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OF
LITERATURE. AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION.
SATURDAY, APRIL 6, 1839.

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. CHELSEA BUN-HOUSE. nished with foreign clocks, and many 13. This Bun-House, whose fame has extended tural and artificial curiosities from abroari; throughout the land, was first established but most of these articles have disappeared about the beginning of the list century; for, since the decease of Mrs. Hand. as early as 1712, it is thus mentioned by the At the upper end of the shop is placed, in celebrated Dean Swift :-“ Pray are not the a large glass-case, a model of Radcliffe fine buns sold here in our town, as the rare Church, at Bristol, cut out very curiously Chelsea buns? I bought one to-day in my and elaborately in paste-board; but the walk," &c.

upper towers, pinnacles, &c. resemble more an The building consists of one story, fisty eastern mosque than a Christian church. seet long, and fourteen feet wide. It pro Over the parlour door is placed an eques. jects into the high-way in an unsightly man. trian coloured statue, in lead, of William, the ner, in form of a colonade, affording a very great Duke of Cumberland, in the military agreeable shelter to the passenger in un- costume of the year 1745, taken just after the favourable weather.

celebrated battle of Culloden: it is eighteen The whole premises are condemned to be inches in height. . pulled down immediately, to make way for. On each side stand two grenadier guards, the proposed improveruents of Chelsea and presenting arms, and in the military dress its neighbourhood, the bill for which is in of the above period, with their high sugarcommittee of the House of Commons, under loaf caps, long-flap coats, and broad gerilles, the superintendance of that most active and old-fashioned muskets, presenting a member, Sir Matthew Wood.

grotesque appearance, when compared with It was the fashion formerly for the royal the neat short cut military trim of the present family, and the nobility and gentry, to visit day. These figures are also cast in lead, Chelsea Bun-House in the morning. His and coloured; are near four feet high, and Majesty King George the Second, Queen weigh each about two hundred weight. Caroline, and the Princesses, frequently ho- Underneath, on the wall, is suspended noured the elder Mrs. Hand with their a whole-length portrait, much admired by company.

connoisseurs, of Aurengzebe, Emperor of Their late Majesties King George III. Persia. This is probably the work of an and Queen Charlotte, were also much in the Italian artist, but his name is unknown. habit of frequenting the Buu-House when After the death of Mrs. Hand, the business, their children were young, and used to was carried on by her son, who was an alight and sit to look around and admire the eccentric character, and used to dress in a . place and passing scene. The Queen pre very peculiar munner, ; he dealt largely in sented Mrs. Hand with a silver hall-gallon butter which he carried about the streets in mug, richly enchuced, with five guineas in a basket on his headl; hot or cold, wet orie it, as a mark of her approbation for the dry, throughout the year, the punctual but attentions bestowed upon her during these terman made his appearance at the door, and visits: this testimonial was kept a long time gained the esteem of every one by his cheer. in the family..

ful aspect and entertaining conversation ; for On the morning of Good Friday, the Bun- he was rich in village anecdote, and could house used to present a scene of great bustle ; relate all the vicissitudes of the neighbour. it was opened as early as four o'clock ; and hood for more than half a century. the concourse of people was so great, that A fter his decease, his elder brother came it was difficult to approach the house ; it has into the possession of the business; he had been estimated that more than fifty thousand been bred a soldier, and was at that time : persons have assembled in the neighbourhood one of the poor knights of Windsor, and was before eight in the morning ; at length it remarkable for his eccentric manners and was found necessary to shut it up partially, costume. He left, no family, nor relations, in in order to prevent the disturbances und consequence of which his property reverted excesses of the iminense unruly and riotous to the crown. London mob which congregated on those occasions. Hand-bills were printed, and constables stationed to prevent a recurrence

ON THE ORIGIN OF BUNS. of these scenes.

Bina Hutchinson, in his History of Northum-
Whilst Ranelagh was in fashion, the Buna
House was much frequented by the visitors

berland, following Mr. Bryant's Analysis,

derives the Good Friday Bun from the sacred of that celebrated temple of pleasure ; but after the failure of Ranelagh, the business

cakes which were offered at the Arkite Tem

ples, styled Boun, and presented every fell off in a great degree, and dwindled into

• seventh day. “ T'he offerings,” says Mt: insignificance.

