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THE NECESSITY OF UNION AMONG Generale d'une Collection d'Estampes,"

THE PROFESSORS OF THE FINE published at Leipsic, 1771, that “it was not ARTS.

Prince Rupert who invented the art of en. The painter, the sculptor, or the architect, graving in mezzotinto, as Vertue and several errs when he imagines that it is in his studio other authors pretend to say, but it was only he can be useful: far otherwise in the Lieutenant Colonel de Siegen, an officer in fact : for the varied discoveries of ench the service of the Landgrave of Hesse, who should be brought, as it were, into one focus, first engraved in this manner, and the print that all may be fairly examined, and bene- which he produced, was a portrait of the ficially discussed. Shall he whose fine ima- Princess Amelia Elizabeth of Hesse, engination presents before him the lightning's graved as early as the year 1643, and from fash, as it glances from the mountain top, this gentleman Prince Rupert learned the and whose ear listens, mentally, to the thun- secret, and brought it into England, when ders as they roll through the vallies beneath he came over the second time with Charles -shall the man whose chisel can express the Second.” from the shapeless marble an image which H. W. Dimond, Esq., F.S.A., in exhibiting wauts nothing but Promethean fire to make some early specimens of mezzotinto engravit a perfect being-or he whose chastened ing before the Society of Antiquaries, Feart can design the gorgeous temples of bruary 11, 1836, proved that Siegen also Greece and Italy, or frame " the long-drawn engraved in mezzotint a large portrait of aisle and fretted vault,” be content to wrap the Queen of France, from a printing by such splendid talents, comparatively, up in Honthurst, also a portrait in mezzotint of a napkin ? Certainly not ; neither man nor Leopold, William Duke of Burgundy, thus any of his attributes were ever intended to inscribed, “Theodorus Casparus a Furstenbe completely isolated ; and though, unfor- bergh, Canonicus Capituluris Moguntiæ et tunately, self be the predominating feature Spiræ. Colonellus, ad uiuum pinxit et in our natures, and a desire for our own fecit 1656,” which is two years before aggrandizement, leaving far in the back Rupert's. ground all solicitation for that of others, be P rince Rupert scraped a large whole plate, natural to us as the air by which we live, yet representing an executioner holding a sword let the truly generous mind remember the in one hand, and a head in the other, a hulf. duties which he owes to society, and reflect length figure from Spagnoletto, dated 1658. on this irrefutable fact that excellence in He engraved the head of the executioner a any thing has been given only to a few, second tiine, on a smaller scale, for Mr. in order that the many may be benefited by Evelyn'e sculptura, who therein assures us their examples.

C. S.. it was given to him as a specimen of the

new invented art, by Prince Rupert himself. Arts and Sciences.

He also engraved his own portrait, with date

on a shield, 1658, and Rupert, Prince, fecit. , THE ART OF MEZZOTINTO SCRAPING. To Prince Rupert the invention of engraving

ON THE ANTIQUITY OF THE " in mezzotinto has been usually attributed;

BAGPIPES. and according to the general account, it owed its origin to a very trifling accident. The

(From Dauney's Ancient Scottish Melodies.) Prince one morning, observing a soldier IN Scotland, the use of the bagpipe seems to employed in cleaning his musket froin the have gradually superseded that of the hard : rust, occasioned by the fall of the night but this process, we should think, must have dew, perceived upon examination, some re taken place chiefly within the last two hundred semblance of a figure corroded upon the years,—previous to which, we doubt very niuch barrel; and hence he conceived, that some whether the natives of North Britain were method might be discovered to cover a plate more distinguished for their partiality for the all over with such a grained ground, so that bagpipe than their southern neighbours. Even by scraping away those parts which re. Shakspeare, although he talks of the “crone of quired to be white, the effect of a drawing a Lincolnshire bagpipe,” and of “a Yorkshire might be produced. This hint he after. bagpiper," hus nowhere associated that in. wards improved on; and assisted by Wal. strument with the Scots; and when we go lerant Vaillant, to whom he had communi. back several centuries anterior to this, we find cated his thoughts upon the subject, a steel it used in both countries by the same class of roller was constructed with sharp teeth, persons. Chaucer's miller played upon it, channelled out like a rasp, or file, which A bagpipe well couth he blowe and sowne ;" answered, in some degree, the intended pur. and “Will Swane,” “the meikle miller man,'' pose. Thus far our own authors inform us; in our “ Peblis to the Piay,” calls for it to but Baron Heinekan, a very judicious and assist in the festivities of the day, accurate writer upon the subject of engrave “ Giff I sall dauce, have doune, lat se ing, asserts in a note, page 208 of his “ Idee

