« ElőzőTovább »
whereas the gold-embroidered fabrics of we must entreat the attention of the ladies India there exhibited retained their lustre to what follows) none of the shawls made unimpaired throughout. If Dr. Forbes in the Punjab can compete with the best Watson, by his labours, in pointing out this shawls made in Cashmere itself; first, befact to our manufacturers, can get them to canse the Punjab manufacturers are unimitate the truthfulness of the native arti- able to obtain the finest species of wool, and zan, he will deserve their warmest thanks, secondly, by reason of the inferiority of the and if he can induce the dyers to send dyeing, the excellence of which in Cashmere nothing to India that the dhobee can wash is attributed to some chemical peculiarity out by his rough method of manipulating in the water. The wool, on which the with stones upon the washboard, India will purity of the shawl depends, is from the reap the benefit of European science and domestic goat of Thibet, whence it is exskill, which at present she holds at little ported, viâ Yarkanal, to Cashmere. The worth, in this matter at least. The native wool is called pashum, and is the fine has found out the way to print fast colours, growth that lies under the hair and close to and Dr. Forbes Watson has been at the the skin. Many animals in cold countries trouble of indicating them to our manufac- have a similar kind of wool underneath the turers ; but there are some other people hair. The camel, the yak, and the shepbesides the Hindoos who are difficult to move herd's dog also have this winter under-clothfrom their old methods of doing things. ing, which they cast off in the summer ; The machinery of Manchester certainly but in neither of these animals is it so fine prints better than the native can do with or of such good colour for dyeing purposes his rough methods ; but even here a certain as that of the shawl goat. The Cashmere variety is given by the hand work which in emigrants, not being able to obtain the true some measure makes it more agreeable to wool
, use the best they can get in place of the eye than the monotonous repetition of it, and the result is, that European firms the same exact form produced by machin- have lately been complaining of the adulery.
terations of the texture of the Cashmere With the Indian embroideries every lady shawls. This is done by mixing up Kiris well acquainted. The price of labour is manhee wool with real pashum. It is now so cheap in India, that there is no reason sought to provide against this falsification why she may not export a very much larger by forming a guild of trades in these shawls, amount of this kind of work than she does. which shall have the power of affixing on Lace, again, is work just suited to the pa- all genuine shawls a trade-mark guaranteetient fingers of the Hindoo women. We ing it to be genuiue pashum, and fixing a understand the fabrication of it has lately heavy penalty on all counterfeits.”
We been introduced into that country, and it is trust our statement has not rendered any likely to succeed admirably.
lady suspicious of the integrity of her CashBut we must come at last to that article mere ; but we confess that when we hear of of attire which is in every woman's thoughts the price even at the place of their manu
the Cashmere shawl. We are told that, facture of the genuine article, we look with in consequence of a famine which occurred some suspicion on the so-called Cashmeres in Cashmere, a great number of so-called that we sometimes see in the windows of Cashmere shawls are now made within our the London dealers in them. We are told own territory. The report of the Lahore that "a woven shawl of the best materials, Central Committee for the last Interna- and weighing seven pounds, will cost in tional Exhibition, states, that with respect Cashmere as much as 300l
. Of this amount to shawl manufacture,
the cost of the materials, including thread, is “ This is now by far the most important 301.; the wages of labour, 1001.; miscellanemanufacture in the Punjab; but thirty years ous expenses, 50/.; duty, 501.". If we add ago it was almost entirely confined to Cash- to this the cost of carriage to England and
At the period alluded to, a terrible insurance, it will be clear that very few will famine visited Cashmere, and in conse be able to afford such costly garments, even quence numbers of the shawl weavers emi- in this country of nobles and merchant grated to the Punjab, and settled in Umrit- princes. sur, Nurpur, Dinangar, Tilaknath, Jelalpur, The Cashmere shawl is really a warm and Loodianah, in all of which places the garment, but what keeps out the cold also manufacture continues to flourish. The keeps out the heat. There are plenty of best shawls of Punjab manufacture are warm fabrics made in the northern parts of manufactured in Umritsur, which is also an India, and many of the woolen garments are emporium of the shawl trade. But (and very much like our Scotch plaids, even to
