tongue they speak, whatdemigods! Such are the people of Hungary. ever country they call their home. Members of Still they say, it was I, who have inspired them. the great family of mankind, the tie of blood is No; a thousand times, no. It is they who have strengthened between us by common sufferings. inspired me.
The nameless woes of my native land, as well as The moment of death is a dreary one. Even the general reception I enjoy, may, perhaps, the features of Cato partook of the impression entitle me to entreat you, out of the depths of of this dreariness. A shadow passed over the my own desolation ; take it for the cry of oppresed brow of Socrates, on drinking of the hemlock humanity, crying out by my stuttering tongue. eup. But with us, those who behold the nameless Do not forget, ye lovers of liberty, in your own victims of the love of country, lying on the happiness, our sufferings. Remember, in your death-field beneath Buda's walls, inet but the freedom those who are oppressed; remember, in impression of a smile on the frozen lips of the your own proud security the indignities we dead; and the dying answered those who would endure. Remember the tickleness of human fate, console--" Never mind : Buda is ours: Hurrah --that those wounds, with which the nations for our Fatherlan!!" they spoke, -anu lied. bleed, are so many wounds inflicted on that He who witnessed such scenes, not an exceptions principle of liberty, which makes your glory and but as a constant ruly, with thousands of the happiness. Remember that is a tie in mankind's people's nameless sons ; he who sair the boy stiny ; be thankful for the tear of compassion weep, when told, that he was too young to die you shed over our mournful past,-- but, have for his country: he, who sw the spontaneous something more than a tear,-have a brother's macrifices of our nation ; he, who saw what a hand to give to our pressure, and do unto us, * fury syread over the people, when they heard of you would have others do to you.
READINGS, RECITATIONS, AND DIALOGUES.
317 149. A DIALOGUE BETWEEN A MINISTER, A SON S. of T. Let us not, by any thing offen. OF TEMPERANCE, AND A TAVERN KEEPER. sively personal, disturb, on this occasion, the
balance of each other's minds. We three, all men of some experience, look upon the great
temperance movement, from different points Minister. I have never had but one opinion of observation. Each sees what is before on this subject, and that is adverse to your him, in a peculiar light, and comes to his great “Movements," as you call them. conclusions through a different
course of Son of Temperance. (With surprise.) reasoning. No harm can, and some good Adverse!
may, arise, from an interchange of ideas. M. That is the word I have used.
Tav. Keep. So I think. And, if you, S. of T. You surprise me. Of all others, gentlemen, wish to converse on the subject I would expect to find, in the Minister of the of Temperance, I am willing to give you the Gospel, the advocate of Temperance.
benefit of my conclusions on the subject. M. I am the advocate of Temperance.
M. Suppose, then, friend Tavern Keeper, S. of T. And, yet, you do not approve our you give us your views about Temperance. action in this cause.
Tav. Keep. Well; my view, to speak M. I do not.
frankly, is, that neither ministers nor temS. of T. Why so, sir?
perance men, as a general thing, are doing M. Your pledge is based upon a simple half the good they might do. human resolution. Now, I acknowledge no S. of T. Indeed! how so? reforming power, but the grace of God. Build Tav. Keep. I do not speak lightly, nor the foundations of your Order upon religious from prejudice, in what I say. It was but principles, and then I will have confidence natural, that, from my relation to this movetherein. But, so long as all depends on the ment, I should, from the beginning, assume unsustained, unregenerated will of man, there an attitude of observation. At first, I was is no safety. Human resolutions may appear rather alarmed. You attacked the enemy so very strong for a time; but, so long as they vigorously, and carried point after point, with are unsustained by the silver cords of divine such indomitable bravery, that I really began truth, and the golden bands of divine love, to fear for my own position: and there was a they may be broken at any moment Your period, when, blinded by self-interest, and pledges and associations are but external angry with the sweeping denunciations hurled bonds, in danger of being severed at any at the heads of tavern keepers, I would, had time, that inward struggling, self-love, self- it been in my power, have crushed the very interest, appetite, or unsubdued passion heart out your salutary reform. That regain strength; but, religion is an attraction feeling, however, in time, passed away, and that draws from the centre of a man's life, was followed by a better state of mind. I and holds all in permanent integrity. Your was still a careful observer; yet, with my “moral suasion,” depend upon it, is of little i sympathies all on your side. value; I believe only in religious "suasion.” S. of T. And still continued in the traffic?
