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PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE SUN AND

MOON.

721

- on

moon.

but if these barrack rooms were artificially mind. But he quotes for us from Dr. Mosekept at the same temperature, the great dif- ley and others some curious cases of an apference must have been rather one of light parent influence of the moon, — probably than of heat. In the latter of these pas- exercised through the atmosphere, since it sages we have apparently a real case of the took effect as much at new moons, when the specific effect caused by excluding light, and moon gives no light, as at full moons, light alone, on animal life, for the closing of hæmorrhages of the lungs, on which it is of the eyelids could only affect the general course not at all unnatural that special conhealth through the optic nerve; but then ditions of the atmospheric tides, by increaseven here the general sanitary effect of ing or lightening the pressure on the blood light on the body, as distinguished from that vessels of the lungs, should have a very conon the mere visual apparatus, is not exclud- siderable effect. The most curious of these ed, though the evidence that creatures kept cases seems to be the following (which wholly in the dark, no less than those pre- certainly does not seem to belong properly vented from opening their eyes, fatten fast- to a treatise on “ the influence of light :") er than others, seems to show that the influence of light generally is to excite, and that its exclusion leaves the organization

“Dr. Moseley remarks that the greater hæmor. more at rest for the processes of mere assim- rhages from the lungs or those of plethora, like ilation. It would be worth inquiring what in their natural course by peculiar circumstan

all periodical attacks of this kind (undisturbed effect, if any, is produced on the general ces), obey the influence of the moon.

Of this, bodily condition of blind men by the quies- he says, he has had many proofs. That there cence of the optic nerve. From general are not more authenticated by others is owing, experience, we should be apt to doubt he believes, to the theory on which the fact dewhether it is in any degree the same as that pends not being sufficiently known to prevent here supposed to take effect on the lower the result escaping unnoticed. In another poranimals. The usual impression certainly is tion of his work he remarks that most of the that the organization of the blind increases patients whom he had attended in the spring of in acuteness in all the other senses in pre- much affected in the head at every new and full

the year 1777 during attacks of fever were cise proportion to the loss they have suz- He refers to the case of a man who tained in the privation of sight; and, of had a severe attack of hæmoptysis always at course, if the general activity of the mental the moon's full. When speaking of the mode organization is not diminished, there would of treating these hæmorrhagic conditions, he not be any probability of a greater stimulus advises the physician to be watchful in ever: to the mere assimilating processes. What case of the kind when the moon's influence. we miss so much in Dr. Forbes Winslow's was considered to be greatest on the earth. He account of this interesting subject is any from hæmorrhage of the lungs, who was ads.

cites the history of a gentleman who suffered: attempt to isolate for us carefully the spe- vised to leave England during the winter and cific effects of light. He tells us, for in

to reside in the south of France. Whilst there stance, of the bad effects of mining work, his attacks came on periodically, obeying faith-,and of cellar work, and so forth, but here fully the principal changes of the moon. Ny. the absence of effectual ventilation is proba- Moseley considers this to be one the most debly a far more important incident than the cisive examples of lunar influence recorded in absence of light. He tells us nothing what- medical history. The following particulars of ever of the diseases (if any) mental or bodi- his illness deserve attentive consideration. On ly peculiar to the blind. He tells us ex

February 14, 1786, when near Toulon, hæmorceedingly little of either good or bad effects rhage came on ; the moon was at its full on the produced by light which can be clearly sep- in Provence, he had another attack. There

preceding day. On February 29, when at Aix, arated from more general causes. In short, was a new moon on the 28th. The moon was his book throws little explicit light on any again at its full on the 13th of April, and on the one subject, and is little more than a rather 15th the patient had another attack of, hæ-. curious account of the various impressions moptysis. A new moon appeared on the 29th of and superstitions on the subject of solar and the same month, and on the 26th, when at: lunar influences, most of which science Tain upon the Rhone, he had a relapse. At has not confirmed, - and a very few rather Châlones, in Burgundy, there was a full moon

on the 13th of May, and on the 14th his hæmor. vague conclusions which it has confirmed. Dr. Forbes Winslow himself has evident- rhage returned. At Dijon, June 11, when the

moon was again at its full, he had another atly little or no belief in any special influence tack. On July 11, at Paris, the moon was of the moon's light on mental disease, except again at its full. At this lunan period the so far as he considers all excess of light, es- hæmorrhage returned. Again, when at Yar: pecially if it prevents sleep, exciting to the mouth, in the Isle of Wight, on August 9, the FOURTH SERIES. LIVING AGE.

