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he could as easily put on the one as the oth-f while on the whole, taking married and siner, and become a Fox Indian to Fox In- gle in the lump, husbande live twenty years dians, or a monthly nurse to monthly nurses, longer than unmated genılemen. Now if as he can be a German pbysiognomist to we take these statistics to be correct, they his audience at the Egyptian Hall
. The give rise to one or two curious reflections, most curious question which his entertain- Is the superior duration a direct effect from ment suggests, is this : – Has the character the cause ? We forget if Cornaro included of each man å natural dress of its own be- matrimony among his receipts for longevity; yond and over itself, as the body has ? — is but it is evident that after Dr. Stark's ana certain costume of expression, which nouncement, a modern Cornaro must do so. covers and conceals without properly dis- We must marry to live. Whatever be the guising the true character, the natural risks that surround the more complete state clothing of a civilized mind, or is it the very they are altogether overbalanced by a character itself
, the naked individual char- lengthened lease of existence. It is better acter, without dress of any sort, which to be worried by a vixen than be shuffled should come out in the expression of sincere off before our time. It is, literally, either men? For our parts, we believe that just " death or Anastasia," as Morton puts •it. as it is natural with all civilized men to Dr. Stark should have had his carle taken wear clothes, and clothes are not an insin- before Valentine's day with Azrael standing cerity, but a decency of the body; -80 by him, and demanding of a bachelor, that it is natural with all civilized minds to "Your marriage certificate or your life.” wear moral clothes; and that moral clothes, We are certain the design would have that is, moral lines of expression which been eminently popular with young
ladies. express something more than the mere in- There is a story of a prescription for a king dividual man, moral lines of expression in the Old Testament, to which we need which, while they are individual enough to not more directly advert than to say it tell the intellectual stature, and the capa- touches the subject we are upon. Another cities, and the nature of the individual, still grace is bestowed on the sex. They are veil from the eye of others the inmost in- more than ever our preservers
. We can dividuality, - are not an insincerity or love them now as we do ourselves. Hygiene mask, but a decency of the mind. Mr. shakes hands with Hymen. But what if Schulz himself, while putting on all sorts of Dr. Stark's figures bear a different interpremoral masks and dominoes over his own tation? Suppose we regard the hecatomb personal moral costume, never took that off of bachelors as an offering upon the shrine to show the absolute individual stripped of of blighted affection ? Young men are all moral conventions beneath. And the jilted, and die of it. Their more fortunate eras in any history or society when men are friends bask in the heat of the domestic disposed to throw off all the national and hearth, while poor “ Tom's a-cold,” “ Tom conventional dress of character, as we may all alone ” shivering in the dreary world call it, and expose the naked individuality without, until he is carted off under the dibeneath, are usually eras of danger, revolu- rection of an economical Necropolis Comtion, and national chame.
pany. Indeed, this suggests to us that bachelors could not do better than combine for the purpose of interring each other as cheaply as possible. Dr. Stark puts matters in a way that there is no shirking. He
does not say whom or what you are to mar. From the London Review.
