Oh ! may the Power who gave us thee . .common employment, as will sufficiently ap

Awhile on earth to blossom,
To show how much of heaven may be,

pear from the two following, copied 'froin Within a human bosom ;

the title-pages of different publications; thus Long with thee bless our loving eyes,

we have the “ Bass Viol and Flutein one A beam of glory given;

instance; and in another, the Golden Viol;" The polar star of Paradise,

these instances might of course be readily To guide our souls to Heaven.

multiplied, but as they are all of somewhat

the same nature, the two given are sufficient CROMWELL'S PARENTAGE.

for our present purpose. To the Editor of the Mirror.

It is a fact, perhaps as interesting as any

in the whole range of Typographical his• SIR,- The interesting notitia of the opi. tory, that our early music-printers did not, as nions of Cromwell, as emanating from vari.

inight have been supposed from the imper'ous writers, recorded in number 949 of fect date of the art at such an early period the Mirror, induces me to forward some par- of its existence, print from stamped or enticulars of his family, not generally known. graved plates, in imitation of the mode of Cromwell's mother was daughter to Stewart

wart printing from cut blocks, but actually from of Rothsyth, in the Shire of Fife, in Scotland,

and, moveable type; so that the music type could -the situation of Rothsyth Castle is almost be put up and printed at the same time, and opposite to Hopeton House, on a rock near nearly with as little trouble, as the com. the sea. The family of Rothsyth passed mon letter-press type itself; and this must into England, at the time of the accession of have been a very considerable advantage at James VI., and the barony of Rothsyth be- this early period of the art of music-printing, came the property of the Earl of Hopeton. · Robert Cromwell, the father of the Protec.

as may readily be conceived..

This method of printing musical compositor, although, by the means of his elder bro- tions was introduced about the latter end of ther, Sir Oliver, made a Justice of the Peace, 'the fifteenth century, and continued to be in Huntingdonshire, was possessed of a very used as the ordinary mode of printing music 'slender estate, much of his support being till the commencement of the eighteenth cen. derived from a brewhouse in Huntingdon, tury: about which period a very considerable managed chiefly by his wife, sister to Sir alteration was made, as will be subsequently Robert Stewart, of the city of E!y, Knt., who explained. bequeathed to his nephew, afterwards Lieu. The first musical characters (according to tenant-General and Protector of the Common. Mr. Ames) that issued from the press in wealth of England, his estate of about five England, are to be found in an exceedingly cuhundred pounds per annum, in the Isle ofrious work, by Ralph Higden, which is known Ely.


to the antiquarian portion of the literary world

under the name of the “Polychronicon.sk EARLY ENGLISH MUSIC-PRINTERS.

This interesting work was translated by

Treviso, and given to the world about the BY EDWARD F. RIMBAULT,

year 1495, from the press of the celebrated ORGANIST OF EGLISSE SUISSE.

- Wynken de Worde," who was a inan of (For the Mirror.)

remarkable character, and one to whose exerThe subject of this paper, as the above title tions the press owes many of its improvements; indicates, is to treat of the old music-printers, he was then settled in Westminster. It is as distinguished from the ordinary printers of not known whether Wynken de Worde the periods to which, in the course of the folprinted any other work besides this in which lowing pages, we shall have occasion to refer; musical characters were used; I have not seen for although most of the printers of the time, any other, nor either am I aware of any musias a matter of course, would in the routine of cal author mentioning to the contrary; and business be called upon to print and publish this I think may be regarded as a curious musical works, as well as others of a different circumstance, because he was one of the description, yet, as it is well known, most of most extensive as well as one of the best our early musical literature was mainly issued printers of his time, and it may be imagined from the presses of printers who devoted that if any other musical work had been issued themselves more exclusively to the publication from his press, it would have been known of musical compositions ; not that they ever to some of the musical historians, who are, debarred themselves from printing other works, however, quite silent on this point. but because this constituted the greater part There appears to be a blank in the of their occupations, insomuch that most of .