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VOL. V.

moon was then at its full. The hæmoptysis | And, turning, she perceived approaching near returned. Dr. Moseley alluded to the remark- A dapper little man in broadcloth guise, able fact that the last three attacks of hæmor- Who curiously along the ground did peer rhage from the lungs came on at the instant the With little twinkling intellectual eyes. moon appeared above the horizon."

As to the maid his tripping feet he bent,

He seemëd with his wisdom well content ; If this curious relation between the atmos- Deeply be breath'd, his boots with mud were

soiled; pheric tides and the hæmorrhages of the lungs could be traced in any sufficient num- A little hammer gript he while he went, ber of cases to exclude the possibility of With self-complacent smile full soft and sleek

Seeking the shady places ; and he oiled mere coincidence, a mechanical influence of The smooth steel of his cheek. great importance on the physiology of the With courteous bow, “Good morrow, Miss,” body would have been discovered which

said he ; would affect seriously many other branches My name is SCIENCE, you remember me?" of medicine. Dr. Forbes Winslow's essay,. At this the maiden turned to fly, not heeding; however, is faulty in suggesting so much and But the Professor seized her hand, proceedestablishing so little, on the curious and in- ing : teresting subject with which he has dealt.

“So cold, so coy! why is it, sweet, that still THE COURTSHIP OF PIETY. We comprehend each other's hearts so ill?

True, now and then, on evidence quite clear, 1.

I have disputed certain things you say ;

But ladies will be ladies ! — and, my dear, BLUE-EYED Miss Piety, walking sedately,

Willing am I my wife should have her way. Mused thus beside the classic Isis lately :

Simplicity but makes your face more fine “Must I for ever spend my days apart,

What should a lady do with demonstrations ? Watching the mild flame of a maiden heart?

How? Incompatible ? Ah no, be mine! Or pointing upward, bidding all men see

Wedded together, we should rule the nations. The light from heaven that is so clear to me?

Our compact shall be legal, fair, and strict : Deem'd by the idle foolish and demented,

To grace what church you please you shall By those who love me best misrepresented !

be free, O for a helpmate, tough and rough and strong, Your fancies I will never contradict; Book-learnëd, fearless, arm'd with pen of

And, hark you! if we ever disagree steel,

On questions that affect this mortal sphere, To battle with the world that does me wrong,

'Twill be iny best endeavour, do not doubt And phrase in terms the truths I only feel!”

it,

To let the people whom we govern hear 2.

As little as is possible about it."
Who knoweth not the gentle English maid,

The nymph for ever young,
In clean trim gown of academic shade,

5. With face so sweet, yet staid,

And antique proverbs silvery on her tongue ? With terrible look for one so beautiful, Who hath not heard how wise men have pur- Stood Piety erect. Begone !” said she ; sued her,

"An ugly little wretch, that lies by rale, Sung in her praise, and wooed her ?

I pity those who link their lots with thee, How they have built her temples in the land, And look for happiness in such a school. Mad for her eyes of heaven's profoundest I hate you ! let me be ! ” blue;

Then Science tried to speak, but in his eyes, And how, tho' many a wooer seeks her hand, J.ess used to sunlight than the dark, was She smileth on so few ?

shed And how, altho' she is divinely fair,

A sudden sunbeam from the summer skies In vestal black she clothes her vestal limbs, A kind of green vertigo fill’d his head And lists to dwell a maid, apart in prayer, And when it passed away, to his surprise, Teaching the little children everywhere

Miss PIETY had fed. How to sing sweet old hymns.

6.

3. Now, while the maiden mused in a sweet sor

row, She heard a voice of hard metallic ring,

Close to her, murmuring, "Miss Piety, good morrow."