ry, but widow or maid you must engage
with, if your career is not to be cut down to DR. STARK ON CELIBACY. half its legitimate extent. The reason of
the wonderful difference is certainly not on In the story of Kavanagh” we find a the surface. Bachelors are not invariably schoolmaster who sketches a plan of arith-rakes; and a modern bachelor well schooled metic by which that dry study may be ren- in the modes of pleasure knows how to endered as interesting as a romance. From joy them with as little detriment to his the last reports of the Scottish Register Of health as possible. It is said that a man fice we learn that the death rate among with asthma survives that complaint for an bachelors is double what it is among mar- intolerable period; but we refrain from asried men between the ages of twenty-five sociating his powers of endurance with and thirty : between thirty and thirty-five those of a father of a family. A bachelor it remains at nearly the same proportion ; should have few cares even if he keeps late
bours. Then we have heard of " old ” bach
From the Saturday Review. elors ; is the race threatened with extinction? The more we look at Dr. Stark's
WOMEN'S HEROINES. sums the more they puzzle us. His bachelors, for we are tempted to believe that be A VIGOROUS and pertinacious effort has is in a measure the proprietor of the lot of late years been made to persuade manhe makes an example of must be an entirely kind that beauty in women is a matter of different set from those we are accustomed very little moment. As long as literature to meet. What kills them? And when was more or less a man's vocation, an oppowe have asked that question we should like site tendency prevailed; and a successful to know why they apparently prefer sudden novelist would as soon have thought of flydeath to lingering matrimony. Dr. Stark ing as of driving a team of ugly heroines with a grim exactness, holds out this warn- through three volumes. The rapid and ing scroll of mortality, which we have no portentous increase of authoresses changed doubt will be made a text sheet by mothers the current of affairs. As a rule, authorwith marriageable daughters. It comes op- esses do not care much about lovely women; portunely at the commencement of the sea- and they must naturally despise the misera
Can meerschaum or the cigars of Ha- ble masculine weakness which is led captive vana be the cause
of the mischief ? by a pretty face, even if it be only upon Would a latch-key unlock the mystery ? paper. They can have no patience with Do bachelors pine at lonely moments in such feebleness, and it may well seem to chambers and lodgings, and then expire of them to be a high and important mission to broken hearts ? Dr. Stark should have in- help to put it down. It became, accordingly, formed us of the number of young ladies the fashion at one time among feminine who live and die inwon. He should have writers of fiction to make all their fascinatset one column off against the other. We ing heroines plain girls with plenty of soul, are curious on this point, or rather curious and to show, by a series of thrilling love adas to the manner in which Dr. Stark would ventures, how completely in the long run make it, for our own Registrar-General has the plain girls had the best of it. There is never produced the startling effects of the a regular type of ideal young lady in woScotch statistician, although he has cast up men's novels, to which we have at last be. very similar accounts.
come accustomed. She is not at all a In Scotland, Dr. Stark's native ground, perfect beauty. Her features are not as there is a bold indecision on the subject of finely chiselled as a Greek statue; she is marriage which periodically affects the re- taller, we are invariably told, than the model turns of births. But Scotland is a very height, her nose is retroussé; and " in some pious country, and the good people do not lights” an unfavorable critic might affirm mind trifles as long as they observe the Sab- that her hair was positively tawny. But bath, and keep music out of the churches. there is a well of feeling in her big brown We trust, however, that the fatal influence eyes, which when united to genius, invariaof celibacy, as shown by Dr. Stark, will bly bowls over the hero of the book. And have an effect upon those incidental morali- the passion she excites is of that stirring ties which do not include the crime of whist- kind which eclipses all others. Through the ling in the streets on Sundays. For us the first two volumes the predestined lover flirts figures are pregnant with conviction if we with the beauties who despise ber, dances could only be satisfied as to their correct- with them under her eye, and wears their ness. Figures, after all, are nothing if not colours in her presence. But at the end of correct, and when Dr. Lankester pronounced the third an expressive glance tells her that his sweeping opinion on the women of Lon- all is right, and that big eyes and a big don, it made every difference in the force soul have won the race in a canter. Jane of it to find that he was only half right. If Eyre was perhaps the first triumphant sucDr. Stark is right, bachelors should literally css of this particular school of art. And marry in haste in the teeth of the rest of the Jane Eyre certainly opened the door to a
If Dr. Stark is wrong, they do not long train of imitators. For many years lose much after all for taking the course every woman's novel had got in some dear suggested by his calculations.
