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tion and of external defence, that the com- and make such explorations as might be plete unification of the country should be found practicable in the direction of the carried out as soon as possible. The soon- North Pole. The United States Governer a commencement is made by the conclu- ment manifested no inclination to equip an sion of arrangements upon those points to expedition for the above purposes, and Dr. which the King referred in his speech, the Hayes was therefore under the necessity of better for all parties. For our own part we appealing to his countrymen
to contribute cordially re-echo the prayer with which the funds for the enterprise. These were at King concluded his address. We have no length forthcoming, and, in the early part other wish and no other interest than that of 1860, Dr. Hayes found himself master of Germany should be free, united, and power- a schooner of 133 tons burden, with a crew ful — that she should fully realize “the of fourteen persons. The second in comdream of centuries, the yearning and striv- mand was Mr. A. Sonntag, who threw up a ing of the latest generations." Upon the Government appointment of Associateprudence, the wisdom, and above all, the Director of the Dudley Astronomical Obmoderation of the deputies now assembled servatory to accompany Dr. Hayes. The at Berlin, the speedy fulfilment of the na- small craft was efficiently equipped, and tional aspirations mainly depends. We nothing was wanting to make the expedihope that they will not prove unworthy of tion successful, except auxiliary steam-powthe trust reposed in them; and that they er, now found to be absolutely necessary will not, in grasping at a shadow, lose the for efficient Arctic exploration. substance which is within their reach.
The expedition left Boston on the 6th of July, 1860, and returned to that port in October, 1861. The story of this last Arctic enterprise is most stirring, and it is well for
Dr. Hayes's literary venture that this is From the Athenæum, the case, for it must be conceded that the great number of works on Arctic
voyages The Open Polar Sea: a Narrative of a Voy- has somewhat dulled the edge of curiosity
age of Discovery towards the North Pole, with which they were formerly received by in the Schooner" United States.” By Dr. the public. But a spell of fascination will I. I. Hayes. (Low & Co.)
ever cling to the narrative of brave and
adventurous travel, and Dr. Hayes's heroWhen we parted from Dr. Hayes on the ism and endurance are of no common oroccasion of reviewing his · Arctic Boat der. Journey' in this journal (May, 1860) we After a not unprosperous voyage, the felt sure that, unless barred by circum- explorers reached Upernavik on the 12th stances beyond his control, we should meet of August, obtained six Esquimaux interbim again in the same waters. “On revient preters, hunters and dog-drivers, with a toujours à ses premiers amours,” applies fine team of dogs, and then resumed their with peculiar force to adventurers; and way north. The schooner battled gallantly those who love the excitement of wild with the middle ice, dodging enormous travel, with its attendant perils, are gene- icebergs which continually threatened to rally found eager and ready to set forth crush her. One of these icy monsters was again, even when the blood is no longer upwards of three-quarters of a mile long, young, in quest of adventures by flood and nearly of the same breadth, and 315 feet field. So it was with poor Franklin, who, above the water. It was calculated to conbaving early imbibed a passion for the sea, tain twenty-seven thousand million cubic eagerly seized the opportunity of passing feet, and to weigh two thousand million from the — to him — dull monotony of life tons. Difficulties now increased daily, and at home to the dangers and hardships of besides those arising from icebergs and the Arctic exploration.