Blaw ap the bagpyp thau.".

Indeed, although we are justly prond of oúr dency-introducing only thuse portions which ancient proficiency on the harp, and adhere depicture the habits, manners, and customs of unhesitatingly to our claims to supremacy on the Canadians, at the present eventful pethat head, we are much disposed, upon a riod.] candid consideration of the facts, to resigu to The want, and the influence, of Education. the Euclish the palm of superiority in this It is impossible to exaggerate the want of less refined description of music, about the education among the habitans; no means of time to which we refer. The pipers who are instruction have ever been provided for them, mentioned in the lord high treasurer's accounts and they are almost universally destitute of stem almost uniformly to have been natives the qualifications even of reading and writing. of England. Thus, 10th of July, 1499, there it came to my knowledge, that out of a great is a payment of eight pounds eight shillings number of boys and girls assembled at the « to Inglis pyparis that com to the castel yet school-house door of St. Thomas, all but three and playit to the king." Again, in 1505, there admitted, on inquiry, that they could not is another payment to “ the Inglis pipar with read. Yet the children of this large parish the drone." It should be added, that, while attend school regularly, and actually make the “ bagpiper," formed part of the musical use of books. They hold the catechism book establishment of the English sovereigns and in their hand, as if they were reading, while hoblemen, during the sixteenth century, we they only repeat its contents, which they And no such musician retained at the Scottish know by rote. The common assertion, how. court. Our monarchs had probably not much ever, that all classes of the Canadians' are relish for this sort of pipe-music, and although equally ignorant, is perfectly erroneous ; for the result of our investigation of the word I know of no people among whom a larger w chorus," has had the effect of clearly cone provision exists for the higher kinds of elevicting our first James of being a performer mentary education, or among whom such upon that most unprincely instrument, (for education is really extended to a larger prowhich, the only precedent we can find in portion of the population. The piety and history is that of the Emperor Nero) we benevolence of the early possessors of the should remember that he had most probably country founded, in the seminaries that exist acquired that, as well as his other accom- in different parts of the province, institutions, plishments, in England, where he received of which the funds and activity have long the rest of his education. We do not conceive been directed to the promotion of education. upon the whole, that the bagpipe has ever Seminaries and colleges have been by i hese been a very popular instrument in Scotland, bodies established in the cities and in other except in the Highland districts; and we central points. The education given in these may state this with some confidence, as to establishments greatly resembles the kind one part of the country,-a royal burgh, given in the English pablic schools, though which we have already had occasion to name, it is rather more varied. It is entirely in and where the magistrates actually prohibited the hands of the Catholic clergy. The numthe common piper from going his rounds, in ber of pupils in these establishments is estiterms by no means complimentary of the mated altogether at about 1,000; and they instrument. Our readers will be the less sur- turn out every year, as far as I could ascerprised at the superior refinement here exhi- tain, between 200 and 300 young men thus bited, when they are informed that these educated. Almost all these are members of were the " musical magistrates” of the city the family of some habitant, whom the posof Aberdeen, whose praises have been so session of greater quickness than his bro. Loudly truinpeted by Forbes, the publisher of thers has induced the father or the curate of the «i Cantus." in his dedication of that work. the parish to select and send to the seminary. 6 26th of May, 1630. The magistrates dis. These young men, possessing a degree of charge the common piper of all going through information immeasurably superior to that the toun at nycht, or in the morning, in tyme of their families, are naturally averse to what coming, with his pype, -it being an incivill they regard as descending to the humble ocforine to be usit within sic a famous burghe, cupations of their parents. A few become and being often fund fault with, als weill be priests; but, as the military and naval proSundrie nichtbouris of the toune as be fessions are closed against the colonist, the strangeris."