and noble creature, generally underrated, and as often as not in embarrassed circumstances, who used to capture her husband by sheer force of genius, and by pretending not to notice him when he came into the
Some pleasant womanly enthusiasts
even went further, and invented heroines | adopt all the expressions in the Athanasian with tangled hair and inky fingers. We do creed. It is the h«roine's mission to cure not feel perfectly certain ibat Miss Yonge, this mental malady; to point out to him, for instance, has not married her inky Miner- from the impartial point of view of those vas to nicer and more pious busbands, as a who have never committed the folly of studyrule, than her uninky ones. The advantage ing Kant or Hegel, how thoroughly superiof the view that ugly heroines are the most cial Kant and Hegel are; and to remind him charming is obvious, if only the world could by moonlight, and in the course of spiritual be brought to adopt it. It is a well-meant flirtation on a balcony, of the unutterable. protest in favour of what may be called, in truths in theology which only a woman can these days of political excitement, the naturally discern. We are far from wishing, “ rights" of plain girls. It is very bard to to intimate that there is not a good deal of think that a few more freckles or a quarter usefulness in such feminine poiuts of view. of an inch of extra chin should make all The argumentam ad sexum, if not a logical, the difference in life to women, and those is often no doubt a practical one, and woof them who are intellectually fitted to play men are right to employ it whenever they a shining part in society or literature may can make it tell. And as it would be imbe excused for rebelling against the mascu- possible to develop it to any considerable line heresy of believing in beauty only. extent in a dry controversial work, authorWhenever such women write, the constant esses have no other place to work it in exmoral they preach to us is that beauty is a cept in a romance. What they do for redelusion and a snare. This is the moral of ligion in piqus novels, they do for other Hetty in Adam Bede, and it is in the un- things in productions of a more strictly secsympathetic and cold way in which Hetty ular kind. There is, for instance, a popuis described that one catches glimpses of the lar and prevalent fallacy that women ought sex of the consummate author of the story. to be submissive to, and governed by, their She is quite alive to Hetty's plump arms lords and masters.' In feminine fiction we and pretty cheeks. She likes to pat her and see a very wholesome reaction against this watch her, as if Hetty were a cat, or some mistaken supposition. The hero of the other sleek and supple animal. But we feel female tale is often a poor, frivolous, easily that the writer of Adam Bede is eyeing led person. When he can escape from his Hetty all over from the beginning to the wife's eye, he speculates heavily on the end, and considering in herself the while Stock Exchange, goes in under the influence what fools men are. It would be unjust of evil advisers for every sort of polite and untrue to say that George Eliot in all swindling, and forgets, or is ill-tempered her works does not do ample justice, in a towards, the inestimable treasure he has at noble and generous way, to the power of home. On such occasions the heroine of female beauty. The heroines of Romola the feminine novel shines out in all her and Felix Holt prove distinctly that she does. majesty. She is kind and patient to her But one may fairly doubt whether a man husband's faults, except that when he is could have painted Hetty. When one sees more than usually idiotic her eyes flash, and The picture, one understands its truth ; but her nostrils dilate with a sort of grand scorn, men who draw pretty faces usually do so while her knowledge of life and business is with more enthusiasm.