Bryant, “ which people in ancient times used INTERIOR OF CHELSEA BUN-HOUSE.

to present to the Gods, were generally pur.. The interior was formerly fitted up in a chased at the entrance of the Temple; espe.. very singular and grotesque style, being fur. cially every species of consecrated bread,

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which was denominated accordingly, One

. CURIOSITY. . species of sacred bread which used to be

Wuo hath not felt . offered to the Gods was of great antiquity, Its spirit, and before its altar knelt? and called Boun. Hesychius speaks of the

In the pleased infant, see its power expaud,

When first the coral fills its little hand; boun, and describes it a kind of cake, with Throned in its mother's lap, it dries each tear, a representation of two horns. Julius Pol. As her sweet legenu falls upou his ear ; lux mentions it after the same manner, a

Nor yet alone to toys and tales confined, sort of cakes with horns. Diogenes Laertius,

It sits dark brooding o'er his em bryo mind : speaking of the same offering being made by Take him between your knees, peruse his face,

While all you know, or think you know, you trace; of which it was composed. “He offered one

Tell him who spoke creation into birth,

Arched the broad leavens, and spread the rolling of the sacred Liba, called a Bouse, which

earth; was made of fine flour and honey.” It is Who formed a pathway for the obedient sun, said of Cecrops, (1556 years before Christ.) And bade the seasons in their circle run;

Who filled the air, the forest, and the food; that he first offered up this sort of sweet bread.

And gave man all, for comfort, or for food. Hence we may judge of the antiquity of

SPRAGUE : the custom, from the times to which Cecrops is referred. The prophet Jeremiah takes THE MOATED HOUSE. notice of this kind of offering, when he is

(For the Mirror.) speaking of the Jewish women at Pathros,

« The rudest rempant of a feudal tower, even the in Egypt, and of their base idolatry ; in all

obscure and almost undistinguishable vestige of an which their husband's had encouraged them. almost unknown edifice ; has power to awaken traius The women, in their expostulation upon his of faucy. We have a fellow interest with the 'son rebuke, tell him: “ Did we make her cakes to

of the winged days,' over whose failen habitation we

tread."-Sir Walter Scott. worship her?” Jerem. xliv. 18, 19; vii. 18.

“ The massy stones, though hewn most roughly, show "Small loaves of bread,” Mr. Hutchinson ob

The hand of man had once at least been there." serves, “ pecnliar in their form, being long

Wordsworth. and sharp at both ends, are called Buns." (Anu here," said Mr. " was the Moat, These he derives as above, and concludes : extending round these green hillocks; they “We only retain the name and form of the plainly here divide where a gateway has Boun, the sacred uses are no more. Yote been." A few twisted willows, which for

A writer in the Gentleman's Magazine, many generations have braved the changing vol. LII. for July 1783, p. 578; speaking of seasons, there drop their branches over what Cross Buns,t in Passion week, observes, that has now dwindled to a rivulet, not seen, but “these being, formerly at least, unleavened, heard to murmur, underneath the long grass, may have a retrospect to the unleavened bread now and then glittering in the sunbeam, and of the Jews, in the same manner as Lomb at even in winter scarcely visible, is all that Easter to the Pascal Lamb."

· now remains of the “Moat.". Some three

· or four hundred years ago, it was deep and SHE'S LAID IN THE EARTH!

dangerous, fenced by precipitous banks, and

only pussable by a draw-bridge, which was! She's laid in the earth ! but her bright spirit soars.

solemnly lowered by the warder to give acTo the regions of bliss, from these sorrowful shores ;

cess to the knight or baron bold, who sought She moved, in her beauty, an angel while here, And I saw she was form'd for a bappier sphere.

audience of the then lord of the domain. Of Oh, sad are the sighis for her ahsence I heave, their deeds trailition is silent, their very And sad are my tears-though 'tis fruitless to grieve; names are forgotten,-rumour only tells, that Yet oft, through the dark mists of sorrow, I see

here a Moated House has been. No moIn fancy, my Mary still smiling on me!

nument in the village church exists to point Wherever I go, there's no object I trace Can tear from my mind her loved form or her face;

out their final resting-place, except it be one Nor time can my soul in forgetfuluess steep; in an obscure corner, which tells in almost Her dream-wafted image still smiles on my sleep. illegible characters, that about “Ye year In nights calm and clear, 'mid the bright orbs I try 1600, Peter and Eleanor Baldwin departe To trace her blesi home in the beautiful sky;

this life." These Baldwins were, in ages And I gaze on some star, till in fancy I see Her far-sliining spirit still smiling on me!

past, the hereditary possessors of the Moated

House, so “grey tradition” tells, “and • Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. 1, pp. 132-3. doubtless were renowned in their day," 410. 1813

+ Tiese are constantly marked with the form of whispered fancy, showing the tip of her a cross Indeed the country people in many parts

vay of England make, with a knife, many little cross to the dry Moat, and the green hillocks marks on their cakes, before they put them into the shirt oveu. I have no doubt but that this too, trifling as the remark may appear, is a remain of Popery. Thus,

into a peopled domain of other times and also, persons who canuot write, instead of signing manners, and giving to dim phantasies a their names, are directed to make their marks, which is generally doue in the form of a cross. From the form of a cross at the beginning of a horn-book, the

what might have been the state of things in alphabet is called the Clirist-Cross Row,- Brand this place, some three or four centuries back,

