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mill is the Linton Free School, a building of Having inspected the mines, the tourist the Elizabethan order. This was once a may proceed from Grassington, up the valley fashionable seminary, with classical masters ; of Wharf, towards Coniston, &c.; the road and many have received education within its is carried through Grass-wood: this forest is walls, who afterwards, attained considerable several miles in extent; and if the walks in it literary eminence. From some cause or other, were kept in proper order, and a few rustic the endowment grew less and less, and the seats erected, after the manner of Bolton, celebrity of the school declined; masters of might be rendered an object of equal attracinferior attainments becaine appointed, till tion. Who that has wandered amidst its at last it was only equalled in respectability moss-grown walks, now almost impenetrable by an Irish hedge - school. However, a —who that has looked down its quiet glades change for the better has taken place, and it -- who that has penetrated to its wild gloomy is now a flourishing school, where the children dells and rocky nooks and chasms, (such as of the poor (for whom no doubt the school Dibscar,)--who that has climbed its heights, was originally founded,) are taught useful and gazed on the alpine-like character of the knowledge, on a plan in which the excellencies surrounding country, and does not regret that of the Bell and Lancasterian systems are com- its noble proprietor, the Duke of Devonshire, bined. Near the Free-School is a sacred should not expend a trifle in keeping its spring, dedicated to the Virgin, and called walks in proper order. I have been told that “Our Lady's Well;" whatever miraculous the Duke never saw the wood ; if so, would powers its waters once possessed, have now that I were at his side, to whisper in his ear ceased; but its sweet pellucid waters are still that he has nothing at Chatsworth or Bolton in high repute for culinary purposes; and superior to it. of Grass-wood could be put there are few inhabitants in Grassington who into a proper state for tourists to visit, great will tolerate any water but that from Lady benefit would accrue to the neighbourhood. Well.

Should the noble proprietor ever think of After crossing the bridge beyond the well, what I have suggested, I have no doubt that and ascending a steep bank, we arrive at the about Bolton might be found interested indilittle town of Grassington, most romantically viduals, who would endeavour to thwart his built on the side of a lofty mountain. Of intentions. I have heard it said, that if Grassthis place I gave an account in a former wood became a “ show place," Bulton would volume of the MIRROR, and alluded to the be injured—why or wherefore I cannot tell lead mines in its vicinity. These mines are those who never see beyond their noses, may, on the summit of a mountain, and extend perhaps, be able to inform me. over a large tract of ground. The gentlemen The tourist having scrambled through who have the management pay the greatest Grass-wood, may, after visiting the Ghaist. attention, and show every civility to a stranger. rills, (another vortex in the Whart,) return These gentlemen are called captains; a title to Grassington; why I bring him back, I which, in all countries where there are mines, shall inforın you in my next communication, seems to be given to those who have the which will conclude the description of Wharf. management; in Germany, in Norway, in dale.

D. Russia, in Sweden, we find the same term similarly applied ; and looking at the deri

THE ORIGIN OF ST. ANDREW'S vation of the word captain, there seems no

UNIVERSITY, SCOTLAND. good reason for applying it exclusively to naval and military officers. When the The University of St. Andrew's was founded Grassington mines were first worked, is a by Archbishop Stewart, natural son to James matter in dispute; it has been asserted that the Fourth, and was called the college of they were worked in the time of the Romans, poor Charles. It appears from the foundalxur no antiquities have been found to warrant tion-charter, that there had been an hospital the conclusion. From the puritanic names in the same place for the receptiou and enter. which many of them have, such as Glory tainment of pilgrims of different nations, who Mine, one might suppose that several were crowded to St. Andrew's to pay their devotion first worked during the Protectorate. The to the arm of St. Andrew, which wrought tourist ought to visit the mines, not only for many miracles. At length, however, the arm the sake of their subterranean wonders, but of St. Andrew being tired with that laborious also for an inspection of the machinery; in kind of work, or thinking that he had done addition to which they are on every side enough, the miracles and the conflux of pilsurrounded by the finest mountain scenery grims ceased, and the hospital was deserted. imaginable. There is in the midet of these The prior and the convent, who had been the mines an interesting little valley, called Moss. founders, and were the patrons of the hospital, dale; as also a small lake or tarn, called then filled it with old women. But these Priest's Tarn, supposed to derive its name producing few of the fruits of devotion, were from having, in the days of old, been one of dismissed. The proprietors next formed it the haunts of the monks of Fountains.

into an University, where the different

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CRUMB OF BREAD.

branches of literature were to be taught. king, “the truth is, I have asked my subjects Though there are several revenues belonging so often for so much money, that I am really to this university, yet it has never arrived at ashamed to look them in the face." equal celebrity with the other three univer. sities.