displayer at critical moments to save him A similar sort of protest may be found from ruin. When every one else deserts lurking in a great many women's novels him, she takes a cab into the City, and emagainst the popular opinion that man is the ploys some clever friend, who has always more poweriul animal, and that a wife is at been hopelessly in love with her -- and for best a domestic appanage of the husband. whom she entertains, unknown to her husAuthoresses are never weary of attempts to band, a Platonic brotherly regard
to inset this right. They like to prove, what is tervene in the nick of time, and to arrest continually true, that feminine charms are her husband's fall. In a story called Sowthe lever that moves the world, and that ing the Wind, which has recently been pubthe ideal woman keeps her husband and all lished, the authoress (for we assume, in spite about her straight. In religious novels wo- of the ambiguous assertion on the title-page, man's task is to exercise the happiest influ- that the pen which wrote it was not really a ence on the man's theological opinions. Ow- man's) goes to very great lengths. The ing to the errors he has imbibed from the hero, St. John Alyott, is always snubbing study of a false and shallow philosophy, he and lecturing Isola, whom he married when sees no good in going to church twice on she was balf a child, and whom he treats as Sundays, or feels that he cannot heartily a child long after she has become a great
and glorious woman. He administers the habit of meeting any. The fact is that the doctrine of conjugal authority to her vast majority of women who write novels in season and out of season, and his do not draw upon their observation for their object is to convert her into a loving characters so much as upon their imaginafeminine slave. Against this revolting the- tion. In some respects this is curious ory her nature rebels. Though she pre-enough, for when women observe, they observes her wifely attachment to a man whom serve acutely and to a good deal of pur- . she has once thought worthy of better pose. Those of them, however, who take things, her respect dies away, and at last to the manufacture of fiction have
genershe openly defies him when he wants her, ally done so because at some portion of in contravention of her plain duty, not to their career they have been thrown back adopt as her son a deserted orphan boy. upon themselves. They began perhaps to At this point her character stands out in write when circumstances made them feel noble contrast to his. She does adopt the isolated from the rest of their little world, boy, and brings him to live with her in and in a spirit of sickly concentration upon spite of all; and when St. John is unnat- their own thoughts. A woman with a turn urally peevish at its childish squalling, Isola for literary work who notices that she is disbears his fretful animadversions with a pa- tanced, as far as success or admiration goes, tient dignity that touches the hearts of all by rivals inferior in mental capacity to herabout her. Any husband who can go on self
, flies eagerly to the society of her own preaching about conjugal obedience through fancies, and makes her pen her greatest three volumes to a splendid creature who is friend. It is the lot of many girls to pass his wife, must have something wrong about their childhood or youth in a somewhat his mind. And something wrong about St. monotonous round of domestic duties, and John's mind there ultimately proves to be frequently in a narrow domestic circle, with It flashes across Isola that this is the case, whích, except from natural affection, they and before long her worst suspicions are con- may have no great intellectual sympathy. firmed. At last St. John breaks out into The stage of intellectual fever through open lunacy, and dies deranged — a fate which able men have passed when they which is partly the cause, and partly the were young is replaced, in the case of girls consequence of his continual indulgence of talent, by a stage of moral morbidity. in such wild theories about the relations of At first this finds vent in hymns, and it man and wife. It is not every day that we turns in the end tu novels. Few clever have the valuable lesson of the rights of young ladies have not written religious wives so plainly or so practically put before poetry at one period or other of their us, but when it is put before us, we recog- history, and few that have done SO, nise the service that may be conferred on stop there without going further. It is a literature and society by lady authors. To great temptation to console oneself for the assert the great cause of the independence shortcomings of the social life around, by of the female sex is one of the ends of femi- building up an imaginary picture of social nine fiction, just as the assertion of the life as it might be, full of romantic advenrights of plain girls is another. Authoresses tures and pleasant conquests. In manudo not ask for what Mr. Mill wishes them facturing her heroines, the young recluse to have - a vote for the borough, or per- author puts on paper what she would haps a seat in Parliament. They do ask herself like to be, and what she thinks she that young women should have a fair matri- might be if only her eyes were bluer, her monial chance, independently of such trivial purse longer, or men more wise and discernconsiderations as good looks, and that after ing. In: painting the slights offered to her marriage they should have the right to de- favourite ideal, she conceives the slights spise their husbands whenever duty and that might possibly be offered to herself, common sense tell them it is proper to do so.: and the triumphant way in which she would
