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fifty thousand pounds, to be repaid by in- tables in England. He sent for seeds of a stalments, without interest. This relief, very fine custard-apple, from the garden of though given in the most absurd manner, what had once been his own villa, among was sufficient to enable the retired gover- the green hedgerows of Allipore. He tried nor to live in comfort, and even in luxury, also to naturalize in Worcestershire the deliif he had been a skilful manager. But he cious leechee, almost the only fruit of Benwas careless and profuse, and was more gal, which deserves to be regretted even than once under the necessity of applying amidst the plenty of Covent-Garden. The to the Company for assistance, which was Mogul emperors, in the time of their greatliberally given.

ness, had in vain attempted to introduce inHe had security and affluence, but not to Hindostan the goat of the table-land of the power and dignity, which, when he Thibet, whose down supplies the looms of landed from India, he had reason to expect. Cashmere with the materials of the finest He had then looked forward to a coronet, a shawls. Hastings tried, with no better forred riband, a seat at the Council Board, an tune, to rear a breed at Daylesford ; nor office at Whitehall

. He was then only fifty- does he seem to have succeeded better two, and might hope for many years of with the cattle of Bootan, whose tails are bodily and mental vigour. The case was in high esteem as the best fans for brushing widely different when he left the bar of the away the musquitoes. Lords. He was now too old a man to turn Literature divided his attention with his his mind to a new class of studies and du- conservatories and his menagerie. He had ties. He had no chance of receiving any always loved books, and they were now mark of royal favour while Mr. Pitt re- necessary to him. Though not a poet, in mained in power; and, when Mr. Pitt re- any high sense of the word, he wrote neat tired, Hastings was approaching his seven- and polished lines with great facility, and

was fond of exercising this talent. Indeed, Once, and only once, after his acquittal, if we must speak out, he seems to have been he interfered in politics

, and that interfer- more of a Trissotin than was to be expected ence was not much to his honour. In 1804, from the powers of his mind, and from the he exerted himself strenuously to prevent great part which he had played in life. Mr. Addington, against whom Fox and We are assured in these Memoirs, that the Pitt bad combined, from resigning the Treas- first thing which he did in the morning was •ury. It is difficult to believe that a man to compose a copy of verses. When the so able and energetic as Hastings, can have family and guests assembled, the poem thought that, when Bonaparte was at Bou- made its appearance as regularly as the logne with a great army, the defence of our eggs and rolls; and Mr. Gleig requires us island could safely be intrusted to a minis- to believe that, if from any accident Hasttry which did not contain a single person ings came to the breakfast-table without whom flattery could describe as a great one of his charming performances in his statesman. It is also certain that, on the hand, the omission was felt by all as a important question which had raised Mr. grievous disappointment. Tastes differ Addington to power, and on which he dif- widely. For ourselves we must say that, fered from both Fox and Pitt, Hastings, as however good the breakfasts at Daylesford might have been expected, agreed with may bave been and we are assured that Fox and Pitt, and was decidedly opposed the tea was of the most aromatic favour, to Addington. Religious intolerance has and that neither tongue nor venison-pasty never been the vice of the Indian service, was wanting, we should have thought the and certainly was not the vice of Hastings. reckoning high if we had been forced to But Mr. Addington had treated him with earn our repast by listening every day to a marked favour. Fox had been a principal new madrigal or sonnet composed by our manager of the impeachment. To Pitt' it host. We are glad, however, that Mr. was owing that there had been an impeach- Gleig has preserved this little feature of ment; and Hastings, we fear, was on this character, though we think it by no means occasion guided by personal considerations, a beauty. It is good to be often reminded rather than by a regard to the public in- of the inconsistency of human nature; terest.

and to learn to look without wonder or disThe last twenty-four years of his life were gust on the weaknesses which are found in chiefly passed at Daylesford. He amused the strongest minds. Dionysius in old himself with embellishing his grounds, rid- times, Frederic in the last century, with ing fine Arab horses, fattening prize-cattle, capacity and vigour equal to the conduct of and trying to rear Indian animals and vege-T the greatest affairs, united all the little van