Yet ere her pensive foot had wander'd far,

She saw, upon the river-bank reclined,
A youth whose eye was fixed like a star,

With dews of his deep soul's desire purblind;

Heavy his lank hair stream'd across his brows,

From the Fortnightly Review. To the wind's voice his eager heart kept tune;

MUSIC THE EXPRESSION OF CHARACTER. He saw the Sun gleam white through the green boughs,

THERE are few things that are at once And deemed that he look'd upon the Moon ; Then sadly for a space

so interesting and so difficult as the analysis The lady paused, and looked upon his face;

of the mental phenomena which exist in For well, with heart that grieved,

connection with musical performances of all The dreamer Metaphysics' face she knew, kinds. Next to the love of personal adornWho, wandering from fatherland, perceived ment, there is no other gratification, in

Heaven beyond heaven in her eyes of blue. which mind and sense each plays its part, But as she look'd on him,

that is so universal as the passion for He turn'd and saw her — sprang unto her music. It is found strong and influential side

in the lowest savage races, in men of With eves by their exceeding lustre dim

the highest culture and the noblest gifts Look'd in her face, and cried :

in civilized society, and in connection with

every variety of personal character, of indi7.

vidual tastes and pursuits, and of physical " Ach, lieber Gott! mine love, and art thou temperament. Setting aside the balf-legen. there?

dary accounts of the musical gifts of RichBelovëd shape, for ever wandering ;

ard Caur-de-Lion, in more modern times But now, upon the white Moon's threshold fair we have distinguished men, so unlike as I saw thee beckoning.

Henry the Eighth, Luther, Louis the FourAnd - leider ! — yester-eve thy phantom face

teenth of France, Frederick the Great of The luminous space of Saturn’s rings did Prussia, and the great Duke of Wellington,

gladden I faint — within thy nebulous embrace

all sensitive to the musical influences in a Gesund mich boden.

high degree, in contrast with its almost comO ever-roaming, insubstantial love.

plete absence in a mind in many respects Beautiful roamer thro' eternity !

most sensitive and highly organized On earth, on air, in the blue gulfs above, that of the first Napoleon; and in the large

Thy breath full oft I feel, yet seldom thee. majority of our greatest modern English Over all worlds glimmers thy footstep bright, statesmen. The contrasts in the case of Leaving a blinding agony of light.

poets are as striking. The sensibility to But would thou wert for ever near, to set Thy truth on scoffing souls that find thee

musical sounds in Shakespeare and Milton

was exquisite ; in Goethe it was comparaI am not I, Thou art not Thou, and yet

tively feeble, and rather the result of a deI love thee, Love, for ever!”

liberate exercise of the reflective and self. inspecting faculty, than the true spontane

ous action of genuine sensibility. Still 8.

more was the perception of musical beauty He clasp'd the empty air, crying in pain, in Wordsworth and Keble little better than "Ach lieber Gott – a dream and gone an act of the intellect, allied with a certain again!"

fondness for melody when associated with For Piery had stolen from h's side,

pleasant thoughts and memories. In CowSighing most tearfully, “ He loves me true! And yet I have no heart to be his bride ;

per, the refined, the sensitive, and the lover

of all moral and natural harmony, the How might he aid the work I have to do? Men deem him wild — they laugh to scorn his musical faculty scarcely existed; while in powers –

Rogers, man of the world, banker and How would they mock a bridal such as ours ?" minor poet, and the most caustic of talking

satirists, it was strong and vivid to extreme

The same variety exists in ordina9.

ry people, but still with the qualification And as she spake, she heard across the dells

that very few persons are altogether destiThe vesper murmur of the Minster bells,

tute all capacity for being pleased or And saw along the pleasant greenwood way, A child that led an aged man to pray:

affected by music. The number of the "'Tis, will’d,” she sigh’d, “that all in vain absolutely destitute is, indeed, so small, that, should love, –

taken in company with our present imThat lonely I should labour as before !” proved notions on matters of art, scarcely And raised the faithful eyes to Heaven above, any educated man will avow that he cares

And vowed to live a Maid for evermore. nothing whatever for music. It is almost - Spectator.