the pattern. It must refresh the eye of the first Dauphin, whose precarious health led Highlander to see in these far distant lands his physicians to place him at Meudon ; and garments that remind him of his home, and thus, Mesdames inhabiting Bellevue, and it shows that, under like conditions, the Adèle being with them every day, she was results of human , labour are wonderfully the perpetual playfellow and amuser of the similar. We cannot conclude this article poor Royal child. She never ceased to remore appropriately than by recommending peat the stories of her young time, and to the manufacturers who would aspire to feed tell curious details respecting Louis XVI. the almost limitless market of India, to visit and his Queen. It seemed to her always in the Indian Museum, Whitehall, where he after years as if those days were dreams. will find a most curious collection of fabrics She could hardly believe in the harsh con. collected with great care by the govern- trasts so soon to follow. ment from all parts of India, and where he The father of Adèle in 1791 was named may learn all the details he requires from Ambassador to St. Petersburg, but one Dr. Forbes Watson, who has made the event following quickly after another subject of the textile manufactures of the allowed him no opportunity of performing people in India his study, and by his writ- the duties of that office, and he assisted Mesings * has done good work in bringing the dames to emigrate to Italy, whither Madcustomers of both countries in contact with ame d’Osmond and her son and daughters each other to their mutual advantage and accompanied them. There an asylum for enrichment.
these unfortunate daughters of Royalty was prepared by the generous care of Pius VI.; but although the Marquis soon followed, de
serting, like so many of his order, the fallen From the Spectator.
King and Queen, he would not remain, nor
allow his wife and family to remain, chargeTHE COUNTESS DE BOIGNE. +
able on Mesdames.
To Naples therefore they went, and there This book is a curiosity in its authorship again Adèle was under the special patronand in itself. The writer of it, the Comtesse age of a Queen, for Caroline, the sister of de Boigne, has left the mark of all her own Marie Antoinette, undertook all the expenpeculiarities in the characters, the incidents, ses of her education, settling a pension of and the sentiments of her romance, and the 12,000 livres on the Marquis for that purbest introduction to it will be a sketch of pose, but stipulating that it was to cease her curious career. Eléonore Adèle 0s when the education was completed. So it mond (such was her miden name) was born was that our future Comtesse de Boigne bein 1780, and died, aged eighty-six, last year came the friend and companion of the exat Paris. Her father, the Marquis d'Os- cellent Marie Amélie, late ex-Queen of the mond, was the eldest of three brothers, all French. illustrious in the pre-revolutionary time. They did not, however, remain more than The Marquis himself was born at St. Do- ten months at Naples. The Marchioness mingo, served his country from an early had her own English family to visit, and in age till the year 1788, when he was named England they had their home for a considerAmbassador at the Hague. He married an able time, at any rate till Adèle was sevenEnglish young lady, Miss Dillon, of small teen years of age, and had come to the end fortune, and he himself was poorly endowed. of her education and of the Naples pension. His lady very soon after their marriage was She must have been a young lady of some appointed one of the dames attendantes on nerve and not a little cleverness. How far Mesdames Adelaide and Victoire, daugh- the love of her parents, always, we think, ters of Louis XV. They became much at- particularly strong among French girls, was tached to the Marquis, his wife, and young her all-pervading motive for the conduct daughter, Adèle, and as the child grew up which followed, and wbich cannot but be in she was constantly either at Belle Vue or English eyes most repugnant to every feelVersailles. She was a remarkably lovely ing of delicacy, must remain unknown. child, and becoming the pet of Marie An. But the fact is that she was addressed by a toinette, she was almost always with the military servant of the East India Company,
an old man just returned from India with * “ The Textile Manufactures and Costumes of the People of Indin," by J. Forbes Watson, ne. D. immense riches, how reputably acquired no
one knew, with shattered health, and with + Une Passion dans le Grand Monde. Par Elé- all the characteristics of a soldier and a naonore Adele Osmond, Comtesse de Boigne, 2 tomes. I bob. Smitten by Adèle's beauty, he warmParis : Livy, 1867.