S. of T. What do you mean by religious ? Tav. Keep. (Not appearing to notice this
M. A change of heart, wrought by the remark.) It was not long, however, before I grace of God. Such a change is worth a saw, that your system had in it a most fatal thousand pledges. The new man is freed from the shackles of old appetites and pas- S. of T. Ah! And pray what was this sions; he is washed from his impurities; be error ? has left the fiery streams of sin, and drinks, Tav. Keep. You took from the clinging now, only of the waters of life.
vine its old support, yet failed to furnish S. of T. But, how is a drunkard to begin another of adequate strength. to be religious ?
M. You are right there, friend Tavern Tavern Keeper. I knew several of these Keeper: this I have always said. men, Parson B., who have been saved by S. of T. We procured employment for your religious "suasion,”' as you call it. the reformed inebriate. We organized assoM. Well? What of them?
ciations, in which he might act with his Tav. Keep. Out of six, who joined the fellow man, and find others to lean upon in Church, four drink at my bar as freely as
his weakness; others, who would encourage ever; two keep sober, but one of these is a him to persevere in the good work he had bigger rascal than he was before. These are began. We interested his sympathies in the facts; and no one should be afraid to look at poor drunkard, and sent him forth into the facts. So much for your pledges, and so highways and by-ways, the lanes and the much for your religion! I wouldn't give alleys, on missions of mercy., much for either.
Tav. Kecp. And, for a while, everything M. Nor would I give much for your hopes went on bravely. of heaven, friend Tavern Keeper. You M. But, all was done in the strength of mustu't be angry with me, for speaking the mere human resolutions; and these are, in truth.
times of strong temptations, weaker than the Tav. Keep. The truth, as seen from your bruised reed. No wonder, that so many, point of view. Not in the least angry. I am who had run well for a season, fainted and a plain spoken man of the world; I can failed by the way. There is, depend upon receive, in turn, a food share of plain speak it, no trne reliance upon any system that 18 ing
not based upon religion. The heart must first
be changed. Unless reform begins here, all | himself, no strength. And with the Charota is hopeless.
it is no better, but rather worse. Tav. Keep. So you ministers all say; and, M. Don't say that. yet, the pledge has made fifty sober men out Tav. Keep. It is true. There, everything. of drunkards, where your religion, as you call I might almost assert, is taken away. The it, has made one I speak knowingly on the Church excludes all pleasures, as evil in subject.
themselves. What ground is there, therefore, M. It pains me, to hear any one speak so for the reformed drunkard to stand upon ? lightly of religion.
M. The ground of trust in God. Tav. Keep. Don't misunderstand me. I Tav. Keep. Good ground, I will own, for am no scoffer at God and the Bible.
those who can trust in Him. M. And yet you scoff at religion.
M. All may, if they will. Tav. Kecp. Don't misunderstand me in Tav. Keep. But, there lies the great this, either. I have only spoken of the value difficulty. This willing to trust in God is of what you call religion, in reforming the easy enough in theory, but how difficult do drunkard. Do not construe my remarks into thousands, and tens of thousands, find it in any thing beyond this.
practice. Many seem, for a time, to trust in M. What we call religion ?
God; but the result proves, that it is only Tav Keep. Your suddenly wrought con- seeming, Depend upon it, your Church versions, I mean. Your washing the Ethiop's systems, with here and there an exception, gkin white in a moment. In this kind of fail to provide for that very class most in need religion I never had any faith: and this kind of its saving influence. You require them to of religion, let me tell you, never had, nor ever come up to you, but never dream of going will have, any salutary efficacy, in saving down to them. men from the degradation of drunkenness. M. You make broad assertions, my friend.