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one dreamy day, in the leafy month of of horror, “ that her highness, our sovereign June," when the mounds were clothed with Lady Elizabeth, should give her consent to a carpet of daisies, and the long grass at the so cruel a deed. I tell you, Ralph, we live Moat's edge waved to the gentle air,—when too far out of the world to know what is sights and sounds combined—the faint sing. doing there. The deeds now acting at ing of birds, the whispering willows, and Fotheringay are vot likely to be known to the murmuring brook, to induce that state of such as we are. For my own part, I make mind which shuts out present things, and it a rule to abstain from prying too narrowly sends the “ lonely wandering thoughts” to into the secrets of my hetters; still, I did speculate on the deeds of other days, even remark, that my master, Sir Peter Baldwin, then, as by the touch of an enchanter's wand, (heaven prosper him!) added to the prayers did my waking dream transform the grassy last night, that her majesty might be kept hollow before me into a veritable Moat, from further shedding of blood.'_" Amen! broad and dark, with a heavy gateway on say I to that,” responded Ralph, “there one side, which was flanked by two small hath been too much already; there was, first, towers, with portcullis and draw-bridge. In that sweet innoceut, Lady Jane Grey, and stead of the meadow, a huge gothic mansion her youthful husband; there was Essex, the filled up the space which it enclosed. It was noblest and the bravest gentleman that ever a building partly of grey stone, and part of fell beneath the murderous axe; and, now, brick-at one corner were the decayed re- this fearful trial at Fotheringay. I fear it will mains of a tower of still more remote origin go hard with the poor captive there. My lady There was a battlemented roof-the windows and Mrs. Beatrice are sorely distressed; for, were high and narrow, and in many of them you know,” said Ralph, lowering to a the red rose of the house of Lancaster was whisper, “ my lady is of the Popish persuaemblazoned with the arms of the family of sion, and came to England with the poor Baldwin,-an eagle shielding a dove, in a queen as one of her attendants." The confield azure. There were emblems of the versation here suddenly ceased; the speakers same regal flower combined with the crest rose, and doft'd their caps with much revecarved on many of the thick window-frames, rence; for, issuing from the porch, appeared from which an inference might be drawn, two ladies, one young, the other elderly, with that a Baldwin had, during the wars of the an expression of intense anxiety on her still Rival Roses, been zealous for proud Boling- fine features: she had a cross and rosary broke, or for brave Harry of Agincourt. suspended from her girdle, and partially conThe principal entrance was a broad stone cealed by her dress. They passed with hur. porch, with carved oaken benches; ivy and ried steps out of the porch, and along a woodbine, mingled with wall-flower, spread terrace which led to the moat. They looked over the pointed archway. The heavy door anxiously in the direction of a road which stood open, and gave to view beyond, a hall wound away amongst woods and wild moors paved with black and white marble; the light until it was lost in the distance. They gazed fell dimly upon this pavement, through narrow until the curfew bell sounded its melanGothic windows in deep recesses. There were choly chimes from the church tower hard the oaken stairs, shining brightly, with broad by. Suddenly two horsemen came in view; banisters; dark figures of by-gone members the draw-bridge was lowered; the elder lady of the house of Baldwin adorned the walls; hastened to meet them. “ What news ? The grim features of Sir Hugh, attired as a What news ? delay not to tell me, I conjure judge; next to him hung a print of the Bat. you, Sir Peter !"-.“ So perish all the enemies tle of Bosworth Field; in it were depicted a of Queen Elizabeth, and of our holy and troop of soldiers bearing off the dead body reformed faith !” said the knight, solemnly. of the royal homicide ; still further in, an “ What mean you ?” said the lady, with open door gave a dim view of a low-browed clasped hands and pale lips. “I mean, apartment, in which, from a window shaded Eleanor," said her husband, “ that though by tall trees, the light fell on a picture of all manly and feeling hearts do grieve that Mary Queen of Scots, at the side of which royalty and beauty should have so dire a hung a green curtain for the purpose of departure, still every loyal subject, and every concealment.

