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1,200,000. This enormous increase is ow- the law of demand and supply that goving partly to the number of planters who erns labor. The rich fertility and produchave emigrated to that state to begin life tiveness of the bottom lands of the Gulf anew, in a smaller way and on smaller farms, states invite labor from the over-worked and but mainly to the thousands of negroes sent wornout northern soil, and this invitation is from other states during the war for the se- supplemented by the promise of the best curity the vast area of Texas afforded pay for labor. against the advances of the Union armies. The journals which complain of the exodus Now large numbers of these negroes are of negroes from Virginia, Kentucky, the returning to their old homes on the Missis- Carolinas and Georgia, admit that the freedsippi. Flake's Galveston Bulletin stated not men migrate under the incentive of higher long ago, that from Christmas to mid-Feb- wages. The Gulf states, from their natural ruary at least sixteen thousand freedmen advantages, can afford to pay better laborhad gone from the northern counties in prices, and such is the demand for labor, Texas to Louisiana, “ because the Louisiana and so great the competition to secure the laws are more just and equitable for the services of the in-flocking immigrants, that freedmen than those of Texas.”

larger rates of pay are offered this season It may be mentioned, incidentally, that than last year or the year before. Generalthere is also a comparatively slight move- lv, too, the pay is now offered in money ment of negroes to the western states. The so much by the day, or month, or season ; Augusta (Georgia) Chronicle says that ne- and the plan of offering shares in the crop, groes are daily passing through that city which was sometimes unfavourable to the for the West'; “ most of them young, employer, and oftener unjust to the lahealthy and hearty, in fact, the best class borers, has given place to the better methof field hands,” and that they are princi- od of paying for the work 1 it is pally from Virginia and the Carolinas, worth. though many have gone from Georgia, Mis- Those who deny to the free sissippi, Louisiana, Texas and Arkansas.” cient sagacity to rightly estimate '

ti The great tide of this travel, however, is of the elective franchise, will at leait auri towards the South.

that he has intelligence enough to This general migration is a marked inci- what his labor is worth, qand energy dent in the southern situation, and is a note- to go where his labor will bring this worthy phase of the new labor system. It remuneration. The southern empl

. fim is by no means owing to a restless dispo- likely to learn this lesson from the negre sition on the part of the freedmen, or to a and when they do, there will be mere desire to use or abuse their new-found complaint of the scarcity of field h. hds, for freedom. It may be due, in a degree, to there will be a large and fixed popustion of the isothermal theory of the natural ten- freedmen in every place where labo, brings dency of the negro race towards the tropics. its proper price. But there is a simpler solution than all this

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It is rumoured that a knighthood is likely to art the common and generous instincts of a be conferred on Mr. Henry Russell, the composer wide public than upon an alderman who has of " Cheer, boys, cheer." and of nearly six eaten his way to a mayoralty, and who gains hundred other songs. Some of Mr. Russell's a yet higher distinction by having the good forcompositions have passed into a standard re. tune to enjoy his year of office and turtle-soup pute, and of their own class are unrivalled. during an exhibition or a marriage festival. Such an honour is far better bestowed on a mu- i London Review. sician who has successfully interpreted by bis

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No. 1196. Fourth Series, No. 57. 4 May, 1867.

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SHORT ARTICLES : The Jew in Literature, 297. A Clergyman's Letter, 297. Cardinal Cul

len on Novel Reading, 311. A Long River in Russian America, 311. Lessing, 311. The Old English Chroniclers, 320.

17 The next number will be greatly enlarged, to enable us to publish a complete translation of Count Montalembert's Victory of the North, which has been so greatly admired.

It will also contain the beginning of a new tale, by Norman Macleod, D.D., Editor of Good Words, called TaE STARLING.

We are preparing for separate publication

THE STARLING. By Norman Macleod, D.D.
THE TENANTS OF MALLERY. By J. S. Le Faun.
GUILD COURT - a London Story. By George MacDonald.

