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mistaken the growing desire fo: knowledge selection of works; he hoped it would not that is every where discovering itself, be a mere circulating library, but one that
We have been led into these reflections in would be found of great advantage to the consequence of attending the opening of the members, in consequence of the selection, METROPOLITAN INSTITUTION, now holding which he was anxious should be made with at Salvador House, Bishopsgate-street. The judgment and ability ; he was also desirous manner in which the Conversazioné was ar- that it should be augmented by donations, ranged, showed that the great object which and observed, that he had that evening set the managers have in view, is to meet the the example. The address was well received ; wants of the inhabitants of the neighbour- and from its suitability to the occasion, we hood - the literary wants that have been have little doubt of its proving of lasting becreated by the “ advancement' of society- nefit to the members.
want som the scientific wants that have been produced The institution possesses, reading and by the grent exertions made during pust news-rooms, which are open from eight in years for the advancement of science by the the morning until eleven at night; the reado British nation. Literature, the Fine Arts, ing-room is well supplied with the quarterly, and Science, formed prominent features in monthly, and weekly periodicals, also with the exhibition; thus each class of members new works, and the news-room with the found their peculiar tastes gratified. A por- morning and evening papers. Lectures are tion of the literature of Egypt, consisting of delivered weekly in the theatre of the Insticopies of the inscriptions on the Rosetta tution. On the 10th instant, Professor Stone, and impressions from various Egyp. Vaughan delivered the first lecture on the tian tombs, attracted considerable attention. connection between literature and the state Several of the paintings were very splendid, of society in ancient and inodern times."?, the original portrait of the Queen, painted by The Doctor very lucidly showed that literar the express command of her Majesty, was a ture is an index to the character of the somost interesting object; ulso Grace Darling ciety that produces it; that the literature of and her father proceeding to the wreck cf a nation gives it a lasting existence, while a the Forfarshire; we also ubserved some nation without literature is doomed to be beautiful sketches froin nature, which were forgotten-he remarked, that oriental litera. well executed.
ture is particularly characterized by its enThe contents of the tables carried us back forcing the requirements of religion; and in imagination to periods " when man dwelt that however absurd the religious systenis of not upon the earth.” Several geological the East might have been, yet through the specimens from the secondary and tertiary medium of literature, they had a beneficial formations commended scientific research to effect upon mankind. The Professor then the inquiring mind; and we have little doubt passed on to the literature of Greece, and that the exhibition of the evening excited spoke of Homer as choosing for his partisome ardent mind to pursue investigation; cular subject, “Man ;" he contrasted the and it may not be too much to hope, that literature of Greece with the oriental on the some future Humboldt may date his first one hanil, and the Roman on the other, and aspirations for scientific fame from the open particularly expatiated on the theatrical ing of the Metropolitan Institution, as did exhibitions of Greece, as compared with the the celebrated traveller observe, “ that he exhibitions in the anıphitheatre of Rome, the was excited to scientific research by one former being of a character more consonant George Wood.” While the Geological re- with humanity than the latter, which exhi. ceived delight, the Entomological was gra- bited the condition of the public mind, that tified by some very splendid insects from could not be satisfied unless it feasted itself Brazil, and the searcher into the minute in on the groans and agonies of the dying. He nature experienced high gratification from then took occasion to show the influence the exhibition of three very powerful micros. which these distinct characters exerted on copes ;-thus the Institution, as before ob- the literature of the two nations. In the served, showed its readiness to meet the same way he contrasted the oratory and his. wants of society,
tory of Greece and Rome, and then passed on We should, however, be much wanting in to modern literature. Here the Doctor diour duty, were we to pass over the very ex- lated on the influence which Christianity had cellent in jugural address, delivered in the exerted on society, and remarked that neither theatre, by the President, Thomas Bell, Esq. Greece nor Rome ever witnessed such as F.R.S. F.L.S. &c. &c.; he dilated on the spectacle as his audience witnessed that importance of the youth of the metropolis evening. A number of persons of both sexes joining such an institution, and adverted to assembled to seek that intellectual gratificathe frivolous, and even hurtful nature of tion which is to be derived from literature ; many places of amusement which they would and he traced this to the bland and humanthus be prevented from attending : he also izing spirit of Christianity, which elevates spoke of the library, and particularly urged the female mind to its just level in society. the attention of the managers to the careful He then proceeded to make some observa.