CALIBAN. as dangerous to imply this in talking to a

never.

old age.

ven.

stranger, as it is to suggest that he is incapa- rival; and I have known various persons, ble of understanding a joke, or to venture whose sole power of perception lay in a on a pun in a mixed company.

delicate musical sensibility, scarcely at all The love of music, again, and the capaci- cultivated, do homage to its power at the ty for appreciating it, show themselves under first hearing. very variable conditions. The power of A question then naturally arises as to the feeling, loving, and criticising, the master- source of the gratification thus experienced pieces of the great writers is frequently in listening to or performing musical sounds associated with an utter incapacity for in their innumerable varieties. Is it simply learning to play or sing with tolerable skill. a matter of study and association and habit There are people whose ear for tune, when that makes one composition appear good to listening to the performance of others, is in one listener and bad to another ? Or is a high degree sensitive, and who are yet there a certain real and definite difference not only unable to sing in tune themselves, between good and bad music, which correbut are unable to tell whether they really sponds to the difference between good and are or are not singing in tune. There are bad poetry, and good and bad oratory and others whose natural musical capacities have prose writing? Is it, again, simply a matter never been cultivated either by study or of taste, resulting solely from a peculiarity by the hearing of good music, who yet are of physical organisation, that makes one instinctively attracted only by the compo- person like Handel better than Haydn, sitions of the great writers, and even by Beethoven better than Mozart, and the those which are as a rule only understood Gregorian Tones better than Lord Mornby good musicians after a considerable ington's popular chant; just as one person amount of study. This is notably the case likes blue better than green, or scarlet bet. with several of the later writings of Beetho ter than yellow or crimson; or — to descend

It is notorious that a large number to more absolutely corporeal sensations of educated musicians never thoroughly as an Englishman likes English cookery and enter into and enjoy these extraordinary a Frenchman likes French cookery ? Or, compositions, while of those who do com- on the contrary, is music actually what it is prehend them and rank them among his often rhetorically called, a language; not noblest masterpieces, very many only ar- only capable of being employed with various rived at this conviction after long familiar- degrees of skill and originality, but a disity, and after training themselves to under- tinct reflection of the personal character of stand them by renewed critical studies of a composer, taken as a moral and intelthe development of his genius in his first and lectual whole ? I say, “ what it is often second periods. Still we occasionally meet rhetorically called,” because there are few with persons of genuine natural musical subjects on which it is so easy and so comsensibility, but of little or no training, and mon to talk and write not only rhetorical prepared by no large acquaintance with though somewhat vague sense, but pure Beethoven's earlier works, who are yet at rhetorical nonsense, in which the speaker or once taken captive by many portions of writer, not having any meaning to express, these later wonders, and who perceive in unfortunately does not adopt Lord Chatham's them none of that fragmentary, crude, and suggestion to the miserable gentleman in the abrupt character of which they were once House of Commons, when be advised him to almost universally accused. Take, for in- say nothing whenever he meant nothiog. stance, the principal melody in the last great At first sight there is undoubtedly a good movement of his Choral Symphony, upon deal to be said in favour of the view which which it is stated that he bestowed extraor- deprives music of all claim to be regarded dinary labour, touching and retouching its as a species of articulate language,

which brief phrases for several days together, and has its own peculiar but by no means arbiat length bringing it to the full perfection trarily chosen instrumentality for the exthat be required with enthusiastic delight. pression of ideas. It has no instrument Nevertheless, M. Fétis, one of the most ac- corresponding to the words of written and complished, capable, and unprejudiced of spoken language. Words, whether in their musical critics, can see neither beauty, nor written or spoken form, represent certain grandeur, nor musical fitness in this now special separate ideas which everybody emcelebrated theme. Yet to myself, and to ploys with a more or less correct appteciamultitudes more, it is one of the most rav- tion of their force. When a man talks of ishing of melodies, and combines grandeur, love, nobody supposes that he means anger, simplicity, and grace with that passionate though the single word “ love” is susceptiintensity in which Beethoven is without a ble of all sorts of various modifications of

