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or flint, 28,9; protoxide of iron, 33.22; mag. the production of that alkali." The inhabi. nesia, 19.2; alumina, 5.22; lime, 1.64; oxide tants residing in the vicinity of the sodaof nickel, .82; oxide of chromium, :7; cobalt manufactories at Birmingham, Liverpool, and soda, i trace.
Newcastle, Glasgow, &c., owe the inventors of this invaluable improvement a heavy debt
of gratitude, as by this discovery they have ELECTRICITY.
put an end to the dreadful nuisance which the At the Electrical Society, on the 2nd inst., public have so long endured. The necessity a paper was read from Mr. M. Roberts, of decomposing the chloride of sodium by describing an improved Galvanic Battery. sulphur no longer exists, the newly-discovered The trough is a wooden box, divided into process being perfectly free from all noxious cells by means of circular disks of copper vapour. Another important advantage is also and zinc, in metallic connexion, fitted on a secured-namely, that the improved method wooden axle, and half immersed in dilute can with little additional outlay be adapted acid. Between the copper and zinc disks, to the manufactories at present in operation, in each cell, a strip of flannel or cloth is ex. and the workmen who have hitherto been fretended from one end of the trough to the quently thrown out of employment and subject other, lightly rubbing on the sides of the to the loss of their wages, in consequence of contiguous disks or plates, which are turned the numerous iudictments that have been laid slowly round, by means of a handle attached against their masters for nuisances, will no to the axle. He found the production of longer be subjected to this evil. This process, gas to be four times as rapid when the disks when submitted to an eminent chemical lawyer or plates are turned, than when not, owing for his opinion, was pronounced by him to be to their constant clean surface, and from the one of the most brilliant and ingenious discoincreased galvanic energy acquired by the veries in modern chemistry.- From a corres. plates being exposed to the air in their revo- pondent, in the Morning Chronicle. lution, one half of the surface being alway's so exposed. A battery of this kind is much less expensive than that of Daniell's.
EXPERIMENTAL SUBTERRANEOUS AND SUB.
AQUEOUS EXPLOSIONS AT (ATHAM BY M. Arago has proposed a plan for dise charging clouds, in cases of storms, of the THE VOLTAIC BATTERY. electric fluid which they contain, and thus For several months past the Royal Engineers, preventing the frequent occurrence of haile at Chatham, uuder Colonel Pasley, have storms, which are generally produced by been trying continual experiments in firing two currents of clouds, charged with positive gunpowder by the voltaic battery, chiefly un. and negative electricity, crossing each other. der water; and after many vicissitudes of parIt consists in an improvement upon Frank- tial success and of failure, they have at last lin's experiment of the kite, with which he succeeded in bringing this process to as much obtained an electric spark from a cloud ; perfection as it seems capable of; that is, to and afterwards Dr. Romas, of Nerae, and as much certainty as the former methods of Messrs. Lining and Charles, of the United firing mines in dry soil. They have repeatStates, produced electric flashes three an: edly fixed gunpowder at the distance of four feet in length. M. Arago recommends 500 feet, with their conducting wires either that a small balloon, properly secured, armed buried underground or led entirely under wa. with metallic points, and communicating ter, excepting a few feet connected with the with the ground by a rope covered with mebattery, which in their subaqueous explosions tallic wire, like a harp-string, should be was in a boat on the Medway, the powder kept permanently floating in the air, at a being lodged at the bottom of that river. lo considerable height over the spot which it their subterraneous explosion they blew up a is wished to preserve from the effects of field-work; and in one of their subaqueous lightning or hail; and he expects that by experiments they blew to pieces a vessel resuch an apparatus as this, a cloud might presenting a wreck, the fragments of which have its electric contents entirely drawn being of fir timber came up to the surface of off, without any damage being caused, or the Medway immediately after the column of that at least the intensity of a hail-storm water thrown up by the explosion. On Sawould be greatly diminished. The experi- turday April 6th, they applied their voltaic ment is so simple, that it is well deserving battery to the blasting of rock under water. of a trial.