IF The VictoRY OF THE North will be immediately published separately. Price, 25 cents.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY

LIT TELL & GAY, BOSTON.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. FOR EIGHT DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free

of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year; nor where we have to pay a coinmission for forwarding the money,

Price of the First Series, in Cloth, 36 volumes, 90 dollars,

Second 11
Third

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80 The Complete work

220 Anv Volume Bound, 3 dollars; Unbound, 2 dollars. The sets, or volumes, will be sent at the expense of the publishers.

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From Blackwood's Magazine.

drama of individual existence woven into

the larger web of historical narrative. All ELIZABETH AND MARY.

the metaphysical, all the tragic interest that

belongs to personal story mingles in their These two names thus linked together persons with the vast concerns of national suggest, in the first place, one of the sweet- life. Without diminishing its grandeur, est idyllic pictures of those matchless pasto- they give to it an intensity which is derals which cluster round the origin of our monstrated by the fact that the partisans of religion. But it is not the Elizabeth and Mary and Elizabeth are almost as ready as Mary of Galilee, of many a painter's imagi- ever to carry their contest to extremity; nation, and of many a reverential and tender and that the woman of these two who was thought, whom we are about to discuss. richest in all the attractions that bind manThe Elizabeth and Mary of British history kind, is still fought for by defenders as enare as different as can be conceived from thusiastic and knights as chivalrous as if she those two Hebrew women, wbose encoun- were present to rain influence and adjudge ter at the supreme moment of their lives is the prize. Elizabeth bas not been so fortuso well known and dearly interesting to us nate. In death as in life she has been one all. Yet they were women standing in a of those women who win no man's heart and similar connection, each other's nearest gain no disinterested devotion ; but still her relatives, the most prominent figures in the champions are in earnest, and fame has not story of their time women with the same withheld from her a certain compensation. blood in their veins, with similar energies Thus there remains before us, embalmed in and ambition, who might have been dear our national chronicles, the story of a strugfriends, and who were deadly enemies, gle, not only between differing creeds and each other's rivals, opponents, most danger- rival successions, not only dynastic and poous foes. It is impossible so much as to litical, but a struggle between two women, think of the story of one without finding in- not unfitly representing at the same time volved in it fatal tangles of the life of the the two classes of their sex between which other. The story of their period has, doubt- the world is divided : the women who posless, many details of solid interest upassocia- sess and those who do not possess that wonted with them. It was a great, probably derful power of attraction and fascination the greatest, crisis of national life in both which, beyond beauty, beyond genius, is the southern and northern countries. Great precious to woman and interesting to man. national forces, vast human interests, but Mary, be she innocent or be she guilty, is dimly comprehended even by those who the woman for whom men will overturn and were helping to bring them into being, were shake the foundations of the earth, with or rising on every side around them; but yet without reason. Elizabeth is the woman amid all those heavings and convulsions of penetrated to the heart with the certainty humanity, it is upon the figures of these two that no man will waste life or heart for her. women that every eye is fixed. Their per- Toere are circumstances in which it is the sonal conflicts and individual passions stand neglected heroine who is the most interesting out prominent above the profounder stream to the spectator ; but in this great historiof story in which the interest of millions is cal episode such is not the case. The two involved. Two more solemn chapters were types stand bare and unsoftened before us never written in the great and various the one with little excellence to second her tragedy of life. History, indeed, has so attractions; the other with no tenderness to linked them together that we might say it touch our hearts. It is a tragedy, as all was but one chapter which bears this fatal history is ; and it is a tragedy which opens conjunction of names. Had they been men, depths of speculation as much to the metait is probable that their inevitable struggle physician as to the romancist. Yet the would have been attended with those com- strangely typical character of the struggle, moner elements of tumult and bloodshed and its interest to others beside the students which cease to be exciting by long repetition, of bistory, do not in the slightest degree imand that their strength would have been pair its historical importance. It is at the matched in a ruder way, and come to a more same time a struggle of the old faith against ordinary and practical result. Being wo- the new --- of the bold and lucky Tudor race men, these two queens, without sacrificing in against the chivalrous and unprosperous the smallest degree their importance in histo- Stuarts - of an insular population tenacious ry, enter into a more delicate sphere They of its individuality against the mazes of Euare rivals, not only in politics, but in person, ropean intrigue and Continental influence. in mind, and in fortune. It is a subtle The genius of Allegory never made more perfect use of its favorite medium of imper- thing that favours their own views, the dissonation than Nature and Providence have position of the English towards Mary and done in this wonderful crisis, making the old their indifference to her rival seem to have world of romance and marvel, of brilliant self- been held as proved in France. Mary herindulgence and adventure, of love and cripe self, always and at all stages of her career and picturesque effect, fall with Mary; and a good Catholic, no doubt believed unthe new world, with its harder every-day feignedly that she herself was rightful Queen elements, its thrift, its industry, its aspira- of England, and with the confidence of her tions, its sense of duty, its harshness and age was ready to confront Elizabeth, to self-seeking, come in with Elizabeth. At make a triumphant progress through her risuch supreme moments Providence would val's kingdom, and steal from her the hearts seem to avail itself in the grandest way of of her subjects. Nor was there anything a certain mighty adaptation of pictorial art, wonderful in this confidence. She was not illustrating its meaning by such types and Queen of Scots alone, but queen of hearts; combinations as even the most ignorant she was used to see everybody within the must somehow understand.