tions on literary patronage, and remarked, not for the plain English words interspersed, that there had been three distinct kinds of between, you might imagine yourself amongst patronage afforded to literary men. The a modern tribe of unintelligible Troglodytes. patronage of the great and wealthy, which Yet there are some phrases of this modus was prevalent previous to the days of Dryden loquendi which are more comprehensive, if and Pope. The patronage of the booksellers, not more poetical than the preceding. One which extended from the times of Dryden phrase certainly flavours of refinement, and and Pope to our own boyhood ; and lastly, resembles the Greek method of personifying, the patronage of the public, which was the inanimate objects, and enduing stock and most important, as the growing taste for lite- stone with powers of utterance and vocabirature was now becoming so extensive, that lity. Thus, sometimes when the free circu. a worthless book was soon forgotten, while lation of the air is stopped, it naturally at one that commended itself to the feelings such times passes by the nearest passage to and sympathies of mankind lived in their es- the furnace, seeking to relieve itself at every timation; therefore, if the audience wished crevice it can find. These stoppages are to know the character of a book, the best termed “ callings,” because if an interruption way was to read it: The Doctor closed the has taken place anywhere, the stopping belecture with some very appropriate remarks gins to sing or call, that is, gives indication, relative to the Institution, as a means for the of an interruption in the air-course, and so further cultivation of literature ; and referred does every stopping in the same line, all of his audience to a large map of Europe and them making a whistling noise ; and the. Asia, on which he pointed out the various instant such an effect is discovered, the party spots where literature had flourished: he discovering it, calls, “ Holloa, there is someparticularly directed the attention of his thing wrong, the doors are " calling.'” auditory to Greece, a spot that could scarcely Many other instances might be adduced of be seen on the map; yet by its literature, similar verbal peculiarities, the foregoing that country had raised for itself an impe. however serves as a specimen. rishable monument of greatness, and by this It appears that in some coal-mines the means far eclipsed the surrounding nations. labour is unusually difficult, and instances He then briefly adverted to the evils that have been known where men have rather had been associated with literature, and put thrust themselves where danger was momen. the inquiry, that if the case could be made tarily impending, so that they might work out that more evil than good had resulted with comparative ease. What are termed the from literature, should we abandon it? No: “ fiery pits,” are those where danger is immilet us rather increuse the good, that it may nent, and where in five minutes the breath of overcome the evil. But it was well known life may be remedilessly taken away. Thus that it could not be made out, and therefore a workman has been known to go from a pit we should go on increasing the good, and that was not fiery into one that was fiery; diminishing the evil; yea, using the weapons exclaiming at the same time, “I would of the enemy against hinself, and in this rather be working at the other pit than at respect, as well as every other, “ England
this, for it is such hard work”: the coal being
this, for it is such hard work”, the expects every man to do his duty.”
hard and gritty, and dreadfully difficult to
work: but it was far less dangerous than the COAL MINES.