Two very large and heavy pieces of hard
sand-stone were each prepared with a hole IMPORTANT CHEMICAL DISCOVERY. three inches in diameter by a borer, after One of the most valuable improvements in which a charge of three quarters of a pound modern times has lately been achieved in the of powder was put into each, and the upper manufacture of soda froin common salt, by part of the hole was tamped by pouring in the use of carbonate of ammonia, instead of small fragments of broken stone round a cone the pestiferous method hitherto employed in fixed over each charge, in a new and ingeni.
ous manner, first suggested by Mr. Howe, water before it was fired, when the powder clerk of works of the Royal Engineer Esta. was still perfectly dry. blishment, more than five years ago, which The voltaic battery used was of Professor does not seem inferior in resistance to the Daniell's improved construction, which, from common mode of tamping, but is much safer, retaining its energy much longer than any and far more expeditious. The conducting former voltaic battery, he has named the con. wires were led from each charge to the bat. stant voltaic battery, and which Colonel Pastery, which was placed on the gun-wharf, ley found to be much superior to the best of whilst the stones thus prepared and loaded the former constructions, at least for the were lowered down from a crane to the bottom peculiar purpose of firing, gunpowder, either of the river opposite, where the water was under ground or uncler water. 14 feet deep at the time. The first stone being of a compact form was blown to pieces, and the rope sling by which it had been ESTIMATION OF THE MARINER'S lowered, and which had not been removed,
COMPASS IN CHINA. was broken. The second stone being of a All the junks which are employed on more irregular shape and much thinner, so
the ocean carry the mariner's compass, that there was not sufficient resistance above
although it does not appear to give the and below the charge, was brought up by the
Chinese navigators confidence, as they never, crane after the explosion, which had only blown out the solid part of the stone below
if they can avoid it, steer boldly out' to sea, him
but keep as much as possible within sight the bottom of the hole, apparently without
of land. The Chinese consider that they injuring any other part of it. Another charge
were the inventors of this inestimable little was, therefore, placed in the same hole, which
instrument, and it cannot be denied that they was tamped both above and below in the
have had it in use for many centuries. Acmode before described, and the stone was
cording to Klaproth, the knowledge of this then again let down to the bottom of the
instrument was communicated to the Arabs river ; and after firing this second charge, on
by the Chinese, and introduced into Europe being hauled up by the crane, it was found
by the crusades. However much they may to have been broken into three parts, one of fail to rely on its virtues, they appear to be which did not reach the surface, whilst the
sufficiently aware of its powers. It is consi
sufficiently aware of its power other two being still held together by the dered as a deity, and they treat it as they do slings, after being raised nearly to the level the others, with great ceremonial. Pieces of the wharf, separated from each other and of scented ghos-stick are kept constantly fell to the bottom. One of these charges was burning around it, as in the ghos-houses : contained in a tin cylinder fitted to the size
while sucrifices of the youngest flesh and of the hole; the two others in canvass bags the finest fruits are offered to it. Here, of the same form, covered with waterproof
ignorance appears to be the parent of supercomposition. These last experiments have
stition; but it is to be hoped that a knowproved that the voltaic battery may succeed
ledge of the laws of nature may open their for blasting rock under water, as well as for
eyes to the wisdom and excellence of the blowing wrecks to pieces; and on the former
works of the Creator.-Fan-Qui in China, supposition, the holes in the rock would be by C. J. Downing, Esq. formed, and the charges placed, by means of the diving-bell. Nothing can appear easier than to fire gun.
ON THE PROCESS OF KYANISING powder under water, by the voltaic battery, as
SHIP-TIMBER. exhibited in a lecture-room or scientific insti. tution; but the mode usually adopted on such It is to be hoped that we shall have no more occasions, of passing the conducting wires tampering with dry-rot doctors and their nosinto the charge through a cork coated with trums for the preservation of her Majesty's sealing-wax, and of insulating the remaining ships. The steeping of large logs of timber length of each wire by inclosing it in small in solutions of any kind is perfectly useless : India rubber tubes, would be inadequate and the solution penetrates only skin deep, inexpedient for practical purposes in a rapid whereas the real dry rot commences at the tideway and in deep water. "In Colonel Pas. centre, where the fibres, being the oldest, ley's experiments at Chatham, corks and seal. first give way, as is the case in standing trees. ing-wax were rejected, the former as being The only plausible and promising preservatoo weak, the latter from being liable to crack? tive of timber is the gas of the kreosote proand India rubber or caoutchouc was also re cured from the distillation of coal or vegetajected as being far too expensive instead of ble tar, which, when driven oft in the shape which a composition of pitch softened by bees'. of gas, will penetrate every part of the largest wax or tallow was adopted, the remarkable logs, and render the wood almost as hard as efficiency of which was proved by keeping one iron; so hard, indeel, as not easily to be of those experimental charges ten days under worked. It is understood that, in Belgium,
they are using it as blocks for the rail- a total of 122,844 tons; the number of roads.