THE CHARACTER OF THE FIRST

CENTURY. VERSES, ON BEING DEFIED TO WRITE A POEM ON A SMALL Ar the commencement of the Christian æra,

the greater part of the habitable globe was By an eminent Barrister,

subject to the Roman Empire. The minor (For the Mirror.)

nations were governed either by Ruman goThou little fragment of Mau's daily food,

vernors, or by their own princes in subordi. Tho' small, yet useful—tho' despised, yet good!

nation to the Roman senate. The ambition Poor lonely fractiou of a severed loaf, I scorn thee not! nor join another's scoff:

of Augustus Cæsar had, however, deprived What tho' moie dainty man's luxurious pride the people of all liberty but the name. The Disdainful sweep thee v'er the table's side,

form of goverument, and the laws of the RoStill, when ejected from the window's height, Thou draw'st the little red tireast's wistful sight; mans, were mild and equitable, but the inElate with joy he leaves the quivering spray, justice anıl avarice of the Prælas and Pro. Hops to the spot, aud pecks thee from the way. consuls were intolerable. The universal Then seeks his calluw brood iu neighb'ring tree,

dominion, and the general peace which then And strives to hush their infant wants with thee. That dune, he flies where just before he stood, reigued, gave to that century the appellation And carols the sweet song of gratitude !

of the Pacific Age. The want of records Or if perchauce thou 'scap'st the rubin's eye, renders it impossible to ascertain, with any A little care-fraught ant may wander nigh : At sight of thee, what raptures fill her heart ;

degree of precision, what was the state of the She views thee round and rouud, to fiud a part other nations who were not subject to the Where fast ning firmly she by force may trail Roinan yoke. The eastern regions were The massy blessing to her distant cell! In vain slie toils to drag the poud'rous weight,

strangers to the sweets of freedom, but the And hasteus homeward to procure her mate ;

northern, in their frozen dwellings, enjoyed Now both with puny prowess slowly drill

the blessings of freedom which their forins of The joyful burthen to the swarning hill.

government, their religious systems, and roAssembling crowds the prize with pleasure eye, Aud help to place thee in their granary;

bust constitution united to

and

preserve Where busy groups, with wisdom-teaching care,

maintain. Lay up, while summer lasts, the wiuter's fare. These nations were all sunk into superInstructive lesson for unheeding man, Who pines in peuury, yet rejects their plan,

stitions idolatry of a varied form, the deities Thou little morsel of man's daily food !

of every nation being different, and by conTho' small, thou blessest; tho coutemu'd, thou’rt sequence their rites of worship. This dif

good; Things which the proud despise, will oft impart

ference, however, produced no wars or reliA deep-felt blessing to a grateful heart.

gious contentions, but harmony reigned in

the region of idolatry. The general tendency SUNNY STREAM, SUNNY STREAM."

of all these religious systeins was to encouSonNy stream, sunny stream,

rage vice and profligacy of manners, by the Disporting on thy way,

examples of the actions they attributed to From these lovely regions,

their deities. What tempteth thee to stray ?

The Jews, who alone had been favoured In quest of roses brighter,

with the knowledge of the true God, had also Meand'ring dost thou flow?

in their period become exceedingly corrupted, In quest of lilies whiter, Capricious dost thou go?

erroneous in their principles, and immoral in Can'st find a happier sky,

their lives. Thus the general situation of the Mirror'd in ihy breast,

nations loudly called for the interposition of Oc smiling meads of summer Greener for thy rest ?

God to convey to the human mind true and Sunay stream, sunny stream,

certain principles of virtue and wisdom, and Disporting on thy way,

to recall wandering mortals to the sublime From these lovely regious

path of virtue. In such circumstances the Ah! whither would ye stay? Saviour of the world appeared, to introduce a

W. ARCHER.

new, sublime, and heavenly system of reli.

gion, adapted to all the human race, and cal. ROYAL MODESTY.

culated to produce universal felicity. And CHARLES the Second one day asked Dr. though that century is denominated the paStillingfleet why he read his sermons before cific age, yet if we contemplate the political him, and preached out of book elsewhere? character of the Romans in the political, and The Doctor replied, that preaching before so the first teachers of Christianity in the moral great an audience made him distrust his own world, and reflect upon the boldness, intreabilites. But in return, how is it that your pidity, and clemency exhibited by both, that Majesty reads your speeches in Parliament, period inay with no small degree of propriety, . having no such reason? Why,” said the claim the appellation of The Lion Period.