pack-ice, a current from the north set True to his early love, Dr. Hayes had no strongly against them, and the hours, if not sooner returned from his adventurous voy- minutes, of the schooner seemed numbered. age, which, as will be remembered, involved - Off Cape Hatherton,” says Dr. Hayes, his little party and himself in extraordinary perils, than he commenced organizing the scene around us was as imposing as it an extensive scheme of Arctic search was alarming. Except the earthquake and The main features were to pass up Smith volcano, there is not in nature an exhibition Sound, complete the survey of the north of force comparable with that of the ice-fields coasts of Greenland and Grennell Land, of the Arctic Seas. They close together, when driven by the wind or by currents against the | Dr. Hayes made an exploratory journey land or other resisting object, with the pressure over the great Mer de Glace glacier which of millions of moving tons, and the crash and joins that of Humbolt. This was a formidnoise and confusion are truly terrific. were now in the midst of one of the most fallen to 34o below zero ; and a fierce
able undertaking; the temperature had thrilling of these exhibitions of Polar dynamics, and we become uncomfortably conscious storm prevailed. In the teeth of this the that the schooner was to become a sort of party travelled seventy miles over the ice dynamometer. Vast ridges were thrown up at an altitude of 5,000 feet above the level wherever the foes came together, to be sub- of the sea, and in the midst of a vast frozen merged again when the pressure was exerted sahara immeasurable to the human eye. in another quarter; and over the sea around Yet under these difficulties Dr. Hayes succases reached an altitude of not less than sixty urements which, having been repeated in us these pulsating lines of uplift, which in some ceeded in taking angles and various measfeet, - higher than our mast-head, — told of July, 1861, showed that the rate of prothe strength and power of the enemy which was threatening us. We had worked ourselves gress of this tremendous glacier is upwards into a triangular space formed by the
contact of a hundred feet daily. Thus what is true of three fields. At first there was plenty of of the Alpine valleys is true, also, of those room to turn round, though no chance to in Greenland. A great frozen flood is pourescape. We were nicely docked, and vainly ing continuously down the west slopes of hoped that we were safe; but the corners of the Greenland continent, the law of supthe protecting floes were slowly crushed off, ply and waste being the same in both cases. the space narrowed little by little, and we listened to the crackling and crunching of the winter was diversified by a rise of tempera
The monotony of the long and dreary ice, and watched its progress with consterna- ture which set in early in November. The tion. At length the ice touched the schooner, and it appeared as if her destiny was sealed! wind, says Dr. Hayes, writing on the 14th She groaned like a conscious thing in pain, and of this month, though blowing steadily for writhed and twisted as if to escape her adver- twenty-four hours from the north-east, is sary, tremb'ing in every timber from truck to accompanied by remarkable warmth. The kelson. Her sides seemed to be giving way. thermometer, which had gone down to 40° Her deck timbers were bowed up, and the below zero, now marked 419. “I have seams of the deck planks were opened. I done with speculation. This temperature gave up for lost the little craft which had gal.. makes mischief with my theories, as facts lantly carried us through so many scenes of have heretofore done with theories of the peril; but her sides were solid and her ribs strong; and the ice on the port side, working wiser men.” Of course this meteorological gradually under the bilge, at length, with a phenomenon favours the theory of an open jerk which sent us all reeling, lifted her out of polar sea, and filled Dr. Hayes with tope the water; and the floes, still pressing on and that he would soon navigate its waters. A breaking, as they were crowded together, a vast far less pleasant incident was the breaking ridge was piling up beneath and around us; out of an epidemic among the dogs. The and, as if with the elevating power of a thou- animals were attacked by the same disease sand jackscrews, we found ourselves going which has been prevalent for some years slowly up into the air."
among the dogs in South Greenland." Up
to the 1st of December, they remained in The schooner escaped, though not with perfect health ; but after that date they out being seriously damaged. Under more were seized by fatal illness, which manifavourable circumstances she was navigated fested itself by great restlessness, furious into Hartstene Bay, and made snug for the barking, and rushing violently to and fro, winter in a harbour to which Dr. Hayes as if in mortal dread of some imaginary has given the name of Port Foulke. The object from which they were endeavouring huge cliffs of the west coast of Greenland to fly. The terrible disease ran its course rose behind them, broken in places by in a few hours, and by it the expedition ravines in which the hunters found large was rendered nearly dogless. Under these herds of deer. In a single hour Dr. Hayes circumstances, which threatened to be fatal killed three, and men and dogs feasted on to the expedition, Mr. Sonntag undertook excellent venison. This abundant commis- to visit the Esquimaux on Northumberland sariat was most encouraging, and tends Island for the purpose of procuring a fresh strongly to confirm the belief that the in- supply of these valuable animals. Unforterior of Greenland is favourable for the tunately, this officer perished in the atsupport of animal life. An observatory tempt, although the object of his journey was erected near the schooner; and when was successful. the daily routine work had been organized, Reinforced by dogs and Esquimaux, Dr.