steamers was 15, total 5,114 tons. Out of The worm (Teredo navalis), as proved at the 498 vessels, 155 were employed in trading Sheerness, will not touch it; while pieces of to ports in the Adriatic, the Levant, and the the same wood, steeped in corrosive subli. Archipelago: 147 in the Black Sea, the Sea mate, sulphureous acid, and other active of Azof, and the Danube ; 167 in the Medisolutions, were bored through and through. terranean ; 12 in the Atlantic ; 4 in the Let our ships be built of good sound English Northern Seas and the Baltic, and 13 to oak, as they formerly were, well seasoned America, under cover, and left on the stocks as long as The Golden Eagle. The stamping of this they conveniently can be allowed, and we shall superb coin has commenced at the Mint of hear no more of dry rot, or wet either.—(Sir Philadelphia : it is 34 years since any of John Barrow's Life of Lord Anson, as 'this coin was struck, the coinage ceasing quoted in the Mech. Mag., vol. xxx. p. 336.) in 1804.
The zoological collection of the Garden of The Oatherer. "
Plants in Paris has just been enriched by the
present of an immense tortoise from a gentleThe splendid present of the Sehah of Persia.
man at Havre. . It is a native of the island to her Majesty, consists of between 50 and 60
of Ascension, and weighs 500lb. It is five superb shawls, woven in the looms of Shiraz feet in length and three and a half broad. and Ispahan, exhibiting proofs of skill and It arrived at the gardens on Friday evening, taste with which the workmanship of Europe and on the following day laid four eggs. would, perhaps, strive in vain to compete.
Adviee. The wisert men easiest to bear The borders in some exhibit, in all their details, a triumphal procession; trains of camels advice, least apt to give it Sir W. Temple. and Arab steeds, sumptuously caparisoned; Correcting Proofs:-Hazlett, speaking of elephants carrying palanquins, musicians Burke, says have been assured by a gathered in groups, and the countless atten person who had the best means of knowing, dants of many mighty chiefs, being all por- that the Letter to a' Noble Lord' (the trayed with equal fidelity and splendour. most rapid, impetuous, glowing, and sportive These striking and complicated objects are of all his works) was printed off, and the woven in the most exquisite colours, with proof sent to him, and that it was returned perfect accuracy of outline, and presenting á to the printing office with so many alterations combination of forms and hues, unrivalled and passages interlined, that the compositors for their brilliancy and beauty.
refused to correct it as it was, took the Rice paper is made by the Chinese from a
whole matter to pieces, and rent the copy."
The Georgian Era' states, that there is plant composed almost wholly of cellular tis
an instance on record, of three volumes of sue, and is removed from the tree like the
corrections being written to one volume of unrolling of papyrus.
proofs. M. Parrot, who was ordered by the Rus
Falsehood. A liar begins with making sian government to explore Armenia and
falsehood appear like truth, and ends with Transcaucasia, asserts that Mount Ararat is ol volcanic formation.
making truth appear like falsehood.-Shens
stone. A lieutenant on board the Recherche, in
The Mindandthe Imagination. The mind speaking of the late melancholy Earthquake
hath over the body that command which the at Martinique, says, that on the inorning of
lord hath over a bondman.; but the reason that dreadful visitation (the 11th of January Jast.) the ship was shaken in every part by a hath over the imagination that command shock that lasted forty minutes, and the masts
which a magistrate hath over a free citizen, bent like bamboos. A few seconds after, a wh
who may also rule in his turn.-Bacon, toi species of vapour rose from the shore, escaping
Titles:- Titles make a greater. distinction through the crevices of the soil, and then the than 18 almost tolerable to a British spirit: houses of Fort Royal began to fall. Those they almost vary the species ; yet, as they are on the beach formed 'clouds of dust, and in oftentimes conferred, seem not so much the the midst of the chaos a frightful cry arose reward as the substitutes of merita+Sikenstone. from the lips of thousands of unfortunate suf. ferers. All the crews of the vessels, amounta
· Nos. 941 and 942 of THE MIRROR having been re-printed, ing to 500 men, were ashore in ten minutes • The ARCANA of SCIENCE, for 1839, by a New Editor, a
gentleman of, acknowledged scientific ability, will shortly afterwards, and at the end of some hours, two be published. hundred persons still living, were disengaged
LONDON: Printed and published by J. LIMBIRD, from the ruins, and by the evening, 400 143, Strand, (near Somerset House; ) and sold by corpses were found.--Atheneum.
all Booksellers and Newsmen.-Agent in PARIS, The number of merchant vessels helonging
G. W.M. REYNOLDS, French, English, ad Ams.
ican Library, 55, Rue Neuve St. Augustin. . In to Austria at the end of 1838, was 498, with FRANCPORT, CHARLES JUDEL. ?
may now be had of all Booksellers.