greater part can only find a position suited to

their notions of their own qualifications in CANADA IN 1838.

the learned professions of advocate, notary,

and surgeon. As from this callse these proBY BARL DURHAM.

fessions are greatly overstocked, we find every * UNDER the above title, we intend present. village in Lower Canada filled with notaries ing our readers with extracts from the recent and surgeons, with little practice to occupy highly interesting Report of Earl Durham on their attention, and living among their own the State of Canada, most carefully rejecting families, or at any rate among exactly the such parts as may have che least political ten- same class. Thus the persons of most edu

cation in every village belong to the game ance is not merely not avowed, but it hardly families, and the same original station in life, seems to influence men's feelings. But, though as the illiterate habitans whom I have de- the prudence and liberality of both parties has scribed. They are connected with them by all prevented this fruitful source of animosity from the associations of early youth and the ties of embittering their quarrels, the difference of reli. blood. The most perfect equality always gion has, in fact, tended to keep them asunder. marks their intercourse, and the superior in Their priests have been distinct; they have education is separated by no barrier of mannet met even in the same church Qers, or pride, or distinct interests, from the

The jealousy, hatred, and mistrust existing singularly ignorant peasantry by which he is surrounded. He combines, therefore, the in

between the French Canadians and the fluence of superior knowledge and social

English. equality, and wields a power over the mass,

The difference of language of the French which I do not believe that the educated class

and the Euglish from the first kept them asun. of any other portion of the world possess.

der. It is not anywhere a virtue of the English No common education has served to remove race to look with complacency on any manners, and soften the differences of origin and lan.

customs,or laws, which appear strange to them; guage. The associations of youth, the sports accustomed to form a high estimate of their of childhood, and the studies by which the own superiority, they take no pains to conceal character of manhood is modified, are distinct from others their contempt and intolerance of and totally different. In Montreal and Que. their usages. They found the French Canabec there are English schools and French dians filled with an equal amount of national schools: the children in these are accustomed pride ; a sensitive, but inactive pride, which to fight nation against nation, and the quar- disposes that people not to resent insult, but rels that arise among boys in the streets usually rather to keep aloof from those who would exhibit a division into English on one side,

keep them under. The French could not but and French on the other.

feel the superiority of English enterprise ; As they are taught apart, so are their stu. they could not shut their eyes to their success dies different. The literature with which each in every undertaking in which they came into is the most conversant is that of the peculiar contuct, and to the constant superiority which language of each; and all the ideas which men they were acquiring. They looked upon their derive from books come to each of them from rivals with alarm, with jealousy, and finally, perfectly different sources. The difference of with hatred. The English repaid them with larvuave. in this respect, produces effects quite a scorn, which soon also assumed the same form apart from those which it has on the mere in.

of hatred. The French complained of the tercourse of the two races.

arrogance and injustice of the English; the State of Literature.