range of her influence yield to its wonderful The early history of these two queens is as fascination. Her ears were more familiar subtly contrasted as the course of their after with honeyed adorations than with discuslife. Mary grew up in her beauty in the sion or criticism. Even the misfortune refined if polluted atmosphere of the French which changed her position in France and Court, a princess not only in rank, but by drove her back to her own distracted kingnature endowed with every gift that makes dom, gave a more tender interest to her pera woman a queen — *lovely, brilliant, ac- son, and awoke anew all those not unpleascomplished, trained not only in every pleas- ing uncertainties which surround a beautiful ant art, but in all the deepest wiles of state- unwedded girl. There is no particular evimanship, fully aware of the importance of dence that the death of Francis moved her her own position, and carefully educated to very profoundly; and pretty and pathetic fill it. Morality was not much the fashion as is the tale of her tender farewell to the in that brilliant world, yet even in the most charmant pays de France, yet Mary was too depraved society a girl in her teens can much a Stuart, and took too naturally to scarcely be much corrupted. Her powers adventure and novelty, to be without comof fascination were such that men yielded to fort in her entrance to so new and strange her as if by magic, not in consequence of and exciting a life as that which awaited her the craft in which the Guises had trained at Holyrood. The fair, fearless, bewitching their niece, so much as from that sweet craft creature came back to her poor kingdom of youth and delightful sense of power, with such a confidence in her own powers which made the fair young creature put as is in itself a fortune. If she wept when forth her natural wiles, with that pretty the Scots Reformer remained impervious mingling of a desire to please and a desire to her magic, the tears were tears of girlish to rule which makes a beautiful young wo petulance and vexation rather than of real man, when she knows what she is about, suffering. Up to the moment when fatal and has a proportionate purpose, one of the passion and self-will involved her in the strongest and most dangerous of powers. earliest meshes of that tragic web from Notwithstanding ber turbulent kingdom which she never escaped, it is impossible to and orphan state, and all the unknown forces think of Mary Stuart otherwise than as rising up against her, the youth of Mary prosperous and fortunate. ¡Her career Stuart was that of a favourite of fortune. looked bright before her, full of. bracing and Queen by birth of one nation - queen by exciting difficulties, full of a thousand opmarriage of another — presumptive heir, portunities for proving her courage, her both by natural right and the preference skill, all the powers of which she was conof a great mass of the people, of a third, scious. The finest succession in Europe,

- no woman ever held a more magnificent and probably the most magnificent match position. It is true that her own native in Europe, were open to her. She was not people were a difficult handful for the most afraid of the grim lords who had as yet no. wise sovereign, and that Elizabeth was but deadly quarrel with her. She felt herself little older than herself, and at that time a match, even perhaps more than a match, likely enough to have heirs of her own for Elizabeth ; and there was every prosperson ; but at the same time Elizabeth pect that she might achieve great things was in the belief of most devout Catholics for the cause, which, if she cared at all for illegitimate ; and, with the readiness com- any abstract cause, was that which lay nearmon even to the wisest of believing in every- est her heart. And she retained her light

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