« ElőzőTovább »
THE KINGDOMS OF NATURE.
these par icles, tivating in the water, are
round; but this form is adventitious; Life depends on certain conditions ; and being produced by the trituration in iho these conditions depend on a certain ar- mortar; for if the substance be only broken rangement of substances;' which arrange. with a hammer, the particles are found to ment is called “ organization." In an be angular. If you pour an'acid, or salt, or organ we observe, first, a peculiar arrange- laudanum, into the water, no effect is proment; and, secondly, a specific function duced on the motion of these inorganic parperformed by it. The body is an aggregate ticles ; but if infusory animals be so treated. of organs, formed of various textures; each their motion is quickened at first, but they texture being more or less common to all are soon killed. The cause of this motion the organs. The textures, or tissues, are of inorganic particles, hus not been ascer. bone, cartilage, ligaments, muscles, tendons, tained in all cases; but in some it is owing vessels, and nervous matter. There is no to currents in the water; in others, to the solid, even in the most perfect animal, attraction of different particles for each which cannot be ranged under one of these other; and in others it is apparently magheads; and they are all reducible to the netic, or electrical. cellular, the muscular, and the nervous. Animals are divided into two great classes ; The cellular is the most simple, and the those without an internal skeleton,-called most abundant ; for the enamel of the invertebrated aniinals; and those with an teeth is said to be the only solid in the body, internal skeleton,-called vertebrated (from in which it has not been discovered. If all vertebræ,the bones of which the spine is the earthy part of the bones, all the mus composed). The invertebrated animals are cular fibre, all the fat, &c., were removed subdivided into the following classes :-). from the body, the latter would still retain Zoophytes. These stand at the bottom of its general shape, if the cellular tissue were the scale; and include corals, sea-eggs, inleft; whence the latter may be considered fusory animals, &c. They have a stomach, as the basis of the whole. It is composed something which resembles a nervous sysof an infinite number of small globules. tem, and an imperfect apparatus for the cir. about the eight-thousandth part of an inch culation of the fluids ;- that is, « imper. in diameter; and arranged in lines, which fect,” when judged by the standard of higher cross each other in every direction. The animals; but quite complete as regards muscular tissue is arranged in two different their own organization, Corals are produced modes ;-in masses, and in membraneous by polypi ; which have numerous genera and expansions, or muscular coats; but there is species. Near Edinburgh there are limeno essential difference between them. The stones filled with corals, though the latter muscular tissue is formed of filaments, which live only in tropical climates ; from which, compose fibres, which (in their turn) are and from many analogous facts, it is evident made up into fasciculi; - each filament that our climate must once have been tro. (which is the smallest divisjon) having an pical. 2. Articulata. These animals are investment of cellular membrane. By the so called from having their body and limbs microscope, the muscular tissue, like the variously jointed ; as the beetle, &c. Sicellular, is found to be composed of globules ; milar animals are found in the sea; as the 'as are also many of the animal fluids. seu mouse, &c. 3. Mollusca. The animals
With regard to the structure of vegeta. comprised in this division are so called from bles, our information is less satisfactory. their being generally very soft. All animals The study is in its infancy; and no two furnished with shells, whether they inhabit authors agree respecting it. They are fur: the land or the water, belong to this class ; tished with fibres, vessels, &c.; and appear such as snails, muscles, oysters, the cuttle. to be composed of globules. For further fish, &c. Shells are either univalve, bivalve, information, we may refer to a series of ar or multivalve; and their study constitutes ticles on Botany, in our last volume. In the science of conchology. animals, the globules vary in different spe. The vertebrated animals consist of four cies, and even in different parts of the same animal. The elementary particles of inor- animals which breathe by gills; and ex
classes. I. Pisces, or fishes; including all ganic matter are found to be angular. Even Judin
cluding what we call “ shell-fish." Whales, water and mercury, when in a state of cryg
and animals of that tribe, are also excluded; talization, exhibit an angular form., Dr. for they are not fish, but breathe by lungs; Brown, of Edinburgh, found that small particles of inorganic matter, put into water,
and, instead of spawning, bring forth their
young alive. moved about like infusory animals; from
2. Amphibia ; including all
animals that can live both in water and in which it has been concluded, by speculative men, that organic and inorganic matters are
air ; as crocodiles, turtles, tortoises; ser.