M. The Bible is very explicit on this Tav. Keep. Yet true, as that the sun subject. To all men, whether sober or not, it shines. The children of this world, as they says, " Ye must be born again." Here is the were eighteen hundred years ago, are still only chance of salvation from evil.
wiser than the children of light. They go T'av. Kcep. I have never questioned this. downsto the level of the ignorant, the sensual, But I have always questioned your common and the debased, and hold them where they interpretation of the Scripture annunciation. are, by ministering to what is in them. But The Bible regards our natural birth as the the children of light," as the religionists of type of spiritual birth, does it not?
the day esteem themselves, never do this. M. Certainly
They offer only mental pleasures and sublime Tav. Kcep. And, yet, your new spiritual ecstacies, and condemn all sensual pleasures man is conceived and born in a moment;
Instead of coming down to the coming forth, as it were, in full stature. But, sensual-minded, with pure sensual pleasures, in natural birth, there is brought forth a and, by these, gradually lifting them up, step cender. helpless, ignorant infant, and a growth by step, until, by an almost imperceptible therefrom, with almost imperceptible slow- transition, they are able to elevate them into ness; until, at length, we have the man in a perception of mental delights, they say to full stature. If this is the case, naturally, all
, in a spirit of self-righteousness, come up how can we look for a different order of things to us. But, alas! who of the grovelling crowd spiritually? I am no Doctor of Divinity; but, are able to go up? depend upon it, my friend, you can have no M. What would you have us do? ti je spiritual man in any other way
Tav. Keep. I can say what I think it wise S. of T. There is, to my mind, force in for you to do. what you say; and I perceive some glimpses
M. Well: what is it? of a new light breaking in upon me. Without Tav. Keep. Bring within the pale of the doubt, as experience too amply demonstrates, Church all innocent pleasures. there is some defect in our system; for, M. What do you call innocent? though we can draw multitudes over to our Tav. Keep. Such as do not violate any of side, large numbers soon leave us for the old God's commandments. enticements. It seems too true, that we take M. Mention some of them. from the clinging vine its former supports, Tav. Keep. Dancing, concerts of fine and fail to give another, having equal power music, exercises in elocution, dramatic repre. to lift up to the breezes and sun-shine., sentations, and all other modes of enjoyment
Tav. Keep. In other words, as Temperance not evil in themselves. reformers, you cut off from a man, who has M. No; never. sought, for years, his pleasure in sensual S. of T. You are right, friend Tavern indulgence, all his old delights; and, ere a Keeper! I see this as I never saw it before. new and higher life is developed, you fail to It is too true, that we have failed to provide substitute for him those innocent social plea- innocent pleasures, blending the sensual with sures, that he may enter into without danger. the intellectual, for those, who, during long You make stirring appeals to his reason and years, have debased themselves in things manhood, and all that; while, in truth, he is merely corporeal. And this has arisen, but a child, weak-limbed, and tottering in the mainly, from our desire, as temperance men, right way. You lift him upon his feet, and to be co-workers with the Churches. We say to him, “Walk on bravely, confidently, saw, and acknowledged, the power of God in and all will be well ;” and, yet, he has, in saving men; and numbers of us had faith in
the pledge; only so far as it paved the way increase the common stock of enjoyment. A for religion, But, afar off, in stately attitudes, few are drones in the hive; spending their stood the Church, with a repulsive, rather than days in idleness, and taking from others, an inviting aspect. It did not come down without rendering a just return of benefits, to help us, but rather rebuked us, for inter- And there is yet another class, who are fering with its exclusive right to save men. neither producers nor idlers, but parasites,
Tav. Keep. Your arch-enemy knows better drawing life from the very hearts of the how to do his work. He understands the people; who pull down, but never aid in power of dramatic spectacles, of music and building up, the social fabric. Can you guess pictures, of all things that appeal to the the class to which I allude ? senses; and he is daily gathering in his Tav. Keep. To do so, would not, by any harvest, of those whom the Church neglects to means, be difficult.