ly pressed his suit. She, contrary to all | Marquis d'Osmond and his party with the ideas of propriety on the part of French people of the First Empire. When the parents, requested leave herself to conduct Bourbons returned they were gladly welthe negotiation for her own hand, and then comed, and honours were bestowed by the she frankly told him the present condition returned Royalties upon them; M. d'Os of her family, banished, ruined, and without mond being made a Peer of France, and resource; and she said that she would marry sent to London as Ambassador, in 1815. no man who would not engage to provide Whatever her political tendencies might be, for her father, mother, and young brother. however, Madame de Boigne at least was General de Boigne seems hardly to have not blind to the defects of the Bourbons. hesitated; a rude, passionate soldier, he ac- She saw the faults of all parties, and in the cepted all the conditions, and Madlle. Adèle letters which most evidently represent her became "a woman sold."
sentiments, though put into the mouths of The probability is that all her talent, all fictitious persons, there is sometimes an her high cultivation, were thrown away on expression of bitter disappointment. She such a man, and, as Madame Lenormand, accompanied her father to England, and rewho writes the introductory narrative, says, mained till he resigned his appointment. “ Une semblable union ne pouvait pas être, He died in 1838, at a very advanced age. et ne fut pas, heureuse.” Whether she be- Madame Lenormand hints at the Countess haved ill to him or he to her we are not told, being severely mortified at his never baring but at the end of six years he bought her a obtained the Cordon Bleu. Whether from château (Beauregard), took her there, discontent with the elder Bourbons, or a waited till her father and mother joined her, revival of the old attachment to the daughand then made his bow, and went himself ters of Caroline of Naples, it is certain that to live at his own native town of Chambéry. nearly all Madame de Boigne's intercourse He provided, at any rate, magnificently for was gradually centred upon the Orleans her and hers. Respecting his own tastes family. She had become a woman of conand habits we are not to be too curious, but siderable political influence. With Comte it ought to be mentioned to his credit that Pozzo di Borgo her counsels and opinion his munificence was largely exercised in carried weight, and it is said that she had Chambéry, and also that he retained per- much to do with procuring the neutrality of fectly amicable relations with his lady, who the Russian Government after the Revoluspent some weeks of every year so long as tion of July. Of course this impression bad he lived with him, and always spoke of him a tendency to sever her from many of the with respect. Of the date of bis death we heretofore intimates of her salon, and she are not informed.
felt their secession very keenly, for at heart At the beginning of the First Empire, she was certainly a Legitimist, and besides Madame de Boigne might be found estab- that bad strong affections; but we suppose lished at Paris, and her salon was frequent- she was consoled by the society of the many ed by most of the celebrities of the day ; by distinguished persons who formed the new Madame de Staël, by the Montmorencies, Government, and flocked to her abo le. and by Madame Recamier. Some beautiful Among these, perhaps, the chief was the remarks on the character of the latter are Chancelier Pasquier. This able man only surely, even after all we have read of her, withdrew from public affairs in 1848, but worth looking at:
then, though deaf and almost blind, the
powers of his mind remained unimpaired, "Plenty of pictures of Madame Recamier,” and he lived on, clear-headed, brisk in temshe says, “ have been given, and yet none, ac- per, but easily mollified, to the age of ninecording to my ideas, liave rendered the exact ty-seven, to the last regarding the Countess, truits of her character; this is the more excus- and justly, as his most attached friend. able, because she was so mobile. Everybody And that death created a void indeed for has chaunted the praises of her incomparable Madame de Boigne. People grieved for her; beauty, her active beneficence, her sweet ur. all knew how strong were her sympathies. banity. Many even have spoken of her wit, but It was seen that, though she might very fair few have penetrated through the habitual charm ly be called a " semme de mille côtes,” yet of her manner to the real nobility of her heart, she was exclusive in her affections. As to her independence, the impartiality of her judgment, the justness of her spirit. "I have some- her tastes, they were perfectly feminine ; times seen her overruled, but never, I think, passionately fond of flowers, never being merely influenced.”
without them in her rooms; skilful in needle.
work, her tapestry always in her hands, There was little sympathy between the and in her eighty-sixth year using no
spectacles. In other respects, however, she but unfortunately Madame de Romignère was very infirm. She could not walk half- (this self-drawn character) dies before the a-dozen steps, and was carried into the close of the first volume, and we have to garden or to her carriage, from her sleeping wade through a long history of a needless room to the salon, or from the salon to the quarrel between adoring lovers, an unloving salle-a-manger.