pents, frogs, lizards, &c. 3. Aves, or birds. of the same description. Some say that
4. Mammalia ; comprising all animals which Concluded from page 52.
suckle their young; and including, therefore,
whales, dolphins, porpoises, &c. T'he inam- means of attaining this end, and every body malia stand at the summit of the zoological said, “ Go into a school for a short time, it is series; and man stands at the head of the your only way." Thinking of the old adage, mammalia ;-having only one genus, and one which teaches us, what every one says must species ; but divided into races, suh-races, be right, we accordingly made up our minds families, and varieties. The ape is considered to become a schoolboy once more, and started to come nearest to man in perfection of struc. one inorning in quest of an “institution" ture.
likely to suit our purpose. We called at Animals, like plants, are found in all parts several, but none had the least idea of what a of the globe ; except in tracts which are parlour-boarder meant, at least, in our sense of always covered with snow. Above the snow. of the word ; and after splitting our boots to line, animals and plants are not found ; and pieces in running up and down the Rue their number increases as we descend from D'Enfer, (whose miserably unpaved state en. this. It is supposed that, below a certain tirely contradicts the statement, that the " desdepth from the surface, both the land and census Averni” is so easy, and shows Virgil the sea are destitute of living creatures. had not Paris in his eye when he wrote the There are sandy tracts on the surface of the Æneid), we at length settled with one in the earth, in which animals and plants are very Faubourg St. Jacques, where we stipulated to rare; and the same state of things occurs have a bedroom to ourselves, to dine with the near volcanoes; for it is often centuries be. principal, and to be instructed in the French fore streams of lava admit of vegetation; language, for one hundred francs per month, and before that time no animals can exist on Now, we had three reasons for going here. them. Animals are most abundant under Firstly, it was cheap; secondly, it was near the equator ; and lessen in number towards the Barriere Mont Parnasse, to whose amusethe poles. In the latter situation, their ment on fête days we had a great predilection; tints are most simple; being often white. and, lastly, (we blush to own our cowardice) The hare and the ptarmigan are quite white the eléves were all *small boys,” whom we in the arctic regions; and hawks are some could thrash into subjection, if they were im. times found white below, and black above. pudent, or hallou'd after us, “ Rosbif Anglais," The Museum in the University of Edinburgh Is Goddem," or any other eniertaining polyglot contains a white hare, which was killed by witticisms, that the said “small boys” of Paris, Captan Parry, in 82° north latitude ;-the there called gamins, were apt to indulge in at highest point which had then been reached our expense. by man. Tropical birds have very beautiful It was a wet dirty day, in the beginning of plumage; and one bird found in temperate Nevember, that we left our lodgings at the regions (the kingfisher) resembles them. Hotel Corneille, Place de l'Odeon, and hiring
With respect to the size of animals, there A Dorter at the corner of the Rue Ricine. is great diversity ;—from the whale, which paddled up the never-ending, and always is sometimes nearly a hundred feet long, dirty, Rue St. Jacques, tu our new ubode. On down to animals so small, that five millions arriving, we entered the vreat vates with would not fill a cubic line ;* or of which which all French schools are embellished, and (as it has been otherwise expressed) hundreds immediately carried our effects to our bedroom, might play on the point of a pin. It would which wa
which was a closet with a tiled foor, about require eight hundred millions of these to fill eight feet
eight feet square, and whose sole furniture was a cubic inch ; and nine hundred billions to comprised in a little wooden bedstead without till a cubic foot. All water contains these
curtains, a deal chair, and a corresponding animals. In general, the largest animals are table, on which was a pie-dish to wash in, found in the warmest countries, whether and a pint white jug for water. Had we been on the land, or in the sea; but the whale is astronomers, the room would have had many a well-known exception to this rule. N. R. advantages, since it was ingeniously, lighted
#A" line" is il convenient measure, much used by a window in the ceiling, which, in fine by the French. It is the twelfth part of an inch.
weather,, illuminated our chamber very well,
but in the event of a heavy fall of snow, left Manners and Customs. us nearly in total darkness. It was late in the
evening when we arrived, so we went to bed SKETCHES OF PARIS.
at once, supplying the want of sufficient bed.
furniture by an English great-coat spread over A French School.