Hayes now organized a sledge expedition, | fore experienced to an equal degree, I climbed and on the 16th of March started up Smith the steep hill-side to the top of a ragged cliff, Sound. The incidents of this journey are which I supposed to be about eight hundred thrilling. After encountering innumerable feet above the level of the sea. The view which difficulties, Dr. Hayes found himself half I had from this elevation furnished a solution way across the Sound with his party nearly the previous day
of the cause of my progress being arrested on
The ice was everywhere disabled. To continue the struggle in a in the same condition as in the mouth of the body was out of the question. —
bay, across which I had endeavoured to pass.
A broad crack, starting from the middle of the “ The men are completely used up, broken bay, stretched over the sea, and uniting with down, dejected, to the last degree. Human other cracks as it meandered to the eastward, nature cannot stand it. There is no let up to it expanded as the delta of some mighty river it. Cold, penetrating to the very sources of discharging into the ocean, and under a waterlife, dangers from frost and dangers from heavy sky, which hung upon the northern and eastlifting, labours which have no end, - a heartless ern horizon, it was lost in the open sea. Standsticking in the mud, as it were all the time; ing against the dark sky at the north, there and then
snow-blindness, cheerless was seen in dim outline the white sloping sumnights, with imperfect rest in snow-huts, pierc- mit of a noble headland, — the most northern ing storms, and unsatisfying food. This the known land upon the globe. I judged it to daily experience, and this the daily prospect a- be in latitude 82° 39', or 450 miles from the head; to-day closing upon us in the same vast North Pole. Nearer, another bold cape stood ice jungle as yesterday. My party have, I must forth; and nearer still the headland, for which own, good reason to be discouraged ; for hu- I had been steering my course the day before, man beings were never before so beset with rose majestically from the sea, as if pushing up difficulties and so inextricably tangled in a into the very skies a lofty mountain peak, upon wilderness. We got into a cul-de-sac to-day, which the winter had dropped its diadem of and we had as much trouble to surmount the snows. There was no land visible except the lofty barrier which bounded it as Jean Valjean coast upon which I stood. The sea beneath to escape from the cul-de-sac-Genrot to the con- me was a mottled sheet of wbite and dark vent yard. But our convent-yard was a hard patches, these latter being either soft decrying old foe, scarce better than ihe hummocked ice or places where the ice had wholly disapbarrier.”
peared. These spots were heightened in ia
tensity of shade and multiplied in size as they Under these adverse circumstances, the receded, until the belt of the water-sky blended disabled men were sent back to the schoon- them altogether into one uniform colour of er, and Dr. Hayes, with three men and
dark blue. The old and solid floes (some a fourteen dogs, continued the exploration. the massive ridges and wastes of hummocked
quarter of a mile and others miles across) and From this point of departure to the return ice which lay piled between them and around of the forlorn hope to the ship, Dr. Hayes's their margins,
were the only parts of the sea narrative reads like a wild romance. At which retained the whiteness and solidity of length they reached Grinnell Land. As winter.” they proceeded north they experienced, in even a greater degree than in Smith Sound, This was the crowning feat of Dr. the immense force of ice-pressure resulting Hayes's enterprise. He set up a cairn, from the southerly set of the current within which he deposited a record, stating Every point of land exposed to the north that after a toilsome march of forty-six was buried under massive ice. Many blocks, days from his winter harbour, he stood on from thirty to sixty feet thick, and of much the shores of the Polar basin, on the most greater breadth, were lying high and dry northerly land ever reached by man. The upon the beach, pushed up by the pack latitude attained was 81° 35'; that reached even above the level of the highest tides. by Parry over the ice was 82° 45'. No glaciers were, however, met with on Dr. Hayes regained the schooner on the any portion of Grinnell Land.
3rd of June, having trayelled 1,600 miles. Struggling on, amidst difficulties which He was now desirous to navigate his small would have arrested any one less bold or ship into the Polar Sea, but she
was found enduring than Dr. Hayes, the little party to be far too much damaged for such an were at length stopped, precisely as Parry enterprise. He accordingly wisely resolved had been stopped on his expedition over on returning home to refit and add steamthe ice to the North Pole, viz., by the in- power to his resources. But when he put ability of the ice to bear them. —
into Halifax for necessary repairs, he heard
that his country was plunged into civil war; “ After a most profound and refreshing sleep, and instead of commanding another Arctic inspired by a weariness which I had rarely be expedition, Dr. Hayes was placed at the
DANGERS OF “CHIGNONS."
naturalists. Half the awful possibilities of
the fashion -- which it does not require a (The Lancet.)
microscopist to suggest — would deter men.