Nor was she ever brought marriage consequent upon the quarrel, an in till her guests were assembled. Then, explanation coming too late, and giving what would be the surprise of a stranger to rise to some struggles of passion and duty, see this wrapped-up figure carried between and finally to get rid of the whole combat two valets, casting off her envelopes, placed by death. at the table, and entering into the liveliest In different parts of the book we have conversations, as if but thirty years of age ! some shrewd political remarks. The hero, Nothing could surpass the charm of the Romuald, and his friend interchange ideas surprise. Then it should be added that she on the state of France after the Russian had preserved all her teeth, her beautiful campaign ; also during the Hundred Days, hair, her pretty features, and when con- and again in the Bourbon period. They versation took an animated turn, a ray of cannot suppress, spite of their instincts for the old youthful grace lighted up her coun- Legitimacy, their disappointment with the tenance. It is right to add, that though returned family. In December, 1816, we early nourished in a sceptical school, and have an account of Romuald's reception at for many years, if not adverse, yet very in- Court by Louis XVIII., and not a little of different to religion, Madame de Buigne sarcasm is displayed. At first, the hero, turned with far greater interest to the a distinguished military Bonapartist officer, momentous subject long before death, long is flattered by the King's intimate knowbefore she had experienced any serious ledge of his antecedents. Louis goes back warnings of her bodily frailty. Her only as far as 1806, an'i refers to the mention of brother died some years before her, but with Romuald's name in the bulletin of an affair her characteristic passion for the parental at Czarnovo, which, as it chanced, occurred name she bequeathed all her wealth to the on the very anniversary day of his presentaonly being belonging to her who bore the tion. Astonished, Romuald tells his uncle, name of Osmond.
who had been at the levée with him, how Now, to all those who had heard her con- wonderfully kind the King must be to inverse, to all especially who knew her famili- form himself so minutely respecting the arity with various celebrated characters and affairs of an insignificant person. His uncle scenes, it was a matter of great curiosity to laughs heartily, and answers, “ Don't fancy know what writings this aged woman had that he dreamt of giving you pleasure ; he left, for that she did write was well known. only wanted to show off his marvellous Memoirs were hinted at, and the surprise memory before a new comer ; we old courwas considerable when it was found that she tiers are a little tired of the charlatanerie of had written two romances, of wbich the dates and anniversaries, &c. (Vol. I., p. present is one. She had, however, much 203). Our hero is compelled thus to go imagination, and more sentiment. She back to his first impression of the King: liked to draw a set of characters, her own " I don't like his countenance; it is hard among the rest, to put them in situations when he is serious — false when he smiles.” such as she had known ; she thought she A few days afterwards he goes to visit could do more substantial justice both to her Monsieur, the future Charles X., and the own ideas and to private and public senti. Duchesse d'Angoulême. The former welments by working them up thus. Undoubt- comes him cordially, and here he is inclined edly some of her pictures are well given, to be pleased, but he is asked, whether he but the romance, Une Passion dans le has ever been in Germany ? an embarGrand Monde, take it as a whole, is not rassing question to a Bonapartist. He reonly very tedious, but has many of the old- plies honestly, however, “ Oui, Monseigfashioned theories of love and honour which, neur, plusieurs fois," and there is an end of as theories, carefully and deliberately set the interview. Here Romuald fancies that forth, are sure to repel modern readers. the assumed ignorance of his previous hisThe form adopted, too, that of letters, is tory was a piece of generous feigning, but wearisome and diffuse. It is a Sir Charles the undeceivable uncle again smiles, and tells Grandison minus the wit. The old lady's him he is a novice, it is no such thing. character, meant, no doubt, as the embodi- Then they go to the Duchesse d'Angouléme. inent of Madame de Boigne's own peculiari- It is plain that there, at least, is no trickery, ties, is the cleverest and most interesting, but it is still disappointing. Who would 720 PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE SUN AND MOON. not have felt emotion at first seeing the all the curious influences attributed to sun daughter of the martyred King ?