friend to true religion, must rejoice that the · By one of those sudden changes which plotting heads, who would have filled the characterize the world of dreams, I found land with anarchy and blood, are lạid low. myself standing before the porch or en. For Scotland's ill-starred queen my heart trance. A porter's lodge was on the right, cannot but bleed. She died, Eleanor, with and, on a stone seat at the door, reclined this regal dignity; and, oh! more than that, with functionary, in earnest whispered colloquy Christian resignation; and may heaven re. with a serving-man, attired in the stiff doublet ceive her soul!" The grief of his auditress and hose of Elizabeth's reign. A large mas- here became so painful to witness, that I tiff and two other dogs lay basking in the felt a sympathetic rising of emotion in my sun at their feet. " It cannot be Ralph ! own breast, but in the effort to address the it cannot be," quoth the porter, with a look stately lady the spell was broken. The

breeze was still waving the long grass, and of its search, the fact was communicated sighing amongst the willows; but where in the again by signal, and in thirty seconds the world of phantasy, the old mansion stood, a whole line was in quick march, leaving the milkmaid was pursuing her task and singing two unfortunates behind, who remained pera plaintive ballad, all unconscious of the fectly quiet, without making any attempt to loves and hatreds, the joys and sorrows, felt unroll themselves. Mr. Davis was informed here in long-gone years by those who have that these caterpillars feed on the Encalyptus, passed from the scene, and, like the “ base and that when they have completely stripped a less fabric of my dream, lest not a wreck tree of its leaves, they congregate on the trunk, behind !” (To be continued.)

and proceed, in procession, to another tree. Kirton, Lindsey.

"ANNE R-.

At the Asiatic Society's meeting on the

2nd of March, Dr. Royle and Mr. E. Solly PROGRESS OF SCIENCE AND PRO- read two distinct papers on the Vegetable - CEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES.

Tallow Tree (Valeria Indica) of the Malabar MR. A. H. Davis, writing from Adelaide, and Canary coasts. This tree, which has South Australia, mentions his seeing there been figured and described by Rheede, is an extraordinary procession of caterpillars. found in the Wynaad and Bednore districts, They somewhat resembled in form the cater- growing abundantly both in the interior and pillars of the great tigermoth, (Arctia Caja,) along the coasts, where it is called the Piney, had a profusion of white hairs, and the body or Dammar-tree. It grows to a great size, about 24 inches in length, of a dark brown and supplies excellent wood. It also supplies colour, with paler lines. These caterpillars a varnish which is used on the coast in a liquid were seen on the third of last May, crossing state ; but, when dry, is commercially termed a road in single file, each so close to its pre- copal and animé. By boiling the seeds a decessor as to convey the idea that they were fatty matter is obtained, which floats on the united together, moving like a living cord in surface, becomes solid, and somewhat resem. a continuous undulating line. At about fiftyhles tallow, being in its most important chafrom the end of the line, Mr. Davis having racters intermediate between wax and tallow, ejected one from its station, the caterpillar and well adapted in its properties, as a sub. immediately before it suddenly stuod still, stitute for common tallow, both in the manu. then the next, and then the next, and so on facture of candles, and likewise for many to the leader; the same result took place to other purposes to which the latter substance the other extremity. After a pause of a few is now exclusively applied. This vegetal moments, the first after the break in the line tallow emits no disagreeable smell at any attempted to recover the communication; time, and, therefore, when candles are made this was a work of time and difficulty, but the of it, they have not that offensive smell moment it was accomplished by its touching which attends common tallow candles. Dr. the one before it, this one communicated the · Babington placed a portion of this vegetal fact to the next in advance, and so on till the tallow in the hands of a candle manufacturer, information reached the leader, when the who praised it very highly, he having sue. whole line was again put in motion. On ceeded in making good candles of it, which counting the number of caterpillars, he found came freely from the mould. In 1825 it it to be 154, and the length of the line twenty- sold at Mangalore, at twopence-halfpenny seven feet. He next took the one which he had per pound. Some brought from India, iu abstracted from the line, and which remained January 1838, sold for £2 4s. 6d. per hun. coiled np, across the line; it immediately un- dred weight-nearly the price given for good rolled itself, and made every attempt to get Russian tallow. Mr. Sólly thought that if into the procession; after many endeavours it could be obtained at such a price as to it succeeded, and crawled in, the one below admit of its being imported as a substitute falling into the rear of the interloper. He for common tallow, its valuable and superior . subsequently took out two caterpillars, about properties would soon obtain it a market. the fiftieth from the head of the procession; Mr. S. Dyer, of the Madras Medical Service, by his watch he found the intelligence was who had long resided at Tellicherry, states, conveyed to the leader in thirty seconds, each that the tree will grow readily, even when caterpillar stopping at the signal of the one the branches are put into the ground; and in its rear: the same effect was observable many of the trees were planted on the roadbehind the break, each stopping at a signal sides in Malabar, about twenty years since, from the one in advance; the leader of the a greater period than is necessary to bring second division then attempted to recover the them to perfection. · lost connection. That they are unprovided At the sume meeting, Mr. F. C. Brown with the senses nf sight and smell appeared stated that he had seen the tea-plant flou. evident, since the leader turned right and rishing in the district of Wynaad, on the left, and often in a wrong direction when western ghauts of the peninsular of India. within half an inch of the one immediately In February, 1834, the late Colonel Crewe before it: when it at last touched the object gave two Chinese tea-plants to Captain F.

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