At

ities and affectations of provincial blue visited England, Hastings appeared in their stockings. These great examples may train both at Oxford and in the Guildhall console the admirers of Hastings for the of London: and, though surrounded by a affliction of seeing him reduced to the level crowd of princes and great warriors, was of the Hayleys and the Sewards.

everywhere received by the public with When Hastings had passed many years marks of respect and admiration. He was in retirement, and had long outlived the presented by the Prince Regent both to common age of men, he again became for a Alexander and to Frederic Williain; and short time an object of general attention. his Royal Highness went so far as to declare In 1813 the charter of the East India Com- in public, that honours far higher than a pany was renewed; and much discussion seat in the Privy Council were due, and about Indian affairs took place in Parlia- should soon be paid, to the man who had ment. It was determined to examine saved the British dominions in Asia. Hastwitnesses at the bar of the Commons, and ings now confidently expected a peerage; Hastings was ordered to attend. He had but, from some unexplained cause, he was appeared at that bar once before. It was again disappointed. when he read his answer to the charges He lived about four years longer, in the which Burke had laid on the table. Since enjoyment of good spirits, of faculties not that time twenty-seven years bad elapsed ; impaired to any painful or degrading expublic feeling had undergone a complete tent, and of health such as is rarely enjoyed change; the nation had now forgotten his by those who attain such an age. faults, and remembered only his services. length, on the 22d of August, 1818, in the The re-appearance, too, of a man who had eighty-sixth year of his age, he met death been among the most distinguished of a with the same tranquil and decorous for. generation that had passed away, who now titude which he had opposed to all the trials belonged to history, and who seemed to of his varied and eventful life. have risen from the dead, could not but With all his faults -- and they were neiproduce a solemn and pathetic effect. ther few nor small — only one cemetery was The Commons received him with acclama- worthy to contain his remains. In that tions, ordered a chair to be set for him, and, temple of silence and reconciliation, where when he retired, rose and uncovered. There the enmities of twenty generations lie were, indeed, a few who did not sympa- buried, in the Great Abbey which has for thize with the general feeling. One or ages afforded a quiet resting-place to those two of the managers of the impeachment whose minds and bodies have been shattered were present. They sate in the same seats by the contentions of the Great Hall, the which they had occupied when they had dust of the illustrious accused should have been thanked for the services which they been mingled with the dust of the illustrious had rendered in Westminster Hall; for, accusers. This was not to be. Yet the by the courtesy of the house, a member place of interment was not ill chosen. Bewho has been thanked in his place, is con- hind the chancel of the parish-church of sidered as having a right always to occupy Daylesford, in earth which already held the that place. These gentlemen were not bones of many chiefs of the house of Hastdisposed to admit that they had employed ings, was laid the coffin of the greatest man several of the best years of their lives in who has ever borne that ancient and widely persecuting an innocent man. They ac- extended name. On that very spot procordingly kept their seats, and pulled their bably, fourscore years before, the little hats over their brows; but the exceptions Warren, meanly clad and scantily fed, had only made the prevailing enthusiasm more played with the children of ploughmen. remarkable. The Lords received the old Even then his young mind had revolved man with similar tokens of respect. The plans which might be called romantic. University of Oxford conferred on him the Yet, however romantic, it is not likely that degree of Doctors of Laws; and, in the they had been so strange as the truth. Not Sheldonian theatre, the under-graduates, only had the poor orphan retrieved the welcomed him with tumultuous cheering. fallen fortunes of his line. Not only had

These marks of public esteem were he repurchased the old lands, and rebuilt soon followed by marks of the favour of the the old dwelling. He had preserved and crown. Hastings was sworn of the Privy extended an empire. He had founded a Council, and was admitted to a long pri- polity. He had administered government vate audience of the Prince Regent, who and 'war with more than the capacity of treated him very graciously. When the Richelieu ; and had patronized learning with Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia the judicious liberality of Cosino. He had