and moon, whether as light-giving bodies or
otherwise, if he had intended only to deal "My uncle having introduced me," writes with light. He has not even taken suffiRomuald, “I obtained a very cold inclination of cient pains to isolate the influence of the the head, and a You have been but a short light they give, so as to distinguish it from time in Paris,' which looked to me a little that which may be attributed to free air reproachful
. Then addressing herself to my and complete ventilation. Hence, though uncle, she said, exactly in the same tone: his essay is full of curious anecdotes, it • Hombert (his youngest son) was of the escort yesterday ; he kept too near the wheels ; he did leaves no distinct scientific impression at 'all
, not show his common sense. I told him so, but except of course that solar light, unpolaryou must repeat to him that he must not let it ized light, - is an agency of the greatest happen again. The substance of what she said importance to health, and produces a pecuwas quite right and kind; but it was the manner, liar influence on the blood, the absence so little gracious, that I felt deeply saddened. of which subjects the patient to what is callBy what fatality is it that a Princess, to whom ed the anæmic disease, or pale instead of alt hearts would be open, has learnt to chill red blood-cells. In fact, the only two stateevery one? I went out of the Tuileries ill satisfied, but above all, vexed to have found this ments which seem to isolate with any preillustrious woman, whose misfortunes and vir- cision the influence of light on health from tues had so often occupied my mind, different the influence of other and more general from all I had anticipated.”
causes are these : These are interesting notices, speaking, “Sir James Wylie, of the Imperial Russian as we know they do, the mind of the writer. Service, pointed out to an English physician We wish there were more of them, instead one of the barracks at St. Petersburg, in which of page upon page of rhapsody and exag- three cases of disease occurred on the dark or gerated love; yet Madame de Boigne tries shaded side of the establishment for one on the hard to be moral, and prefers killing her other, though the apartments on both of these
sides communicated freely with each other, and hero to admitting a stain on his name.
the discipline, diet, and treatment were in every
And again : -
"The absence of light exercises a very great THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE influence over the power possessed by food in SUN AND MOON.
increasing the size of animals. Whatever
arouses and excites the attention of the animal, In a recent work of some interest but lit- and makes it restless, increases the natural tle method, Dr. Forbes Winslow * has given waste of the different parts of the system, and us some account of a very curious subject, diminishes the tendency of food to enlarge the professedly the physiological influence of body. To the rearers of poultry the rapidity light upon the body. He has, however, with which fowls fatten when kept in the dark mixed up with this discussion many things is well known; and direct experiment on other which belong to the larger subject with animals, whether by keeping them in the dark which we have headed this article,
— i.e., lids, as is adopted in India, have led to similar all sorts of influences attributed, truly or results. Absence of light, from whatever cause untruly, to bodies which, among some of produced, seems to exercise a soothing and quitheir properties, radiate or reflect light. eting influence on all animals, increasing their For example, a great section of his essay is disposition to take rest, making less fuod necesoccupied with considering the effect attrib- sary, and causing them to store up a greater uted to the moon on the atmospheric tides, portion of what they eat, in the form of fat and and through those on the health of man. muscle.' - From a Paper on the Scientific Now, we suppose it is obvious that the ef- Principles involved in the Feeding and Fattenfect of the moon on the atmospheric tides ing of Stock,' read by Ed. W. Davey, M.B.M. bas nothing to do with its reflection of light. R.I., at the Roy. Dub. Soc., April 18, 1859.”
That is the result of its gravity, and itsgravity And in the first of these passages it can would be the same even if it were a wholly dark body of the same mass. Dr. Forbes Win- scarcely be said with certainty that light slow need scarcely have given us a digest of knows that the warmth of rooms with a
alone made the difference, as every one * on the Influence of Light on Life and Health. northern aspect is apt to be different
very By Forbes Winslow, M.D. London: Longmans.
from that of rooms with the opposite aspect;