the counterpane, and carpet-bag, emptied THE continual minor annoyances and ludi. of its contents, made a sort of mat to lay on crois mistakes to which our knowledge of the ground, and stand upon while we unschool, French perpetually subjected us, in.. dressed. duced us to think about some means of ac- Long before daylight the next morning we quiring the language, not as we learn it in were aroused froin our slumbers by a bell England, but as they speak it in France. We ringing, to summon the poor devils of eleves applied to several friends, touching the best to the commencement of their studies. We
heard much yawning and scrambling after to hear the hell for the boys' breakfast, as clothes, and then a silent and measured step we knew ours came after. The pupils sie as the usher assembled them, two and two, to lently marched two and two into their room, march down stairs to school. About seven, the and took their places at two long tables, cook of the establishment, a dirty fellow, in a dir. where each boy had a sork, cup, and napkin tier white night-cap, brought us a cup of milk laid for him-table-cloths and knives were and a piece of bread, which we were informed unknown. An allowance of potage, seem. was to be our first breakfast, the other was at ingly composed of cabbage-water, and bits of half.past eleven. Unfortunately for us, we al. bread, was first served out to each ; after that ways had a great aversion to bread and milk they had some vin ordinaire and water, but we think it is neither one thing nor the other, such wine-the only thing we could compare and appears to hold an intermediate rank be.
it to, was ink and small beer mixed together; tween tea and water. Although we remem- and when this was well diluted with water, bered in our infancy to have possessed a book we could imagine how delicious it was. A of nursery rhymes, written by some anony- course of boiled spinach came next, and mous poet of the dark ages, of infantile litera. the breakfast concluded by a dub of currant ture, where there was a picture of a litile child, jam being distributed to each, which was with very curly hair, dragging a respectable eaten with their bread, of which, however, female, who looked something between a Sun
there was an unlimited supply. This meal was day-school teacher and a barmaid, towards a repeated at five o'clock, with such agreeable cow feeding in a romantic mendow: and, variations as the taste of the cook directed : moreover, some lines, which commenced, as
but beyond small pieces of hard boiled beef, far as our memory serves us :
and litile bits of call's liver, we did not see
much meat. Potatoe sallads, cold artichokes, “ Thank you, pretty cow, that made, boiled lentils, and sorrel soup, appeared to be Pleasant milk to soak my bread ;"
the staple articles of refreshment. The meals and followed by some well-founded cautions to which we partook with the master and his fathe animal not to chew, henilock and other mily were about the same standard, except rank weeds ; still, we sepeat, in spite of all that the wine was superior, and some cotelettes these associations, we do not like bread and of mutton and veal were occasionally dismilk. Accordingly, when we found this was played. The eléves themselves had none of all we were to be allowed before noon, we the spirit of English school.boys, and indeed were out of temper, and getting up very it was not to be wondered at. We could not cross, we sauntered down into the play. help often contrasting the washy mess they ground to inspect our new residence. The were eating to the wholesome roust and boiled reader must imagine a large court, enclosed joints of our schools. They appeared to have ou three sides by buildings and walls, and on no regular games or toys of their own, and the fourth by some palings communicating all their play-time was spent in running after with the garden. The edifices on the right one another, with no other end that we could hand were divided into numerous little cells, perceive but to warm themselves, for although each having a door, and those were dignified ihe weather was desperately cold, there were by titles placed over the said doors. The no fires, or even fire places in several of the first was called, “ Salle de musique,” and, in ruoms. They never inflicted corporal punishconsequence, was fitted up with a cistern and ment, but oftenders were ordered to stand leaden trough, where the eléves performed against a particular tree for half an hour, or their morning ablutions, when there hap- be deprived of a dish at dinner. We thought pered to be any water. Next to this, was the it would have had a better effect, to thrush “ Salle'du dessin," or drawing academy, and them well, and feed them well. some empty easils, with a very ricketty form A s we muy imagine, from their early rising, or two, showed a great deul went on there. they were generally pretty well fatigued at Then came the classe,'' or schcol-room, night, and they were always in a deep sleep where the eléves studied under the surveillance when we weni to bed. As the way to our of two ushers, who crdained a rigid silence chamber lay through that of the eléves, we amongst their pupils, save and except such had frequent opportunities of inspecting it. times as the said ushers were on duty as na. It was a large bare room, with the beds ar. tional guards. On the other side the court ranged round it, and down the middle, like was the dwelling-house and bed-rooms, with Roux's ward, at the Hôtel Dieu, only the the “refectoire of the pupils, where they beds had no curtains. Some of the boys had sed; and in the middle of ihe playground, little round mats by the beds to stand upon, which, from huving two trees in it, was de. but the majority, who could not afford to hire nominated the park, were divers gymnastic these luxuries of the master of the school, poles and bars, and a deep well, which sup- had the gratification of planting their naked plied the establishment with water, when any feet on a tiled floor every morning. A dim body was at leisure to wind it up-an opera. and solitary lamp burnt all night in the cham-' tion of half an hour. We were tolerably ber, barely lighting its extreme ends ; not an hungry by eleven o'clock, and were not rorry article of furniture but the beds themselves,
and one chair for the usher, was in the room, Emily, yet there was but little in the reported and the windows all closed with that unat attentions of Henri St. Brie, who was staying tractive irreconcilability which is only known at the chateau. to the windows of the Continent.