158

THE HEBREW BOOKS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

been attacked by the most formidable com- cure the production of a work which rebinatioh of enemies that ever sought the flects the greatest credit upon the resources destruction of a single victim; and over of the noble institution over which they that combination, after a struggle of ten rule. years, he bad triumphed. He had at length England has not of late years produced gone down to bis grave in the fulness of many distinguished Hebraists, but it can age- in peace, after so many troubles ; in boast of the two finest collections of Hehonour, after so much obloquy.

brew books in the world. For a long time Those who look on his character without that of the Bodleian library was without a favour or malevolence will pronounce that, rival. A number of favourable circumin the two great elements of all social vir-stances bad contributed to its pre-eminence. tue, - in respect for the rights of others, and From the year 1659, in which it obtained in sympathy for the sufferings of others, the numerous works collected by the learned he was deficient. His principles were Selden, it continued increasing till at last, somewhat las. His heart was somewhat in 1829, it was enabled to surpass all its hard. But while we cannot with truth de- competitors by the incorporation of the colscribe him either as a righteous or as a lection formed by David Oppenheimer. merciful ruler, we cannot regard without That learned man, a Rabbi of Prague, admiration the amplitude and fertility of made it the object of his life to gather tohis intellect — his rare talents for command, gether rich and rare specimens of Jewish for administration and for controversy literature ; but as he lived under the Aushis dauntless courage — his honourable pov- trian rule, he feared to keep his treasures erty his fervent zeal for the interests of near him, and was obliged to allow them to the state - his noble equanimity, tried by accumulate at a distance. The collection both extremes of fortune, and never dis- flourished then at · Hanover, and after its turbed by either.

owner's death, which took place in 1735, it was removed to Hamburg. Eventually, after passing through many vicissitudes of fortune, it was secured in 1829 for the Borleian. Thither also came De Rossi's fif

teenth-century books, and, in 1851, the colFrom the London Review.

lection left, after his death, by Auerbach. THE HEBREW BOOKS IN THE BRITISH Well might Steinschneider say that Oxford

contained the first of all Hebrew libraries,

at the time when he published the two ponCENTURIES ago, a monk was making a derous volumes which are occupied by his catalogue of the books contained in the li- singularly discursive catalogue of the conbrary of his convent. Over the greater tents of that collection. part of the volumes which came before him, Since that time, however, the accessions he lingered lovingly, but whenever, at dis- to the library of Hebrew books contained . tant intervals, he met with a Hebrew book, in the British Museum have been so numer

he dismissed it at once in utter disgust, con- ous and so extensive, that it now surpasses densing, its record into the brief notice, that of the Bodleian in magnitude. We “ Here is yet another book beginning at learn from the interesting preface, which the end." It is in a very different spirit to this Mr. Winter Jones, the Principal Librarian, that the work now before us has been com- has contributed to the present work, that posed. It is a catalogue of the Hebrew Mr. Zedner has exerted himself as much in books contained in the British Museum, creating that branch of our national colwhich form, we are assured on excellent au- lection as in cataloguing it, having kept thority, the largest Hebrew library, in the himself on the alert for years in order not world, and it has been compiled with a zeal- to throw away any opportunity of making ous industry deserving of the highest praise, a valuable purchase, and having hunted out by one of the most erudite Hebraists of the many a curiosity which lay hidden in obday. The 'Trustees of the British Museum scure corners. The result is that the colmay well be congratulated on having been lection which he has now described consists able, without going beyond their immediate of upwards of 10,100 bound volumes, comstaff, to command the services of so thorough prising works in all branches of Hebrew a scholar as Mr. Zedner, and thereby to se- and Rabbinical learning. And to this

growth it has attained from a very small be* Catalogue of the Hebrew Books in the Library of the British Museum. Printed by Order of the ginning. In 1759, when the Museum was Trustees.