other, in consequence of being bad coal : he Every trade and profession has certain sig. said, iherefore, he would rather work in the nificant technicalities belonging to itself, fiery pit on accouat of the ease with which which students find to constitute their chief he worked than in the safe pit. difficulty on entering upon the study of them. One of the most dangerous things attenThe terms employed in music are at this day dant on an explosion in a mine, is the great so numerous, that a volume has of late been quantity of carbonic acid gas which is left published explanatory of its hundreds of behind. It is rarely that a light can be kept phrases. If the law has its thousand, physic in on its approach. Sometimes too it is so is embarrassed with its ten thousand. De abundant, that, in the course of an hour, scending from profession, we find every trade thousands of yards of space are filled with in like manner furnished with its own pecu- this gas. In parts of a mine strongly venti, liar phrases and words. The miner has, lated, black damp may be seen running in a perhaps, if not so great a multitude, yet as parallel line close by the air-conrse, where it great a singularity in the phrases employed travels so rapidly, that no workman can keep by him, as any of the foregoing. As soon as a candle in. If a workman accidentally place you' enter a pit, your ear is assailed by his head less than a yard from the free curvolleys of words, which till then had never rent, he is almost sure to fall a victim to it, if fallen on the auscultatory nerve.—"Blowers," not immediately removed. When a miner and “ brattices,'" “ drifts dam-doors," “ in- has been struck by the black-damp, they im. take," along with a hundred other mining mediately run him to the air-pit or shaft, terms, constantly salute you; so that, were it place him in the basket, and have him wound
up to the bank. The mode they then adopt The English Bijou Almanack, for 1839. to revive him is to cut a hole out of the earth at the surface, and place him with his face
The press have been so lavish in their praises
of the English Bijou Almanack, that we are downwards! this generally, though not in every case, restores the checked animation.
left without words to express our admiration
of that interesting literary and pictorial More Owing to the escape of inflammable gas,
Barceau. All that is left for us to say is, that and the noxious state of the water, a stream
it is a Gem, although no bigger than an underground in these pits may be caused to boil like hot water. At such times it is
agate-stone on the fore finger of an aldercommon for the females the workmen's man, 18 nevertheless embellished with por.
traits of the Duchess of Kent, Lady Bleswives and daughters, to go down to the
sington, Madame Pasta, Duke of Wellington, stream with the washing they have to per form
T Sir Thomas Lawrence, and Beethoven, with for their families. After digging a
18 poetical effusions from the pen of our la. hole in the side of the stream, about ten or
mented "L. E. L;" together with a comtwelve inches deep, they fill it with pebbles,
plete almanack. Really this little chronicle stones, &c., and then put a candle to it: by
is a great curiosity, and not unworthy of this means they have plenty of boiling water in without further trouble, or the expense of mighty folio ; for we must remember, that
being placed in the library along with the fuel. It is a remarkable fact, affirmed by miners,
A Nullam virtus respuit staturan. : that coal at the pit's mouth burns a great besides, the poet also tells us deal more freely and brilliantly, and the com- To prize little things, nor think it in bustion is much better, thau after they have That men small things preserve. A had sea-voyages, as is the case with coals We shall transcribe the words of The brought for instance from the North of Eng. Farewell, which L. E. L. wrote for this land to this metropolis. This arises from tome a short time previous to her leaving the the moisture of the coal. If all coal were to " Home of her Fathers :" be dried in ovens, it would exhaust much the bitumen which it contains ; it does not burn
My little fairy clırouicle, so freely and powerfully unless there is a The prettiest of my tasks, fueuell bulk of it. One single coal will not burn at Ere other eyes shall meet this line,
Far other records will be mine all; put two together and they assist each
How many miles of trackless sex other; they reflect their own heat, and give Will roll between my land aud me! it out to each other ; but if these two coals I said thine elfiu almanack are perfectly dry they will not burn so well.
Should call all pleasant hours back ;
Amid those pleasant hours will none If coal for domestic use is put partly into a
Thiuk kindly on what I hitve done? damp cellar and partly into a dry cellar, it
Then, fairy page, I leave with thee, will burn very differently in the same house, Some memory of my songs and me. and the bitumen of the coal is best preserved by water or dampness. This fact is worthy I UJUOT09 HHT of being noted by housekeepers.