Under his particular patronage is the S. of T. It grieves me, friend Tavern theatre, which you might make so all-power- Keeper, to adjudge you as belonging to this ful for good; and, everywhere, he is seizing class. upon things innocent, yet despised and Tav. Keep. I will not gainsay your judg. neglected by the Church, and making them ment now. Tomorrow it will be different. engines of destruction. But, good morning! S. of T. Do I hear aright? Will you, I have said a great deal more than I expected indeed, give up this evil traffic? to say, at first. Pardon my free speaking; Tav. Keep. Such is my purpose. For and do not be so unwise as to reject what is some time, my mind has been approaching untrue, even though it be uttered by a Tavern this decision. It has been confirmed by our Keeper. Good morning, gentlemen.
present conversation. S. of T. Just one word, if you please. S. of T. You will come over on our side, Tav. Keep. Well; speak freely.
and help us ? S. of T. "I must also venture upon a plain Tav. Keep. I will abandon the sale of word or two, before we part. I acknowledge liquor. Thus much I owe to society, as a myself your debtor, for useful hints; perbaps good citizen. Beyond that, I can now pledge I may be of equal service to you.
myself to nothing. As already said, I do not Tav. Keep. "Say on: I am always willing think either your rule of action, or that of the to learn,
Church, the surest and best that can be S. of T. You seem to have thought a good adopted. You do not come down low enough, deal on the subject of temperance. Has it stooping under the poor debased drunkard, never occurred to you, that, as a vender of like the mother-bird to her fledgings. You do liquor, you were doing harm in the com- not wisely regard what is in man, You do munity?
not come to his senses with enticements, and Taň. Keep. O yes; often. But, then, I thus give him the good, opposite to the evil have argued, that my giving up the sale of that lias been removed. But I have spoken ardent spirits, wouldn't lessen their consump of this already. Good morning! tion. Some one else would take my stand, S. of T. May God confirm you in your and sell on, just the same as before. And, good resolutions. why, I have asked myself, should I not have M. Amen. the benefit, as well as another.
Tav. Keep. And may he bring to your S. of T. Might not a thief, or robber, use love of serving your fellows, a higher intellithe same argument ?
gence; for, rest assured, that both of you have Tav. Keep. Not always; for, if he failed much to learn of the science, by which we to rob, or steal, in a certain case, his intended are saved from evil. victim would, in all probability, go free of harm.
1750. DEBATE-CHARACTER OP JULIUS CÆSAR. S. of T. Perhaps so. Still, I do understand how any one, as intelligent and
N. B. This Debate can be given as a WHOLE, or observant as you are, can reconcile it to his any part of it be declaimed by one, or more instinctive sense of right, to make gain of that
individuals, according to circumstances. which destroys his brother, body and soul.
R. A., Chairman. Tav. Keep. I doubt, if many who sell liquor, permít that instinctive sense of right, F. A., R. V., W. M., R. T., W. Š., H. 1., F. W.
THE DEBATERS.-J. G., F. M., R. P., R. G., B. G., to which you refer, to come into play. S. of T. How can they help it?
R. A. Gentlemen, I am happy to see you. Tav. Keep. The selfish love of gain rules Agreeably to the notice of your late worthy over most of our impulses.
chairman, you have assembled to discuss the S. of T. Most true. But, are we just to propriety of calling Cæsar a Great Man. I ourselves, to say nothing of society, thus to promise myself much satisfaction from your permit self-love to overrule these better debate. I promise myself the pleasure of impulses ?
hearing many ingenious arguments on each Tav. Keep. I will not say that we are. side of the question, and the gratification of M. Society is held in its integrity, by the witnessing a contesi, maintained with anima bond of mutual benefits. The farmer, the tion, good humor, and courtesy. You are my mechanic, the manufacturer, the artist, are all sureties, and I shall not be disappointed. engaged in promoting the public good. Each The avocations of your late chairman have works for, and provides, food raiment, or not allowed him to resume his seat-a seat other things needful to sustain life, and ) honorable in itself, but more honorable from
the diguity with which he filled it. I have dozen men-men of education. erudition-ask been appointed to succeed him.
them to read a piece of animated composition; My first duty is, to bear testimony to the you will be fortunate if you find one in the accomplishments of my predecessor; to his dozen, that can raise, or depress, his voiceeloquence, his disinterestedness, and his inflect or modulate it, as the variety of the address. My next duty regards myself; and subject requires. What has become of the calls upon me to declare my sense of the inflections, the cadences, and the modulation, honor I enjoy, in having been appointed to of the infant? They have not been exercised; this station. My last duty-and one that I they have been neglected; they have never discharge with great diffidence-is, to present been put into the hands of the artist, that he
few observations that have might apply them to their proper use; they reference to the occasion of your being have been laid aside, spoiled, abused; and, ten assembled.