first opened to the public, we are told, “ the

MUSEUM.*

THE HEBREW BOOKS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

159

• Editio Princeps? of the Talmud was the task, one in which the compiler bas to strugonly Hebrew work it contained, and this in- gle with many obstacles, among which may cluded in the Royal library presented to the be mentioned the fantastic, and often unMuseum by King George II.” About the meaning, titles of works, and the fact that same time, a Jewish merchant, named Sol- books are so often far better known by those omon da Costa, who had come over to Eng- titles than by the names of their authors. land from Holland, made a present to the The poetic nature of an Eastern writer reMuseum of 180 volumes

, containing the volts against the prosaic realism of a Westmost valuable works of Rabbinnical litera-ern title-page, and he delights in allowing ture. Nearly ninety years passed, and the even the exterior of his work to give an collection still only mustered about 600 idea of the brilliant_imagery which illabooks. “ In 1848, however, 4,420 volumes mines its contents. But on the nature of were purchased from the famous collection those contents the title too often throws no of Mr. H. J. Michael, of Hamburg." Since light. We find, for instance, in the catathat time fresh acquisitions have constantly logue, four works by certain Isaacs, who been made, the most recent being due to have imbedded their names in the Biblical the purchase of a part of the Hebrew li. title of " Isaac's Well," the first of which is brary formed by the late Joseph Almanzi ,of a volume of sermons, the second contains Padua.

“ Lessons for Sabbatical Reading," the The catalogue comprises not only Hebrew third is a “ Sub-commentary, or a Commenbooks, but also translations of post-biblical tary on a Commentary on Aben Ezra ;” Hebrew works, works in the Arabic, Span- and the fourth treats of ceremonies. Such ish, German, and other languages printed titles are generally taken from Scripture, with Hebrew characters, bibliographical but they are often borrowed from other works with special reference to post-bibli- sources at the author's pleasure, as may be cal literature, catalogues of Hebrew works, seen in the case of the three works entitled and biographies of the authors of Hebrew " The Comet,” one of which treats of geomworks ; so that it offers a complete key to etry, the second is, “ On Morals for Wo all who wish to make the most of the trea- men,” and the third is a commentary on the sures contained in our national collection. Talmud. Such commentaries, we may reOf the nature of that collection some idea mark, are very numerous, more editions of may be given by the following syllabus of them having been published during the last its contents :

thirty years than during the previous three

hundred, a singular fact, considering that

Vols. the modern Jews are generally supposed to 1. Bibles

1,260

to give less time to the study of the Tal2. Commentaries on the Bible

510

mud than was their wont in former days. 3. Talmud

780 Mr. Zedner has arranged the contents of 4. Commentaries on the Talmud 700 his catalogue under the authors' names in 5. Codes of Law

1,260 alphabetical order; but in order to meet 6. Decisions

520

one of the difficulties to which we have re7. Midrash

160

ferred, he has given at the end a copious 8. Cabala

460 index of titles of books. Another index 9. Sermons

400 10. Liturgies

gives a list of names, Jewish aud Gentile, 1,200

in Roman and Hebrew characters. A third 11. Divine Philosophy

690

contains a list of abbreviations the frequen12. Scientific Works

180

cy of which is, to inexperienced scholars, 13. Grammars and Dictionaries 450

so dire a cause of offence, as the uninitiated 14. History and Geography

320

may imagine from the instance of the cele15. Poetry and Criticisnje

770

brated Maimonides, whose name, Rabbi

Moses Ben Maimon, is never written out in Among these are thirty-eight books “ of full, but is represented by the initial letters which no other copy, or only one or two R. M. B. M., forming the name by which he other copies, are known to exist.”

is generally referred to orally, and which All catalogue-making is terlious and thank- may be written Rambam. The fourth and lesa work, so many difficulties present them- last index contains a list of places of printselves during its course, żo bard is it to re- ing, and is not without interest in itself

. A spond to the requirements and satisfy the new and improved edition has been lately demands of different classes of students. published of Cotton's " Typographical GazBut the compilation of a catalogue of He- etteer," but there are numbers of them brew books in an especially troublesome which are not to be found in it. Many of