. . The series of our modern English Chronicles this class of publishers, more especially at a may, perhaps, be considered as commencing with later period, distinguished their shops from John de Trevesa's translation of Heydon's Polycho

nicon, first printed by Caxton in 1482-but the mu

'sical characters do not occur in Caxton's edition, as was then the common custom, which had

Wynken de Worde's reprint being, in many respects,

W: immediate reference to their occupations and very different.


history of music-printing for a consider ters occor, which, indeed, is clearly demon. able period, namely, from the year 1495, stratied from other sources. which was the date of the publication of the The next printer who appears to have em“Pulychronicon” of Wynken de Worde, up ployed himself in printing musical composi. to the year 1550; in which year a printer, of tions, is one William Serres, of whom, how. the name of Richard Grafton, published å ever, little is known ; in the year 1563, he very curious and interesting work, entitled, published the work of Dr Tye's, which was PÅ Boke of Common Praier, noted :" during of a religious cast, as most of the musical this interval, however, some few books are works of this period were, under the singular known to have been published; but as they title of the « Actes of the Apostles, trans. are both few, and of a very trifling nature, lated into English metre, and dedicated to and not from the press of any printer of note, the Kinges most excellent Majestie, with we may look upon this period as blank. notes to each Chapter to synge, and also to

This Boke of Common Praier' is the com- play upon the lute, very necessary for stuposition of John Marbeck, organist of the 'dents after their studie to tyle their wittes ; Chapel Royal, Windsor, and is considered and also for all Christians that cannot synge, valuable en several accounts, as it is nearly to read the good and godly storyes of the one of the earliest books of the kind printed lives of Christ and his Apostles." in England, in which musical notes are intro. Dr. Christopher Tye, the author of the duced; and it contains the rudiments of our above work, was tutor to the young king, present cathedral service, so that we are able Edward the Sixth, to whom the book is deto trace, with considerable ease and precision, dicated; it was composed expressly for the the various changes that have been intro- Royal Chapel, it being well known that both duced into the religious ceremonies and ser- Henry the Eighth, his son Edward, and vices of this country, from the period just men. Queen Elizabeth, were lovers of music, which tioned, through all its gradations and improve. they patronised to a very considerable extent ments, up to the present time. The title. during their respective reigns. That such a page of this work contains the following curious title should have been given to a statement of its content and meaning.-" In book of a serious character, may perhaps this boke is contayned so much of the order appear strange to the people of a more reof Common Praier as is to be sunge in the fined age, who are accustomed to the brief Churches, wherein are used only four sortes but elegant titles' which are now given to of notes." of the notes contained in this book, such works, in lieu of the quaint titlus of our the annexed diagram is a speciinen, taken forefathers.

The curious phrase used in the text, namely, to "fyle their wittes," will be understood to mean, that they should learn

music as an extra accomplishment, which it from a copy in the British Museum ; and, as

was desirable all students should know after it will be perceived, they are different from

having passed through their college studies.* those now in use, indeed they differed consi

This accomplishment, and dancing, at one derably from those that had preceded them; !

period being of as much use and importance 80 much so, that at the time of the publicae

to the youth of the higher classes as the rution of the work, the author thought it neces.

diments of their ordinary education. sary to append the following brief but inter.

The idea of recommending a book of music

to all Christians that cannot synge," will esting explanation, which is taken verbatim from his work :-". The first is a strene ·

be considered as a specimen of the mode in - note, and is a breve; the second is a square

which the writers a few centuries ago in. note, and is a semy-breve ; the third is a

dulged themselves in making puns, even

cu prycke, and is a mynyme; and when there com

concerning the most grave and severe topics; is a prycke by the square note, that prycke

and doubtless this curious phrase would now is half as much as the note that goeth he. • Mr. Reeves, in his History of English Law, quofore it ; and the fourth is a close, and is only

ting from Fortescue, has the following curious ex

tract, concerning Law students of the time of Henry used at the enit of a verse.".

the Sixth, viz. : * A Student could not reside in the

Inns of Court for less than twenty-eight pounds per notes or characters used in this book had

od annum, aud proportionally more if he had a servaut.

as most of them had. For this reason the students not long been introduced, insomuch that of the law were generally sons of persons of quality. they were, at the time of its publication, not Knights, barons, and the greatest 'nobility of the con

kingdom, often placed their children here, not so

much to make the laws their study, as to form their not have been any necessity for this explana- manners, and to preserve them from the contagion of tory note; so that even these few words of vicious habits; for, says the same author, al vice themselves, without any further evidence, tends was there discnuntenauced and banished, and every

thing good and virtuous was taught there-musie, to prove that this book was unquestionably Jang000!

dancing, singing, history, sacred aud profane, and one of the earliest in which musical charac. other accomplishments."