KAVA TREE. It is curious to observe, how even in the The part of the valley which we visited, was subterranean recesses of these mines, the densely covered with the celebrated tree, scale of rank and precedencies goes. The known in the South Sea Islands by the name lowest grade are the trap-door keepers: boys of Kava, here also called, from its ungrateful who attend to the doors, to open and shut taste, kauakaua, or bitter: hts height is about them to let the workmen in and out. The next twenty feet, with a leaf of bright green, similar in class and age are the « rolley-drivey,” to the laurel tribe; its leaves, when crushe!, who are stouter Boys, about twelve or fourteen yield an aromatic fragrance. Several of the
ars of age there are drivers of horses, palm tribe raised their tall heads above the which convey coals from the crane to the surrounding foliage, as ziloqorizm edt to fast bottom of the shaft. The next grade is that --One tree was pointed out to me as peculiar of boys called putters,” who fill the coal to this spot, and stated by the natives, who from the hewers; their ages vary from fifteen accompanied ine, and whose residences were to twenty-three years. To these follow the at far distant settlements on the coast, as miners themselves. Then comes the “de-growing only in this valley; it was in height nuty,” who acts under the direction of the thirty-five feet, with spreading branches,
overman-14then comes the under- frondiferous, and of a similar colour to a vewer who descends the mine daily to see species of phillanthus, that is found in large that the mine everywhere is rightly attended quantities near the beech. The tree is nu to, and over him is the * viewer, or chief ciferous, and bore at the time clusters of superintendant or manager. These together early berries, which, when in a mature sfate; constitute the administration of a well-ordered are dried by the natives, and used as beads. and regularly-conducted coal-mine.
-Polack's New Zealand. goru" 10 a 176 etansi 1191903 TO moissoils bus vgo W. ARCHER. 5 diterus
s a HT Saw
Pos to 19 TESTIS srt bus THE PORTCULLIS IN ROCHESTER CASTLE.
219059792uod.yd.pstoa wisu Ebw The raisi d poricnllis arch they pass, M T French porte coulisse, signifying a door 1997 Tlie wicket with its bars of brass, . .., sliding in a grove,* of which the Tower of SIBUS The entrance long and low ;
London affords more than one example, where Flanked at each turn by loopholes strait, "Wrere bowmen mighi in ambush wait
the ponderous frame, with its teeth of jagged Hodif fotce or fraud should barst the gate.) iron, may be partly seen below the arch in ikliaia To-gall an eatering fue,
the manner shown in the accompanying cu, erewig a9894141 61,
Lord of the Isles. which represents the portal of Rochester The figure of this ancient engine of military Castle, sketched during a recent visit to that Neferice is rendered familiar to every inhabi august and venerable ruin. It is viewed from tant of the metropolis as the armorial emblem the interior of a smailer tower on the north of the City of Westminster; and from its con- side of the keep, forming says Mr. Britton, Stahta vecurrence Vámong the decorations of a sort of vestibule to the chief entrance edifices built or repaired by the Lancastrian doorway to the first floor, and this is apmoparehs,'(whose badge it also formed, in proached by a fight of steps, commencing at allusion to the sovereignty of Castile, assumed the western side, and returning round the by Pohn of Gaunt:) as at Henry the Seventh's corner. This part, as well as every otle: porChipolog zblinie & to bus 137 st tion of the tower, was calculated to afford
'esistence may be traced from a very re- advantage and security to its inhabitants : for more period; andílso extensively was it em at the time of its erection, kings, bi hops, ployed in the middle ages, down to the latest barons. and all classes of society, were perpuriod of the feudal system that most of the petually engaged in warfare, either foreign or Eastles remaining in this country, and other domestic. Thus we find, on a careful exami
sem on suen09 parts of Europe, furnish instances of its Vide Britton's Dictionary, n most valuable work use. The naine is a mere corruption of the on the etymology and application of ancient terms.