Henri was by nature formed for woinan's We contrived to get through a month at admiration. He was of that manly dashing our institution, and then we left. We had, cast which so often takes the heart by storm, it is true, picked up a good deal of French, ere reason has time to bring its tardy succours, but in point of expense, it had not saved us and show that the advantages of a handsome much, for the truth must out we never got person and fascinating manners are totally enough to eat, and in consequence, generally eclipsed by the blackness of a heart formed dined again at the nearest restaurant ; nay, in total contrast to the rest. He had been more than once we detected ourselves eating but a few days at the chateau before Louise broiled herrings at a wine-shop outside the was marked as the victim of his seductive Barriere d’Arcueil.
KNIPS. arts. He foresaw that her simple and
confiding disposition would render the ac
quirement of her affections an easy task; but THE SEDUCER.
with all her simplicity, she entertained such PIERRE MARCEL was the cultivator of a small high notions of honour, as to make his suç. but profitable vineyard, on the banks of the cess rather doubtful; but still he thought that Garonne, a few leagues from Toulouse, where one who had seen but the fairest side of life, the principal part of his life had been passed could but ill combat against the wiles of one in the almost daily occupation of tending his versed in all its deadliest ways. vines, and rendering his little plot of ground H e sought every opportunity of being in the fairest for many a mile around. In her company, and by a thousand assiduous early life his wife, whom he had passionately attentions won his way, imperceptibly, in her adored, had fallen the victim of a lingering affections. He pretended his passion was of illness, leaving him an only child, a daughter, that fervent kind which drove every object but whom he cherished both for its own and respect from his imagination ; and vowed, mother's sake, with unusual tenderness. The could he but gain her reluctant consent, to little Louise was the solace of his days, and make her the future Marchioness de St. Brie. the prattle of her infant tongue sounded to There was but one thing he stipulated; and him the sweetest music nature could invent; that was, for the marriage to be performed in but when her growing years gave token of private, since he feared his father's anger, equalling her mother's beauty and symmetry unless he could, by degrees, break the cirof form, his satisfaction was unbounded to cumstance to him. There was so much plauthink that he alone, without a mother's fos- sibility in this, that she could not believe he tering hand, had reared a flower so lovely spoke other than the language of truth. The Oft, when working in his vineyard, would he cloven foot had in no one instance as yet pause as his daughter tript hy with fawn-like shown itself, and she felt convinced his affecstep, and gaze with true affection on his tions were as pure, and as fervent, as her own. heart's dearest object, whilst in his mind he She yielded her consent to a private marriage. conjured up bright dreams of the future, and Henri protested she had made him the tried to trace her coming years.
happiest of men, by her consent; but still "A short distauce from Marcel's house was there was one thing more, the marriage could the chateau of the Marquis de St. Brie, who not be performed with that secrecy which was usually resident there with his daughter. was so necessary, elsewhere than in Paris. The family of the Marquis consisted only of Would she go there? To this she demurred his daughter and a son, an officer in a light that the absence from her father, without any cavalry regiment. A friendship more strong reasonable excuse, would be the cause of so than those usually subsisting between persons much anguish to him, that she would not for of different stations in life, had grown up he- the world he should feel; but even this scru. twixt Louise and Emile de St. Brie; and it had ple was overcome by the promise of Henri, been one of the chief amusements of the latter that on their return her father should be in. to instruet Louise in those accomplishments formed of all that had taken place, when the she herself so much, excelled in, often remark. few hours of uneasiness would be more than ing, that her pupil was so apt that she should compensated by the pleasure he would receive soon have little left to teach her.'