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be regarded as a good piece of pious humour, longing to the despatch of fetters, or the but which at that period no doubt recom- evening work, as it is called, consist inmended the sale of the work, precisely as in “ lst. Facing the letters, and stamping our own times a well-chosen motto or title con- them, to show the date of their receipt. duces to the same end; for it is well known Stamping is performed with a hand-stamp, to be an old fancy of authors, that they invari. at the rate of 200 letters per minute. ably write the best, when they have fallen “ 2. Sorting, according to the different upon some title that suits their fancy.* mail routes ; in doing which 54 persons are

After these works had been issued from employed. Mr. Bokenham states, that the press, and had become common, we find sorting is done at the rate of 30 letters a that they were the means of increasing the minute. Sir Edward Lees says, that 60 is demand for musical works of different kinds; the lowest number that a sorter ought to for within a very few years from the date of sort. the lastómentioned work, others were printed “ 3. Examining and taxing the letters; and circulated; but not being of any parti- in which business 21 persons are employed cular iinportance, it is unnecessary to mention for one hour and a quarter each. Taxing is them in this brief article.

performed at the rate of 33 in a minute. (To be continued.)

« 4. Re-sorting, according to the different post towns.

6 5. Telling: that is, making out the TRANSIT OF LETTERS IN

bills for the unpaid letters, against the difENGLAND.

ferent deputy- postmasters. Twenty tellers

are thus employed for somewhat less than The post-office system of England, perfected

one hour and a quarter each. as it has been of late years, is vastly superior

" la the evening there are also the news to that of any other country.

papers to sort. The first step is to put the The mention of the office of chief post

directions all one way, the second is to sort. master of England, occurs in 158). In 1635,

The 241 letter-carriers, and the 50 subCharles I., directed his “ post-master of

sorters, in all about 290, are employed upon England for foreign partsto open a commu. this duty. nication by running posts, between London

" The morning duty of the Post-office and Edinburgh, Holyhead, Exeter, Ireland,

consists in unloading the mails, and deliver&c. In 1653-4, the post-office revenues were

ing the letters, that is to say, in farmed by the council of state and Protector

]. Opening the bags, of which there at 10,000l. per annum. In 1656, the parli

are 700, and in checking the Deputy-postament made some enactments for the erec

masters' accounts for paid letters ; 15 pertion of a new General Post-office, which was

sons are thus employed; one person exaestablished at the Restoration in 1660, and

mines a bag in one minute and a half; 10 from that period has only changed by a

clerks are employed in examining the tax. perpetual growth of activity and usefulness,

ings of unpaid letters, made by the deputy. The mail for letters was first conveyed by

postmasters. stage-coaches; on the 2nd August, 1785,

“ 2. Sorting ; 50 sorters are thus em. and in 1789, by royal mail coaches.t

ployed for two hours. In order to form some idea of the magni

« 3. Telling, that is, making qut bills tude, and great facility of transacting busi.

against every letter-carrier. Ten tellers, asness at the General Post-office at the present

sisted by three check-clerks, are employed tinie, we give the following extract from a in this business during an hour. recent parliamentary report :

" 4. Delivering ; the letter-carriers, of " There are employed at present at the whom there are 241, are to return by a Inland-office of the General Post-office in

certain time, and are to pay the money London, 84 clerks, 50 sub-sorters, 241 letter

charged against them to the receiver-gene, carriers, and about 30 messengers-in all,

ral; also 50 sub-sorters, who are in a situa. 405 persons.

tion between clerks and letter-carriers, assist « The operations of the Post-office, be in the early delivery of general-post letters.” . It is a well-known fact, that one of our principal booksellers always stipulated, while p'irchasing a

The Gatherer. copyright, that he should write the title.

+ The procession of the mail-coaches which took place annually on the Sovereigu's birthday, forming, The River Thames.-The Parks have been perlaps, the most pleasing exhibition of the day, was fitly called the lungs of the Metropolis ; bedispeused with on Thursday, the 23rd inst. for the first

cause they afford opportunity to our over. time since the mail-coaches were established. The omission is accounted for by the great diminution in grown population “in crowded city pent,”? their numbers, occasioned by the transmissiou of many to breathe the fresh air, and recruit their of the mails by rail-road, and the altered hours of con

health. But the Thames is as much entiveyance, in consequence of which the evening display of the splendidly-horsed coaches would have been

tled to the appellation as the Parks; because, exceedingly meagre compared with former years. in consequence of the current created in it, twice a day, by 'the flux and reflux of the place among the nobility. He is the politide, the river is thoroughly washed out iical hero of the Tories, as he is the military every twelve hours, the back-going current hero of the age. With the Whigs (to whom as often carrying with it to the open sea, all he causes great embarrassment) he is a man the drainage of a population of a million and that cannot be attacked-a person whom a half of people, and twice every twenty. they neither can nor will touch; they fear four hours bringing up fresh air and clear him, but honour and respect him."-Périg. water.