THE ENTRANCE TO THE FREE GRAMMAR.
SOUTHWARK TRADESMEN'S TOKENS. SCHOOL OF ST. OLAVE'S AND ST. JOHN's,
(Engraved from the Originals in the possession of the SOUTHWARK,
Editor) : Is situate on the west side of the north end On the old St. Olave's Grammar-School, of Bermondsey-street, which formerly sepa- which was situate in Church Passage, Tooleyrated Tooley-street from St. Olave's-street, street, being sold in 1830, and taken down to the latter forming the eastern, and the former make the approaches to New London Bridge, the western part of that thoroughfare now many antiquities were found amidst the called Tooley-street.
ruins; and among them, the Southwark The above entrance is through a gate Tradesmen's Tokens, represented on our first between a porter's lodge and a house for one page. of the under-masters ; and then through one it appears in history, that from and during of the arches into the school-yard. It is built the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to that of to correspond to the Tudur-style of architec- King Charles II., the tradesmen, victuallers ture of the schools.
in particular, and indeed all that pleased, " Early in the reign of Elizabeth,” says Mr. coined small money or tokens, for the benefit Corner, in his account of the above seminary, and convenience of trade. This small money, in the Gentlemau's Magazine, January, 1836, halsfence and farthings, was also coined by « when the foundation of public schools was the incorporation of cities and boroughs. It promoted throughout the country, under the was struck for necessary change; the figure authority of the legislature, and the patron- and devices being emblematical of the vari. age of the crown, the parishioners of St. Sa- ous trades. Every company, tradesman, or viour's, Southwark, set a noble example to tradeswoman that issued this useful kind of their neighbours in the establishment of their specie, was obliged to take it again when admirable Free Grammar-School; and the brought to them; and, therefore, in cities inhabitants of the parish of St. Olave were and larger towns, where many sorts of them not slow to follow so enlightened and bene- were current, a tradesman kept a sorting-box, volent a policy. St. Olave's School was set into the partitions of which he put the money on foot in the year 1560, and constituted of the respective coiners; and at proper times, • The Free Grammar School of Queen Eli. when he had a large quantity of any one zabeth of the Parishioners of the parish of person's money, he sent it to him, and got it St. Olave, by letters patent issued in 1571." changed into silver: and in this manner they
. It was intended to have built the grammar proceeded until the year 1672, when, King school nearly on the same spot as the old Charles the Second having struck a sufficient school, viz., on the south side of Duke-street, quantity of halfpence and farthings, for the leading from Tooley.street to London-bridge; intention and exigencies of commerce, the but unfortunately that ground being required nummorum fumuli were superseded, and an for the London and Greenwich Railway Com- end was put to these shifts and practices of pany, a fresh site was obliged to be found; the victuallers and shop-keepers, as being no and after a considerable delay, and with a longer either necessary or useful view to satisfy the inhabitants of St. John's, who were desirous that the new school should
Some forty years since there were again inbe erected in or near that parish, and on that numerable Tradesmen's Tokens in general
circulation, not only in the metropolis, but ia account, the present wretched site was unfor.
all parts of the country; some of them were tunately chosen ; for doubtless one more
specimens of fine workmanship, and wero uncongenial for a classical school,-which ought to be all quiet and retirement,
made the vehicle by tradesmen of advertising
their various professions; and also of perpecould not possibly have been selected; and it is also grievous in the extreme to wit.
tuating the stirring events of the times, and ness so much taste as the above buildings
giving the portraits of publio men ; they have display, completely lost, by being united with
also been the means of preserving Views of
Places, and Notices of Entertainments, which such vile associates.
otherwise would have been lost. A complete We are indebted to Mr. James Field, the
series of them now would be very valuable; architect, for the accuracy of our view; for
and indeed so eagerly were they sought after which kindness we beg' thus publicly to by collectors, that eight volumes of engratender him our warmest thanks.
vings from them were published ; and
many cabinets made for them. They also • In the maps of the Metropolis, 1765, it is called
formed a circulating medium, until the splen.
to Barnaby, or Bermondsey.street: doubtless it took its name from two Saxon-words, signifying Bermund's did new copper coinage of George III. from igle. " so called," says oiboyos Bailey, “ from the the foundry of Mr. Watt's, of Biriningham. abbey erected in Southwark by Bermund, either gave the public a more wholesome and Lord or Abbot of that place.” Many useful and valuable national coinage : when they soon instructive chapters might be written on the origin
entirely disappeared ; and are now only to be of the names of streets in London.
+ For a view of this school, see Mirror, No. 761. found but in the cabinets of the curious.