We cannot so certainly reckon upon affectWe should be sorry to say anything that ing ladies in a matter of fashion. But of would unnecessarily disturb the peace of all false things, one of the most objectionladies in their compliance with the present able is false hair. remarkable fashion of wearing chignons. The custom may seem very irrational to the male half of mankind, but this objection (Daily Telegraph, Feb. 20.) would apply to many of the fashions by which ladies consider that they adorn them- • What do the fair wearers of chignons selves, and so must not count for much. A think of those deceitful embellishments now, more serious objection, and one more calcu- when our quotations from the medical palated to have weight with English ladies, pers have brought out such fresh and terrible has been started, according to a correspon- revelations as those we published yesterday? dent of our own, by a Russian professor, M. We had hoped that there might be some Lindemann. According to this authority, mistake about the horrid - gregarines." 76 per cent of the false hair used for chig- Science does go a little too fast occasionally, nons and similar purposes in Russia is in- and it was shocking to believe that those fested with a parasite to which he has glossy hypocrisies at the back of ladies'
given the name of gregarine. The grega- heads could be nests of unmentionable anirinous hair, it is said, is very like other bair malculæ, bred in the unclean huts of Monin appearance, but on close inspection little gol or Calmuck peasants, and batching, dark brown knots are seen at the free end like eggs in a hydro-incubator, on the warm of the hair, and may even be distinguished necks of our ladies. But after the letter of by the naked eye. These are gregarines
. our correspondent, “ Investigator,” it seems These parasites have a most ignoble ancestry but too true. He has not only found these and habitation, being found in the interior vile insects on the most fashionable and best of the pediculus capitis. It is only due to prepared chignon that he could procure, them, however, that i hese statements should but he has discovered how they grow, and be verified by other observers before we how long it takes before - horror of horgive all the particulars of their natural rors ! — they become in their new home, so history. They are not easily destroyed. to speak, “ of age,” adult pediculi. At first They resist the effects of drying, and even they are microscopic creatures, tiny dots on of boiling. Acids, alkalies, ether, and other the extremity of each hair; when heat agents would kill them; but these would be gradually warms their gelatinous envelope, injurious to the hair, and so cannot be used. they increase, get antennæ, feet, organs of According to the authority quoted, in the all kinds, and start upon their travels. conditions of a ballroom the gregarines Our correspondent bound some of them “ revive, grow, and multiply by dividing in- upon the neck of a hen, and actually witto many parts -- so called germ-globules ; nessed their complete development, under these fly about the ballroom in millions, get the influence of the bird's natural warmth inhaled, drop on the refreshments — in fact, of skin. Who will wear a chignon, one enter the interior of people by hundreds of week, one day, after this horrible experiways, and thus reach their specific gregarian ment ? Away with these abominable nests development.” We do not answer for the of foreign horrors, which cannot be killed truth of all this natural history; but when by anything that does not spoil the gloss of the natural history of chignons themselves the chignon bad enough if it only came is considered, it may well be all true. In as it ofien dųes, from corpses; bad enough Russia the hair of them is supplied by the if it were only, as it always is, a cheat ; but poorer people, especially peasant women of worse than the grave, worse than deceit can the Mordwines and the Burlakes, near the make it, when it is a trap for Calmuck -! Volga, who do a large trade in it. “ When Let our ladies hasten to return to their own the Burlake goes ou to work in the spring, safe and pleasant tresses for adornment ; or he perhaps puts a clean shirt on, but he de- who will dare to treasure a lock of them, cidedly never takes it off until he returns or so much as to think upon, the tangles home in autumn.” Verily, as the professor of Neæra's hair ?” If nothing can kill what argues, here is a fine chance for parasites comes over with the chignons, let the chigWe must leave the subject with ladies and nons die out themselves.
No. 1193. Fourth Series, No. 54. 13 April, 1867.
POETRY: Faith and Light in the Latter Days, 66. On his Ninetieth Birthday, 66.
I Bound Copies of Vol. 92 (the last volume) are now ready.
IMPEACHMENT OF THE PRESIDENT. — In consequence of the talk on this subject, we