English accused the French of the vices of a

weak and conquered people, and charged them Those who have reflected on the powerful with meanness and

with meanness and perfidy. The entire mise influence of language on thought, will perceive trust which the two races have thus learned to in how different a manner people who speak conceive of each other's intentions, induces in different languages are apt to think ; and them to put the worst construction on the most those who are familiar with the literature of innocent conduct; to judge every word, every France know that the same opinion will be act, and every intention unfairly; to attribute expressed by an English and French writer of the most odious designs, and reject every the present day, not merely in different words, overture of kindness or fairness, as covering but in a style so different, as to mark utterly secret designs of treachery and maliguity. different habits of thought. This difference is very striking in Lower Canada; it exists not merely in the books of most influence and

THE ART AND MYSTERY OF QUACK repute, which are of course those of the great

DOCTORING. writers of France and England, and by which (From Dr. Ticknor's Treatise on Medical the minds of the respective races are formed,

Philosophy.) but it is observable in the writings which now

An empiric of the first water, not many years issue from the colonial press. The articles

ago, had made himself famous for the cure of in the newspapers of each race are written in a style as widely different as those of France

all human maladies, by the administration of

peculiarly large pills of his own invention. and England at present, and the arguments which convince the one are calculated to ap

What contributed not a little to the increase and pear utterly unintelligible to the other.

spread of his reputation was the fact, that he

used frequently to teil his patients, that, from On the Religion.

their symptoms, he was confident some partiReligion forms no bond of intercourse and cular substances were lodged in a portion of union. It is, indeed, an admirable feature of the alimentary canal. At one time he would Canadian society, that it is entirely devoid of tell a patient that he had apple seeds retained any religious dissentions. Sectarian intoler. in his bowels : and again he would tell ano

ther, that he had kernels of different fruits, Confirmation. It was a beautiful sight to and grains in his stomach; and if by question- see ihe feinales arrayed in white, going, like ing gentlemen he could ascertain they were angels of purity, to rank themselves for ever fond of shooting, it was not seldom that he and ever under the banners of that being attributed their complaints to having acci- whose name shall last with eternity. I knelt; dentally swallowed a few shot. As nothing down at the altar with feelings of stifling could so conclusively prove his prognostics cor emotion; I knew that I had been, in a great rect, as the simple fact of finding the articles degree, the child of error-I felt that day still named, so the old gentleman's character for continued to glide on after day, leaving on wi-dom and skill became more and inore firmly ine an accumulation of crime, but still all established; for the identical causes of mise was not darkness within ine, and when the chief were invariably discovered after taking bishop pronounced that beautiful prayer, a dose of ihe “big pills.” At length, a lady beseeching the Lord that we might continue of the first respectability, having suffered a his for ever and ever, and be defended by his long time from deranged digestion, applied heavenly grace, I wept-but it was not the tu the celebrated doctor for assistance. After tear of sorrow that wantled in my eye, oh, a few questions, he told her very promptly that no! it proceeded from a sensation to refined, he understood her complaint, that he knew too unutterable, for description ! , C. S. what ailed her, and more than all that, her T he following curious advertisement apa doctor was a fool, and assured her that his big

s big peared, a short time since, in the Pottery pills would effect a cure. · Neither of these as.

Gazette :-" James Scott, whitesmith, gar

Es sertions she exactly credited, but nevertheless, do

şs, dener, fishmonger, schoolmaster, and watchconcluded to try his remedy if he would inake

man; teeth drawn occasionally; shvemaker, known to her the complaiut. “Why," says

chapel clerk, crier of the town, running foot. he, “ you have got lennon seeds in you-you

man, groom, and organ-blower ; keeper of must take some of my big pills and get rid of

the town-hali, letter-carrier, brewer, winder of them, and you'll be perfectly well again.",

the clock, toller of the eight o'clock bell, “ Why, doctor,” said the lady in amazement,

waiter, and bill-poster; fire-bucket maker to “ I have not eaten a lemon for six years; and

the Protector Fire-office, street-springer, aswhat you say is altogether impossible.” “No

sistant to a Staffordshire potter, fire-lighter mutter, madam, if you have not eaten a lemon for

to the dancing-master, sheriff's officer's de. twenty years, the fact is just as I tell you, and

puty; ringer of the 'market hell, toll-taker to if you will take the pills you can be satisfied

the bailiff of the hundred, and keeper and of it.” The pills were taken, and to the utter

deliverer of the fair standinys, returns his astonishment of the patient, the lemon seeds

inost grateful acknowledgments to the inhabi. were found ; a second close was taken, and still

tants of Stoke and it's vicinity, for the many more seeds made their appearance. A thought

favours already received, and bégs to assure now flashed upon the lady's mind. One pill

pull them that it shall be his constant. study to was yet left, which she exainined, and behold! a lemon seed in its centre-the secret, truly,

merit their patronage” . W. G. C. of the doctor's astonishing wisdom, and suc. Curious inscription, in old French, over one cessful practice.