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WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM.

upon

Biography.

writing of the same fenor and datę, for a fue of forty pounds, and male the clerk of the Hanaper repay the other forty, pounds to the

said John Grey, to the defrauding, of the (Concluded from page 67.)

king." The bishop was heard upon these AFTER much ileliberation, and devout invo- articles before a certain number of bishops cation of the Divine assistance, considering and lords, and others of the privy-council

, how greatly the number of the clergy had assigned by the king for that purpose about been reduced by continual wars and frequent then middle of November; and, in cousepestilences, he determined to remedy, as far as quence of the judgment given by them upon he was able, this desolation of the church, by the last article, writs were issued from the relieving poor scholars in their clerical educa. Exchequer, dated the seventeenth of the same tion; and to establish two colleges of students, mouth, to the sheriffs of the several counties for the honour of God and the increase of his concerned, ordering them to seize, into the worship, for the support and exaltation of the king's hand, the temporalities of the Bishop Christian faith, and for the improvement of of Winchester. The bishop was also forbidthe liberal arts and sciences. Wykeham den by the Duke of Lancaster, in the king's appears to have come to this resolution soon name, to' come within twenty miles of the after his becoming Bishop of Winchester court. The clergy, however, looked for, shortly after that period, he made pur- these proceedings, not so much in regard to chases of several parcels of ground in the the injury they did Wykeham, as their incity of Oxford, which make the chief part of fringement of the liberty of the church; and, the site of his college there. His college at the people considering him as a person un. Winchester, was part of his original plan ; justly oppressed by the exorbitant power of for, as early as the year 1373, before he pro- the Duke of Lancaster, a tumult insued in ceeded any farther in his plan for the latter, his behalf, by which means he was restored he established a school at Winchester,' of the to the temporalities of his see, and to the same kind as the former, and for the same king's favour, a few days before the death of purpose. He accordingly entered into an that monarch ; which took place June 21, agreement with Richard de Herton, for ten 1377. Soon after this event, he commenced years, commencing at Michaelmas, 1373, by the erection of his college at Oxford; the which he agreed to instruct in grammatical king's patent for the building of which is learning, as inany poor scholars as the bishopdated November 26, 1379, by which it is enshould send to him, and 'no others without titled Seinte Maria College of. Wynchester his consent; that the bishop should provide in Oxenford. During the building of this and allow him a proper assistant; and that foundation, which was begun March, 1380, Herton, in case of his own illness, or neces- and finished April, 1386, he established ja sary absence, should substitute a proper proper form his society at Winchester, to master to supply his place. While Wyke- which, in the charter of incorporation, dated ham was preparing to carry these generonis October 20, 1382, he gives the same title as designs into execution, a party was formed the college at Oxford. As soon as he had against him at Court, which obliged him to completed his building at Oxford, he comlay them aside for the present." At the head menced that at Winchester, which he finished of this party was the Duke of Lancaster, who, in 1393. About this period he determined in resentment for Wykéhain's opposition to to rebuild a great part of his cathedral church, His party in the Parliament of 1376, procured the whole of which had been erected by eight separate articles of impeachment to be Bishop Walkelin, who began it in 1079. It brought against him by certain persons, for was of Saxon architecture, with round pillars, divers crimes committed during his adminis- or square piers, adorned with small pillars ; tration of the public affairs ; of the first seven round-headed arches and windows, and plain of these articles' no proof was ever made, walls on the outside, without buttresses ; the judgment being given solely and sepatately nave had been for some time in a bad condiupon the last, which runs thus: “ That the tion. Wykeham, upon a due survey, detersáid bishop, when he was chancellor, by his mined to take the whole down, from the tower own authority, often caused fines, after they westward, and to rebuild it in a more magni. were enrolled, to be lessened, and the rolls to ficent manner. He commenced this great be erased ; and in particular, that of John work in 1395, upon certain conditions, stipuGrey of Berherfield, who made a fine with lated between him, the prior, and convent, the king, in the forty-first year of his reign, of and finished it in the style commonly called eighty pounds, for licence of feoffients of gothic, with pointed arches and windows, certain lands and tenements, which was paid' without key-stones, and pillars consisting of into the Hanaper ; but the said bishop, on an assemblage of many small ones, closely the pretence of some bargain between him" connected together. This great pile, which and 'the said John Grey, caused the firs: took about ten years in erectipg, was just writing to be cancelled, by making another finished when the bishop died. He had pro