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them convey very little idea to the ordinary | German Jews, and until quite lately absoungeographical mind, such as Berdyczew, lutely refusing to intermarry with them. Hrubieszow, Ixar, Kuru Tshesme, Miedzy- of books in the Judæo-German patois, the recz, Sudzilkow, and Zytomierz. At some dreadful jargon which passes current over of the places mentioned, in the list, only all the north and north-east of Europe, there one book was printed, as for instance, at are numerous specimens in the Museum LiTunis and at Casal Maggiore ; also at Pieve brary, including no small number of novels di Sa a spot which derives additional and tales, such as translations of the “ Arainterest from the fact that the second He- bian Nights," of " Sir Bevis of Southampbrew book was printed there, if not the first. ton,” and the like. This book, we are told, has been generally There are many other interesting subjects considered to be the second Hebrew book which the catalogue illustrates, as, for inprinted, the date of the colophon being stance, that of the satirical productions cirnearly five months after that of the Com- culated during the Feast of Purim, in which mentary on the Pentateuch by Rabbi Solo- it is considered allowable to jest upon submon Ben Isaac, extant in Parma, and print-jects at all other times held sacred, and to ed in the same year by Abrabam Ben Gar parody writings even of the holiest characton, in Reggio, but De Rossi thinks it really ter; but we have reached the limits of time is the first, for it is in four volumes, whereas and space, and all that is now left to us is the other is in one only; the probability, to conclude with an expression of gratificatherefore is, that it was commenced first. tion at finding that in the branch of Hebrew It is interesting to remark from the names literature, as well as in so many others, our contained in the list of printing-places, how national library stands specially prominent, widely spread has been the flow of the Jew- and that its riches have been rendered ish race across the world - Europe, Asia, available in so excellent a manner to the Africa, and America, are all represented. learned world, thanks to the wise liberality Australia does not figure in the list at pres of the Trustees of the British Museum and ent, but it will probably do so at a future the untiring industry and profound learning period, for wherever Jews congregate in of Mr. Zedner. any number, they usually set up a printingpress of their own. At present, Salonica, Leghorn, and Wilna appear to be the headquarters of Hebrew printing. Among other points of interest illustrat

From the London Review. ed in the present catalogue are the translations, the works in other languages printed

HEROIC LITERATURE. in Hebrew characters, and those in patois. Of translations, numbers have existed from IF we descend the stream of literature the early times, when the Jews translated from the earliest times to our own, we find the works of the Greek philosophers from that the heroic principle appeared in men's the versions of them made by Arabic writ- writings just in the same measure as it actuers, to the present day, in which the Jewish ated their lives. When successive Buddhas periodicals abound with renderings of mod- became incarnate, when Bacchus conquered ern writers in all sorts of languages. Thus India with his army of men and women of works of imagination we find in this cat- armed with cymbals and thyrsuses, when alogue translations of Goethe's “Faust," Odin revealed his heavenly hall, and Thor of a selection from Schiller's and from By- shook the hearts of the Norse with his ron's poetry, and of Eugene Sue's “ Mys- thunder; when Orpheus and Homer sang, teries of Paris," besides many others. hymns to the gods, — the deification of Among the Spanish, Portuguese, and Ital- heroes pervaded every branch of literature, ian Jewe, there have been few writers who and formed the staple of every work of the printed works in those languages in the He- imagination. When gods had ceased to brew character, but works of a correspond- becoine men, and only inspired them; when ing nature are rife among the Jews of Ger- Miriam, Deborah, and Anna were prophetmany and the whole north of Europe, in- esses, and Balaam took up his parable ; cluding Russia and Poland. The Spanish when Baal had his prophets, and Greece its Jews have always represented the aristoc far-famed oracles ; when Mahomet fled to racy of their race; the members, for in- Medina, and his followers stamped the idols stance, of the congregation of Spanish and of nations into the dust, — prophetic verse Portuguese Jews in London holding very came into vogue, divine responses were little intercourse in olden times with the written down from the beaks of Dodona's

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