nation of this fortress, that its walls, doors, cullis ; but Hurstmonceaux, and perhaps some windows, as well as the external stairs of ap. others, are equally unprovided, the protection proach, were designed and constructed to of a draw-brudge being probably deemed suf. repel wassailants, and to protect the inha. ficient. in III 44m
sy on t pris llege bitants, but stil 107" ,1 4 3 The first ascent was by a flight of twelve , Anecdote Gallery.ont for or thirteen steps, leading round the north-west ""! 45 P!OP 10
Hi! It uscate angle, ito an arched doorway, beneath which
THE LATE MR, DELPINI, THE clown or a flight of seven steps led forward to a draw
· COVENT-GARDEN THEATRE, 41 mm bridge, that connected with the arched gate
Many anecdotes are told of this celebrated way to the entrance tower: this opened into
master of posture and grimace, but none ex. the vestibule, between which and the keep
hibits his eccentricity in a more ludicrous there were no other avenues of communication than by a third-arched passage in the thick
point of view than the following, which was ness of the wall. This latter inlet to the body
one evening related at Brooks's by Mr. of the keep, was defended by a massive door
Sheridan, when the Prince and Duke of
York, who knew Delvini well, were preand porteullis, the hinges and grooves of
wasonyi 31.1 which remain ; and in the roof are openings
It should be premised, that several memfor the purpose of showering missiles on the
bers of the royal family, and particularly the heads of assailants. The portcullis, of which the windlass and attendants were concealed,
Prince of Wales, had pressed Sheridan to
procure the insertion of Delpini's name in seems to have been applicable rather as a pre.
the books of the Theatrical Fund, in order cautionary device against surprise, (as the
to secure a provision for his old age. Mr. entrance could be thus closed when it might
Sheridan did all in his power to promote the have been impossible to shut the gates,) than
object in question ; but one grand difficulty as a permanent barrier, it being inferior, in
was started in the course of the negociation, point of resistance to external force, to the
which even his influence could not well resolid studded gate, with its “beam, and bolt,
move :—this was, that as Mr. Delpini was and chain,” which is in most instances found
merely a clown, he could not be admitted; in connection with it. The ruse-de-guerre
for the laws of the society forbade relief to by which the castle of Linlithgow was
any but such as were accustomed to speak forced by Biuneck, a partizan of Bruce, in
on the stage. A remedy, however, was at the early part of the fourteenth century, af.
length suggested, viz. :that a few words fords, in the language of Sir Walter Scott, a should be written in the forthcoming panwell-drawn portrait of the warfare of the Tomir
tomime, for Delpini to repeat; and thus he period. “ Accustomed to supply the gar
was to rank among the Garricks and the rison with forage, Binnock concealed eight
Kembles of the day. armed Scots in his wain, which was appa
The words in question were only three in rently loaded with hay. He employed a
nuniber; and they were to be uttered by strong-bodied bondsman to drive the waggon,
Delpini in the character of a Magician, at and he himself walked beside it, as if to see the instant that Harlequin and Columbine his commodity safely delivered. When the
were in the act of embracing: they were cart was in the gateway, beneath the port- o Pluck them asunder!!! cullis, Binnock, with a sudden blow of an Big with the expectation of his pension, ase which he held in his hand, severed the but more so with the importance of his new harness which secured the horses to the wain. character. Delvini repeated the above short Finding themselves relieved from the draught, sentence on every occasion, for several the horses sprang forward, Binpock shouted weeks, and with every possible variety of a signal word, and at the same time struck accent and intonation. duwn the porter with his axe. The armed There was not a performer in the theatre ment started from their concealment among whom he did not apply to to hear him re the hay-the English attempted to drop the hearse his part; so that, at length, every one povrcuilis, or shut the gate; but the loaded voted him a complete bore. wain prevented alike the fall of the one and The gentleman whose applause he was the closing of the other. A party of armed most anxious to obtain was Mr. Kemble; Seots, who lay in ambush waiting the event, and, whenever he met him behind the scenes, rushed in at the shout of their companions, in the passages, or in the green-room, he and the castle was theirs.''
caught hold of him by the arm, or by a Still further ingenuity would, however, have button, and held hiin fust, until he had rebeen required in some cases, as at Warwick peated the important words with suitable Castle, which had two porteullises, at a cun gesture and action. siderable distance from each other; and at O ne night, as Kenble was standing beside Carnarvon there were four.
the wing, helmeted and buskined as CorioConingsbro: Castle has been remarked as a lanus, and, with truncheon in hund, preparsingular instance of the omission of the port- ing to lead the Volsci forth to battle, Del