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vided in his will for the entire completion of his title to the said estates, to be kept bý his design by his executors, in case of his them, and to be applied to no other use whatdeath, and allotted two thousand five hundred ever, for twenty years after his decease ; after marks for what then remained to be done, which term the whole, or remainder not so and five hundred marks for the glass windows. applied, was to be freely delivered to Sir Besides this great benefaction to his cathe- Thomas Wykeham or his heirs. dral, he purchased estates to the value of two It may be truly said of the subject of this hundred marks a-year, in addition to the memoir, ihat few men ever exceeded him in lands of the bishopric. While he was re- acts of munificence and charity, among sevebuilding his cathedral, he was engaged in ral of which may be mentioned the following: several great trusts and offices under Richard – At his first entrance upon the bishopric of the Second. The Parliament summoned by Winchester, he remitted to his poor tewants Henry IV., a few days after his accession to certain acknowledgments usually paid, and, the throne, was the last he attended in per- due by custom, to the amount of five hundred son; he ever after sent procurators to excuse and two pounds, one shilling, and sevenpence. his absence, on account of his age and infir- To several officers of the bishopric, who had' mities. Being blessed with an excellent become poor, he at different times remitted constitution, he had enjoyed an uncommon sums due to him to the amount of two thou." share of health, having been Bishop of Win. sảnd marks. He paid for his tenauts, three chester thirty years, and in all that period several times, the subsidies granted to the had only once been interrupted by illness, in hing by Parliament. In 1377, he discharged the attendance upon his dnty in every capa. the whole of the debts of the prior and concity." At the end of the year 1401, he retired vent of Shelborne, to the amount of a hunto South Waltham, and, on the January fol- dred and ten marks, eleven shillings, and fourlowing, he appointed Dr. Nicholas Wakeham' pence; besides making the convent a free and Dr. John Elner, to be his coadjutors in gift of a hundred marks. Fro:n the time of the bishopric. But although he had taken' his heing made bishop of Winchester, he procoadjutors to his assistance, he still personally vided for, at least, twenty-four poor persons attended and directed his affairs, both public every day, not only in' victuals, but also in and private, admitting all persons who had distributing money among them. He conany business to transact with him, to his tinually employed his friends and attendants upper chamber. This practice he was able to search after those whose modesty would to continue until within a few days of his not suffer them to make their distresses death, which took place, September 27, 1404. known; and to go to the houses of the sick He was buried, according to his directions, in and needy, and inform themselves of their his own oratory, in the cathedral church of particular calamities. To such as were in Winchester. His funeral was attended by a prison for debt, he was attentive and comgreat concourse of people, many of whom, passionate; inquiring into their circumstances, doubtless, attended out of regard to his me- compounding with their creditors, and promory, but a great number of the poorer sort curing their release. He expended vast came to partake of the alms which were to be sums in repairing the roads, making causedistributed : having ordered by his will, that ways, and building bridges, between London in whatever place he should happen to die, and Winchester, and many other places. and through whatever places his body should He likewise repaired a number of churches be carried, between the place of his death and that were gone to decay, besides furnishing the cathedral church of Winchester, in all them with books, a hundred pair of vestthese places; to every poor tenant, that had ments, a hundred and thirteen silver chalices, held of him there as Bishop of Winchester, and other ornaments.

W. G. C. should be given, to pray for his soul, four pence; and to every other poor person, ask.

THE ONLY MEANS OF ENJOYING ing alms, two pence, or one penny at least, according to the discretion of his executors;

LIFE. and that on the day of his burial, to every. The whole structure of our nature, and the poor person coming to Winchester, and ask. whole condition of our being, prove that our ing aims for the love of God, and for the Maker intended us not for a life of indolence, health of his soul, should be given four pence. but of active exertion. All the organs of the He appointed his grand-nephew, the Reverend body, and all the faculties of the mind, are Thomas Wykeham, to be his heir, and one instruments of action, and it is only by conof his executors, with six others, to whom he stant exercise that these powers can be rebequeathed a thousand pounds for their trou. tained in a healthful state, and man enjoy ble. He had before put him in possession of any tolerable degree of felicity. If the body his manors and estates, to the value of six be suffered to remain long inactive, it will hundred marks a-year, and he deposited in lose its strength, and become a prey to disease, the hands of the warden and scholars of new at the same time the mental faculties will be college, a hundred pounds for the defence of gradually enfeebled, and the whole fabric of:

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were

human happiness be undermined by fretful. had passed the Val-de-Grace, when seteta) dess and spleen. It is, on the contrary, a were evidently bending their steps in that matter of constant experience, that a regular, direction ; for in the immediate neighbourcourse of bodily exercise is conducive to hood, the erection of the guillotine is a sufhealth, exhilirates the spirits, and contributes ficient signal of what is to follow. Oo to the easy and successful employment of the arriving at the Place St. Jacques, in the intellectual powers.

centre of which the scaffold was erected, & The frequent application of the mind to moderate crowd had assembled, forming a study establishes a habit of thinking, which large semicircle, commencing from the barrier renders it easy and pleasing to engage in any on each side. They were chiefly, composed, kind of scientific or literary pursuit; but å it is true, of the lower orders, but several mind which remains lung unemployed, loses very respectable-looking : females its delicacy and vigour, and degenerates into amongst them; and we observed three or languor and stupidity.

four decent-looking voitures, drawn up under As the earth, if it be industriously culti. the trees of the boulvards, and outside the vated, will produce fruits in rich abundance; ring of people, filled with spectators. Of so if it be permitted to remain long unculti- course, all the windows commanding a vated, it will be covered with weeds, which glimpse of the area were fully occupied ; and will be rank in proportion to the richness of we were surprised to observe, at many of the soil. In like manner the human mind, them, several young girls of seventeen or if cultivated with great assiduity, will yield a eighteen, whose dress and demeanour beplentiful harvest of knowledge and wisdom ; tokened them to belong to a respectablesphere on the contrary, if neglected, it will gradually of life, anxiously gazing on the fearful prebe corrupted with the seeds of error and folly, parations of bloodshed. The crowd were and the noxious weeds will grow up in the certainly amusing themselves in a most hilagreatest abundance in those minds which are rious manner; itinerant venders of cakes by nature capable of producing the most and marchands de coco were perambulating excellent fruits. The obvious and the unde amongst them; and a stranger would have viable fact is, that man was made for action, thought they were waiting during the entr'. and not for indolence.

acte of an exhibition of mountebanks,

instead of being collected together to see Manners and Customs.

fellow.creature deprived of life. We recog. nised a municipal guard among the soldiers, with whom we were slightly acquainted, and

with his permission we were allowed to apAn Execution.

proach the scaffold. The guillotine was We were beguiling our time one evening at the ground, resting on an open framework of

erected on a platform about seven feet from A small but comfortable café, in the Rue de timber, all of which was painted red. By Vaugirard; sipping our demi-tuese, and read

the side of the plank on which the criminal ing Galignani's Messenger, to see how

was to be confined, was a long basket of things were going on at home, when the

coarse work, filled, we presume, with sand proprietor, a civil and intelligent man, informed us, in an under tone, that an execution the head was strapped to the uprights be

or sawdust, and the box for the reception of was to take place the next morning at the tween which the ponderous knife was to fall.. Barrière d'Arcueil, but that it was not gene- On one side of the scaffold was a common rally known,

as the time and place of the market cart, in which two men were calmly fatal operation of the guillotine are always sitting and smoking their pipes--this

was kept secret. Now this struck us as a singular contradiction. The executions in

to convey the body away; and on the other Paris, as everywhere else, are for the avowed machine itself

. The circle of spectators was

we observed a light waggon to carry off the purpose of example, in consequence of which they are generally quite private, in preserved by the municipal guard stationed

in pairs at short distances, and the gens order that nobody may witness them. Anxious to behold so terrible, yet at the knots in the centre. About a quarter to

d'armes were conversing in different little same time so novel a spectacle to an English. man, we rose early the next morning, and by eight the cloud of dust at the end of the

Boulvard d'Enfer, proclaimed the approach Peven o'clock were on our way to the barrier of the cavalcade, a circumstance which since the removal of the scene of blood from seemed to be hailed with much glee by the the Place de Grève, in front of the Hotel de mob. A large detachment of horse-soldiers Ville. The inhabitants of Paris are an early city functionaries, in a lutècienne ;* and lastly,

came first; then, we presume, some of the people, and business was quite alive at this

the criminal van, in which we were informed hour; but we did not see that tide of spectators pressing towards the spot, as we • A small four-wheeled fy for one horse, contain.'. should have observed in England, until we

ing three persons.

SKETCHES OF PARIS.

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