The odd thing is that the heroines of (under somewhat more auspicious circumwhom authoresses are so fond in novels are stances) delight to live them down and tramnot the heroines whom other women like ple them under foot. The vexations and in real life. Even the popular authoresses the annoyances she describes with consideraof the day, who are always producing some ble spirit and accuracy. The triumph is lovely panthe ess in their stories, and mak- the representation of her own delicious ing her achieve an endless series of impossi- dreams. The grand character of the imble exploits, would not care much about a aginary victim is but a species of phantom lovely pantheress in a drawing-room or a of herse!f, taken, like the German's camel, country-house ; and are not perhaps in the from the depths of her own self-conscious
ness, and projected into cloudland. This is the glorified adulteresses and murderesses the reason why authoresses enjoy dressing which at present seem the latest and most up a heroine who is ill-used. "They know successful efforts of feminine art. the sensation of social martyrdom, and it is a gentle sort of revenge upon the world to publish a novel about an underrated martyr, whose merits are recognised in the end, either before or after her decease. They are probably not conscious of the precise work they are performing. They are not
From the Saturday Review, 2 March. aware that their heroine represents what they believe they themselves would prove to THE FRENCH YELLOW-BOOK. be under impossible circumstances, provided they had only golden hair and a wider THE French Yellow-book scarcely prosphere of action. This is but another and fesses to be more than a collection of the a larger phase of a phenomenon which most presentable diplomatic despatches of all of us have become familiar with who the last year. No Frenchman, and none have ever had a large acquaintance with but the most sanguine foreigner, expects to young ladies' poems. They all write about find in it anything that is likely to ruffle death with a pertinacity that is positively the vanity of the great French nation. In astounding. It is not that the young peo- the few correspondences which are allowed ple actually want to die. But they like the to filter through to the light, the Imperial idea that their family circle will find out, Government is always triumphant, mag. when it is too late, all the mistakes and in- nanimous, and candid, and at the end of justices it has committed towards them, and every political episode seems to throw itself that this world will perceive that it has been into the defiant attitude of the conjuror who entertaining unawares an angel, just as the has once more succeeded in swallowing a angel had taken flight upwards to another. small sword, several live rabbits, and a The juvenile aspirant commences with re- lighted candle. The prodigious effect is venging her wrongs in heaven, but it produced or enhanced by a little gentle occurs to her before long that she can with legerdemain. M. Moustier appears to equal facility have them revenged upon have eaten up Mr. SEWARD, whereas in earth. Poetry gives way to prose, and reality he has got the most indigestible part hymnology to fiction. The element of self- of him up his sleeve. Count Bismark and consciousness, unknown to herself, still M. Ricasoli, in like manner, are seldom continues to prevail, and to colour the introduced except to thank His İMPERIAL character of the heroines she turns out. MAJESTY for the services he has rendered Of course great authoresses shake them- to civilization; while the rebuffs, the reselves free from it. Real genius is independ- monstrances, the protests, and the discourent of sex, and first-rate writers, whether they tesies are rigidly suppressed. Documents are men or women, are not morbidly in that have been penned by the French Forlove with an idealized portrait of themselves. eign Office are given in moderate plenty ; But the poorer and less worthy class of the documents addressed to it appear at feminine novelists seldom escape from the occasional intervals; and considerable lacfatal influence of egotism. Women's hero- unæ testify to the astute vigilance of the ines, except in the case of the best artists, official editor. A résumeé of the general are conceptions borrowed, not from without, political situation serves as a preface, and is but from within. The consequence is that an able and interesting production. After there is a sameness about them which be- the exploits of the Imperial pen, come the comes at last distasteful. The conception of achievements of the Imperial scissors; and the injured wife or the glorified governess the Yellow-book which follows is nothing is one which was a novelty fifteen or twenty better than a mutilated version of the hisyears ago, while it cannot be said any longer tory of the preceding twelve months. to be lively or entertaining.' As literature has grown to be a woman's occupation, we The volume opens with despatches imare afraid that glorified governesses in fiction mediately preceding the outbreak of the will, like the poor, be always with us, and German war. The French Government continue to the end to run their bright course foresaw the storm that was on the eve of of universal victory. The most, perhaps, breaking, and in May, 1866, was making that can be hoped is that they will in the every effort to avert it. The English Forlong run take the wind out of the sails of eign Office, with its usual pedantic stolidity,