to one, they will never be good for any thing! You are assembled, gentlemen, to discuss Oratory is highly useful to him that excels the merits of a man, whose actions are con- in it. In common conversation, observe the nected with some of the most interesting advantage which the fluent speaker enjoys events in Roman story. You have given the over the man that hesitates, and stumbles in subject due consideration. You come pre- discourse. With half his information, he has pared for the contest; and I shall not presume twice his importance; he commands the to offer any opinion, respecting the ground respect of his auditors; he instructs and which either side ought to take. My remarks gratifie them. In the general transactions shall be confined to the study of Oratory; and, of business, the same superiority attends him allow me to say, I consider Oratory to be the He communicates his views with clearness, second end of our academic labors, of which precision, and effect; he carries his point the first •end is, to render us enlightened, by his mere readiness; he concludes his useful, and virtuous.
treaty, before another kind of man would have The principal means of communicating our well set about it. Does he plead the cause ideas are two-speech and writing. The of friendship ? how happy is his friend! Of former is the parent of the latter; it is the charity ? how fortunate is the distressed ? more important, and its highest efforts are Shoulü he enter the Senate of his country, he calied Oratory:
gives strength to the party which he espouses; If we consider the very early period at should he be independent of party, he is a which we begin to exercise the faculty of party in himself. If he advocates the cause speech, and the frequency with which we of liberty, he deserves to be the people's exercise it, it must be a subject of surprise, champion; if he defends their rights, he that so few excel in Oratory. In any enlight- approves himself the people's bulwark ! ened community, you will find numbers who That you will persevere in the pursuit of so are highly skilled in some particular art or useful å study, as that of Oratory, I confiscience, to the study of which they did not dently hope. That your progress has been, apply themselves, till they had almost arrived hitherto, considerable, I am about to receive at the stage of manhood. Yet, with regard to a proof. the powers oi speech, those powers which Gentlemen, the question for debate, is-Was the very second year of our existence gener CÆSAR A GREAT Man? ally calls into action, the exercise of which J. G. Sir, to bespeak your indulgerice, is a goes on at our sports, our studies, our walks, duty, in posed, no less, by a knowledge of our very meals; and which is never long your desert, than by a consciousness of my suspended, except at the hour of refreshing deficiency. I am unpractised in the orator's sleep; with regard to those powers, how few ! art; nor can I boast that native energy of surpass their fellow-creatures of commor valent, which asks not the tempering of information and moderate attainments! how experience; but, by its single force, effects very few deserve distinction! how rarely what seems the proper achievement of labors, does one attain to eminence!
and of years. Let me, then, hope, that you The causes are various; but we must not will excel in favor, as much as I shall fall. attempt, here, to investigate them. I shall short in merit. Let me presume, that the simply state, that one cause of our not performance of what I undertake with diffi generally excelling in Oratory, is, our neglect. dence, will be regarded by you with allowance. ing to cultivate the art of speaking-of Let me anticipate, that failure will not be speaking our own language. We acquire imputed as a crime, to him, who dares not the power of expressing our ideas, almost hope success. insensibly; we consider it as a thing that is * Was Cæsar a great man ?" What revo natural to us; we do not regard it as an art: lution has taken place in the first appointed it is an art-a difficult art--an intricate art-government of the universe; what new and and our ignorance of that circumstance, or our opposite principle has begun to direct the omitting to give it due consideration, is the operations of nature; what refutation of their cause of ou deficiency.
long established precepts, has deprived Reason In the infant, just beginning to articulate, of her sceptre, and Virtue of her throne, that you will observe every inflection that is a character, which forms the noblest theme recognized in the most accurate treatise on that ever Merit gave to Fame, should now elocution; you will observe, further, an exact become a question for debate ? proportion in its several cadences, and a No painter of human excellence, if ho speaking expression in its tones. Select a would " draw the features of that hero'o