meaning. When he speaks of walking, or portion, is a movement called a minuet. In running, or flying, it is impossible to suppose the lists of popularly accepted sacred music, that he wishes to convey an idea of sitting too, there are not a few pieces which most of still. He may speak with.rapid utterance, the English music-loving public delights in as and yet be discoursing about repose or sleep, being truly pure, elevating, and " Scriptuand be perfectly sure of being understood. ral;" and yet it turns out that these are nothEven when he aims at conveying ideas of a ing but airs from Handel's operas, adapted to more abstract and metaphysical kind, he Biblical words, and sung in all simplicity in may speak to listeners who have some churches and cathedrals, and in Sabbatarian sort of clue to the meaning he wishes to reading-rooms on Sunday evenings, when convey. If he employs the term “ analogy,” nothing but “ Sacred Music” is considered in a room full of chance acquaintances, lawful. How can music, it is asked, be any probably a good many would think he thing more than a mere sensuous gratificameant simply " likeness," but no one would tion of the ear, when the same melody which think he meant absolute difference.” And is a charming love-song, as Dove sei, amato all this, because spoken language is nothing bene,” on the stage, proves an edifying sacred more than a vast collection of articulate song in the shape of “Holy, holy, Lord ?” sounds, which the whole race who speak it and when an air, sung to the words "Lord, have agreed to associate with certain defi- remember David,” proves quite as delightful nite ideas. In musical sounds, on the con- in its original shape, as “ Rendi'l sereno, in trary, whether those of melody or harmony, the opera of Sosarmes? Then, too, there are nothing of this kind exists. There are no those curious adaptations of Roman Cathodefinitely agreed upon successions or combi- lic hymn tunes to Protestant purposes which nations of sounds which necessarily recall are so popular in this country. If there is certain clearly understood ideas to the mind. a flagrant contrariety between an operatic We cannot express love by a major third, love ditty and a verse from the Psalms, what or anger by a minor third, or describe the is to be said for the innate truth of expresskies by arpeggios, or gardens and fields by sion of hymn tunes that do duty equally a diminished seventh. The means by which to the satisfaction of singers as expressions musical combinations are made to express of the Catholic doctrines of Transubstantiaanything at all are so subtle and difficult to tion and the worship of the Virgin Mary, handle, that it is only to the sympathetic and of the extremest Lutherianism and Calunderstanding that their existence can be vinism of Dissenting congregations ? made comprehensible. To the ordinary Low Church and Nonconformist compilaobserver their various qualities seem a pure tions of hymn tunes, few are greater favourhypothesis, and to have no objective ex-ites than the melodies known as “ Tantum istence whatsoever.

Ergo,Alma,” and “ The Sicilian MariFurther, it is not to be denied that vocal ner's Hymn." Yet their original words are music, when stripped of its words, loses that as utterly Roman in their meaning as any precise definitiveness of meaning which ap- hymns in the Missal or the Breviary. And pears to be its great charm when sung by a the latest popular adaptation is the oddest competent performer. The music itself is of all

. In Dr. Monk's " Hymns, Ancient said to have no real meaning of its own, be- and Modern" is a tune which, with an amucause it is incapable of conveying precise in- sing appropriateness, is termed " Innocents,” tellectual conceptions without the aid of ar- which is nothing more or less than a someticulate speech. So, again, it is argued that what vulgar“ Litany of the Blessed Virgin.” there is no appreciable difference between very popular, like a great deal of other bad sacred and secular music, and that it is by music, among English Catholics. Seeing, mere conventionalism that some compositions then, that one may go any Sunday into a are called religious, and others non-religious. London Anglican Church, and hear a conW.hat is the difference between sacred and gregation singing with delight a half-dansecular music, we are asked, except that one cing sort of a tune to a Calvinistic " Olney is grave, slow, solemn, and apt to fall into the hymn,” and then cross the street and listen minor key? Strip it all alike of its words, to the same strain sung with cqual gusto and nobody can tell which pieces are fit for to the invocation," Sancta Maria, ora pro the church and which for the concert- nobis," with what reasonableness can it be room. The very, phraseology of musical contended that music is anything more than terms, we are reminded, betrays the inherent a pleasant succession of sounds, destitute of unmeaningness of all music. Handel's orato- all real expressiveness of their own, and waitrio Samson is certainly a sacred composition, ing to be galvanized into temporary life by but here, in its introductory instrumental the addition of some sort of words, operatic

In

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