non's Twenty Days in London. The funeral obsequies of a great Chancel. Mucklin, in December, 1774, made Foote lor of Venice, were performed in the after an offer of his services for the ensuing sumnoon of January 22, 1766, with the same mer, by telling him " I think, Sam, I have pomp and ceremony as observed for a Doge. yet abilities to entertain the public."-" It The secular clergy of Venice walked in pro- may be so, Charles,” said Foote, “but not cession, carrying in their hands lighted wax. at my expense." candles, from St. Mark's church, through St. - The Trustees of the National Gallery Mark's place, to the church of St. John and have directed that the Gallery should conSt. Paul; these were followed by the school, tinue open till six o'clock, during the months or confraternity of St. Mark, who carried of June, July, and August. Three splendid large wax-tapers upon single stands of im- paintings

of im. paintings have been purchased of Mr. Beckmense size. There was carried instead of ford and

ied instead of ford, and placed in this Gallery: they are the corpse, an image of the deceased, taken St. Catherine, by Raffael : the infant Bap. in wax, and exposed upon a bier, attended tist presented to the infant Christ, by Garo. by the mourners dressed in long black cloaks, falo; and St. Francis adoring the infant ending in the point of a cone, high above

Saviour, said to be by Mazzolino di Ferrara. their heads. The Vice-Doge, accompanied by the six counsellors, and the three Ĉapi di

At Aberconway, Caernarvonshire, there is Quaranta, and all the Secretaries, each with

a tomb-stone, with the following curious inà noble Venetian upon his right hand,

scription.—“Here lieth the body of Nicho. closed the procession. The image was de

las "Hookes, of Conway, Gent., who was posited upon a magnificent catafalco, or

the one-and-fortieth child of his father, Wilscaffold, which extended from the bottom to

liam Hookes, Esq. by Alice his wife, and the top of the church, and was illuminated

the father of seven-und-twenty children. He with wax candles. The solemnity concluded

died the twentieth day of March, 1637." with an oration in Latin in praise of the des Court of Chancery.--The tapestry, with ceased.

W. G. C. the armorial insignia of Charles the Second, Players in 1580.-The following curious put up in the Court of Chancery in Westdocument is, we hear, among the modern

minster Hall, on the restoration, in 1660, discoveries of the State Paper Office :

continued there till November, 1762, when « Warrant to the treasurer of her Majestes

it was taken down, and new tapestry, with chamber to pay unto ye Erle of Sussex men

the arms of George III. placed there in its for a play exhibited before her Majestie on

stead. St. Johnes day at night, 101. I'he like Amongst the Egyptian curiosities, exhi. summes to Erle of Leycester's servaunts for bited by Mr. Williams, in his late lecture at a playe on St. Stephens daie. To the Erle the Society of Arts, on the · Ancient Agriof Derbyes men for a playe on New Yeres culture of the Egyptians,' was one of a birddaie. To the master of the children of flapper, two or three thousand years old; Powles for a playe on Twelfe daye at night, with such instruments the Egyptian boys, 33 Jan. 1580.1"_" Warrant to the trea: like our own in many parts of the country, surer of her Majestes chamber to paie unto went out in the morning, and by the clack the servauntes of the Erle of Leicester, for of the simple instrument alluded to, they a play by them presented before the Queen frightened the feathered depredators from upon Shrove Tuesday at night, 5l. 138. 4d.; the fields and fruit gardens. and for their attendaunce otherwise by waie of A True Prophet.-An Hibernian, who reward, 31. 6s. 8d. Like sommes to ser. was tried and convicted during the last vauntes of the Lord Chamberlaine for a Western Circuit for a burglary, on being a play by them presented before the Queen asked his age, as usual, by the Clerk of the uppon Candlemas daie at night. Like sommes Court, replied, he believed he was pretty to be payed the master of the children of the well as old as ever he'd be! and declined chappels for a playe presented before the giving any other answer. He was executed Queen upon Shrove Sunday last at night. un the following Wednesday. 13 Feb. 1580.)."; · A Frenchman's Opinion of the Duke. - LONDON: Printed and published by J. LIMBRID, ! Wellington is an isolated character in 143, Strund. (near Somerset Horse) and sold song

all Booksellers and Neusmon In PARIS, by all

the Booksellers.-In FRANCFORT. CHARLES tion- no one is able to resign to him his actual JUGEL.

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