on hearing of her happy marriage. · The notice taken of his daughter by Mam'. Paris, with all its charms, had less attracselle St. Brie, was inost gratifying to the feel- tion for Louise than her simple home on the ings of Marcel, who daily saw her gaining Garonne's banks. She lived in the most those accomplishments he so much coveted studied seclusion ; passing her melancholy for her, but which he had feared he should hours in thinking of her father, and what be unable to obtain. But few pleasures are must be his feelings concerning her longunalloyed, and however great might have been continued absence. She felt she had made the satisfaction he felt at the notice taken of but a poor return for all the care and solici
tude bestowed upon her. Henri, it was true, her return. She was too amiable-too good · had been unremitting in his attentions, and to listen to such a villain, Bad even as St. his love appeared still as fervent as ever ; but Brie was, he would not rob him of such a he always evaded the couversation when she daughter, the only hope of his decliuing years. pressed him concerning their marriage, and could he have the heart to dishonour one so she found herself in a fair way to be a mother, beautiful, so fair? No, no; it was not in ere she was a wife.
human nature to be so black. But months “ Henri,” said she, one day, “ will you fix rolled on, and his dear Louise came not ; the day for our marriage? When you consider every search and every endeavour to obtain my situation, your delay is cruel in the ex. tidings of her had proved fruitless ; but treme."
amidst all his complaints he never uttered one " Yes, yes, dearest, next week. By.the. word of reproach against her. He became bye, has Madame Girau sent home the beau- altogether an altered man ; neglectful of tiful shawl I ordered for you ?!!
everything, avoiding the society of his former “Some time ago; but I have not looked at friends and associates, and scarcely ever going it; I have been ihinking of something else.” beyond the limits of his own dwelling. It « Of what, dearest ?"
was a cold and bitter morning, in the middle “Of the time when you mean to fulfil your of an unusually severe winter, that he went, promise.”
more by the force of habit than otherwise, to “ Just look out of the window, dearest, and look after the inmates of his stable. He had tell me what you think of the horse I pur. his hand upon the stable door, and was enterchased yesterday?”
ing, when he thought he heard a low moan; « Oh, Henri ! if you love me, I beseech he turned round to look from whence it proyou name the day, I have been unhappy, ceeded, and a few steps before him saw a very unhappy.”
woman lying on the ground, partly covered by « Now you are beginning to teaze me the falling snow.
“ Poor creature,” said he, “ hast thou lain “ Nay, do not say I teaze you; I ask you here during this bitter night; hadst thou but to keep your faith with me.”
been my worst enemy I could not have refused “ Really, you are more pertinacious than you shelter. Here, let me list you in my ever; but I cannot stop now, I have an ap- arms, and carry you into the house. Eh! pointment with—"
what do I see ! Merciful heavens! it is my “ Henri, answer me! Am I to be your poor Louise. She is dying fast, and there is wife or not?"
no help at hand. Ohľ speak to me, Louise ! " My wife! why are you not my wife as for heaven's sake, speak! Not a look ! not a firmly as you can be such ? What are the word !” cold formalities of the world that would give The distracted father carried her into the you the right of being called my wife ? house, and by the aid of some warm cordials Would they bring affection ? No; they would brought her to terself; it was but to hear rather bring abhorrence and disgust. As the recital of her sufferings, and her prayers Louise Marcel, you will ever be to me the tor forgiveness. She had arrived at her fa. dearest object of my heart; but as my wife I ther's house on the preceding evening, but could not love you, and will not do that had not dared to enter, and overcome by which would make me hate you for ever.” fatigue and cold, she had fallen where he
Louise was almost motionless with sur found her. Her delicate frame was unable to prise; it was so different from all he had withstand the shock she had sustained, and ever said. These then were his true feelings. after lingering a few days, closed her eyes for
“ I thank you, sir,” she at length replied, ever on the world, happy in the assurance of " at least for your frankness. I will be her father's true forgiveness. equally so; and since I am not to be the Marcel had attended his daughter day and wile, I will not submit to the dishonour of night, indulging to the last in the vain hope remaining another day as the mistress of of her recovery; and even when life was no Monsieur de St. Brie. We part, sir, this more, watched her cold corpse with the utmost instant, for ever.”
anxiety, to see if it were not death's semblance. “ Stay, Louise, where are you going ?” but But when the last worldly offices were perere he had time to stop her, she descended formed, and he found that he was then alone the stairs, and reaching the street, contrived in the world, for weeks he shut himself up to evade his pursuit.
in the chamber where she died, refusing to “Psha !” he exclaimed, what a fool the see or speak with any one. girl is; but she'll soon come to her senses, so It was some months after the death of I'll leave her to herself.”
Louise that I was sitting in the Tuileries' Marcel would not at first give any credence Gardens, watching the crowd of loungers to the report that his daughter had gone with passing to and fro along the principal avenue; Henri St. Brie. No, no; he was convinced amongst those who seemed to attract most some accident had happened which prevented attention was Henri St. Brie, upon whose