of the doors of the eastern cloister at Canter

bury :

The Gatherer.

Ou tu passe, I ay passe ; .

Et par ou jay passe, tu passer is.' .. . Au monde comme toi jay este

Et mort comme moi tu seras. How wrong is man when discontented with his station ! His will be done who best knows

. The foregoing is thus Englished at the what is for our good! What are we that we upper end of the same cloister :should murmur“at his dispensations, or expect

Where now thou passest I have oftén passed :

And where I have ouce, thou must also pass. exemption from participating in any of those

Now thou art in the world, and so was 1 : miseries, with which, for some wise purpose, But yet, as I have done, so thou must die. he has thought proper to invest the paths of mankind ?

Curious instance of consecutive Latin

cases : How sweet in the hour of trouble is the

Mors, mortis, morti mortem, nisi morte dedisset, influence of religion ! The man whose trust is Æternæ vitæ jauna clausa föret. in his God may view, without concern, the dark tide of adversity rolling around him, and A November's sun looks like the smile of like the steel-nerved genius of the storm, dash a person in affliction.

C. S. aside its spray with coolness and disduin. Fine are the feelings with which we kneel LONDON: Printed and published by J. LIMBIRD.

143, Strand, (near Sonerset House): and sold hy down to prayer, hoping that past errors are all Booksellers and puremen-In PARIS, by all forgiven, and that grace may be granted for the Booksellers.-In FRANCFORT, CHAILES future ainendment of life.

JCGEL.

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with SOUTH VIEW OF ST. JAMES'S CEMETERY, LIVERPOOL. . ABOUT the year 1823, the inconvenient and style of architecture, and of the Doric order, pernicious custom of burying in confined forty-six feet in length, and twenty-nine church-yards, began to engage the attention wide ; at the west-end" is a noble portico of of many people in Liverpool. . At that time, six massive columny, supporting a rich eu. many of the burial-places were so crowded, tablature, which is carried round the building, that it was no unusual circumstance, in and surmounted by a triangular pediment: digging a grave to break through the cof- it was built after a design by Mr. Foster fins which had already been placed there. and forms an elegant specimen of purity of To abolish this appalling practice, and to in- style, and of tasteful embellishment: near it troduce a better system, the present establish- is a house for the officiatiny minister, a ment was commenced, and was consecrated, handsome edifice of stone; and at the south 12th January, 1829.

end of the cemetery is the porter's lodge, also The spot chosen was a large tract of built of stone. ground, at the top of Duke-street, excavated The mortal remains of the late lamented as a quarry for stone used in the buildings of Mr. Huskisson, lie interred near the centre the docks, and converted into a depository for of the grounds ; his funeral taking place on the dead, at an expense of 21,0001. : it con- the 24th September, 1830. The monumunt tains twenty-four thousand square yards, en- which covers his remains, is constructed of closed by a stone wall and handsome iron fine masonry, by Messrs. Tomkinson and palisades, having four stately entrances : the Suns, in a circular form (as shown in var eninterior is intersected by roads wide enough graving :) ten columus resting on a rusticated to admit a carriage, which lead to catacombs basement support the dome; it is said to be excavated in the rock; the oratory, or cha. a near copy of the lantern of Deinosthenes, pel, in which the funeral service is per- at Athens. formed, is an elegant edifice, in the Grecian

VOL. XXXIII.

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