viii. 8, 9. besought the aid of the compassionate Redeemer, appears to have been of this last order. He was a man under authority, that is, of the Principes or Triarii, and had none under him but the hundred men, who appear to have been in a state of the strictest military subordination, as well as of loving subjection to him. I am, said the centurion, a man under authority, having soldiers under me, and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth, and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my slave (Tw Scuna peau), Do this, and he doeth it. The application of his argument, addressed to Christ, seems to be this:-If I, who am a person subject to the control of others, yet have some so completely subject to myself, that I can say to one, Come, and he cometh, &c. how much more then canst thou accomplish whatsoever thou willest, being under no control, and having all things under thy command ?1

The AC or Spearmen, mentioned in Acts xxiii. 23., were soldiers, carrying spears or lances in their right hand, whose duty it was, not only to attend as guards upon their sovereign or commander, but also to guard prisoners, who were bound by a chain to their right hand. The Encoxaropes (in Latin, Spiculatores or Speculatores, from the spiculum, a javelin or spear which they carried) were a kind of soldiers who formed the body-guard of princes. Among other duties of these guards, was that of putting condemned persons to death.3

II. The allusions in the New Testament to the military discipline, armour, battles, sieges, and military honours of the Greeks, and especially of the Romans, are very numerous; and the sacred writers have derived from them metaphors and expressions of singular propriety, elegance, and energy, for animating Christians to fortitude against temptations, and to constancy in the profession of their holy faith under all persecutions, and also for stimulating them to persevere unto the end, that they may receive those final honours and that immortal crown which await victorious piety.

In the following very striking and beautiful passage of St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians (vi. 11-17.), the various parts of the panoply-armour of the heavy troops among the Greeks and Romans (those who had to sustain the rudest assaults) "are distinctly enumerated, and beautifully applied to those moral and spiritual weapons with which the believer ought to be fortified. Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places. Wherefore, take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all to stand. Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breast-plate of righteousness: and your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace: above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith you shall be able to quench all the fiery darts

1 Dr. A. Clarke, on Matt. viii. 9.

2 Valpy's Gr. Test. vol. iii. p. 255.

Robinson's Gr. Lex. to the New Test. in voce.

Eph. vi. 13. Axl xxley μsvo. This verb frequently signifies to despatch a foe, totally to vanquish and subdue an adversary. So it should be translated in this place. Ov auloxεpx xxlpyσто: Whom he despatched with his own hand. Dion. Halicarn. tom. i. p. 99. Oxon. 1704. II WOREMIX xxlepy xoxμevos: Having quelled all hostilities. Idem, p. 555. Με5' ως ηδη πολλους πολεμίους κατειργασί:: By which you have vanquished many enemies. Polyæni Stratag. p. 421. Lugd. 1589. Ispas abulous σidupo xxlpyruv. Idem, p. 599. Casaubon. Taupov pov THIS IS is xxloopy noμove: He despatched a wild hull only with his hands. Appian. vol. i. p. 201. Amst. 1670. See also pp. 5. 291. 410. 531. Tollii. The word here used by the apostle has also this signification in Dion Cassius, Josephus, and Philo.

Eway, after all, or besides all: it never signifies above all. Aulos SE XXXTWS ! was SixBαivov: After all, he himself passed with difficulty. Plutarch, Cæsar, p. 1311. edit. Gr. Stephan. Ayovla @polov The Qayya, Mila Taulα TOUS is, de TO σxsUopopov: First, he led up the phalanx, next the cavalry, after all the baggage. Polybius, p. 664. Casaubon. Επι πασι δε Ασσις εννει και τεσσαρακοντα και μήνας δύο: After all, Assis reigned forty-nine years and two months. Josephus contra Apion. p. 445. Havercamp.

The shield here intended (upos) is the scutum, or large oblong shield of the Romans, which was made of wood covered with hides, and derived its name from its resemblance to a door (up). As faith is that Christian grace, by which all the others are preserved and rendered active, it is here properly represented under the figure of a shield; which covered and protected the whole body; and enables the believer to quench-to intercept, blunt, and extinguish, as on a shield-the fiery darts of the wicked one, that is, all those evil thoughts, and strong injections, as they are termed, which inflame the passions of the unrenewed, and excite the soul to acts of transgression.

BEAN Eva. These dreadful weapons were frequently employed by the ancients. Πυρσορα τοξευμαία. Appian. p. 329. Πυρφόροις οῖστοις Baxt. Thucydides, tom. ii. lib. xi. p. 202. Glasg.

Τοιους, αγριε δαιμον, εχεις πυροενίας οΐστους,

Oppian. Kuvny. lib. ii. ver. 425. According to Ammianus Marcellinus (lib. xxiii. c. 4.) these fiery darts

of the wicked, and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God."

Having thus equipped the spiritual soldier with the divine panoply, the apostle proceeds to show him how he is to use it: he therefore subjoins-Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance. The Greeks and other ancient nations, we have already observed, offered up prayers before they went into the battle. Alluding to this, Saint Paul adds the exhortation to believers, praying always, at all seasons, and on all occasions, with all prayer (more correctly, supplication for what is good) and deprecation of evil; and watching thereuntobeing always on their guard lest their spiritual enemies should surprise them with all perseverance, being always intent on their object, and never losing sight of their danger or of their interest.10

"In the Epistle to the Romans, the apostle, exhorting men to renounce those sins to which they had been long accustomed, and to enter upon a new and holy life, uses a beautiful similitude, borrowed from the custom of soldiers throwing off their ordinary habit in order to put on a suit of armour. The night is far spent, the day is at hand: let us therefore CAST OFF the works of darkness, and let us PUT ON the ARMOUR of light." (Rom. xiii. 12.) In another passage he represents, by a striking simile, in what manner the apostles were fortified against the opposition with which they were called to conflict in this world. By the word of truth, by the power of God, by the ARMOUR of righteousness ON THE RIGHT HAND AND ON THE LEFT." (2 Cor. vi. 7.)12

III. It is well known that the strictest subordination and obedience were required of every Roman soldier. An allusion to this occurs in the speech of the centurion to Jesus Christ (Matt. viii. 8, 9.) which has already been noticed above, and which is greatly illustrated by two striking passages in Arrian's Discourses of Epictetus:-speaking of the Saturnalia, he says,-" We agreed to play Agamemnon and Achilles. He who is appointed for Agamemnon says to me, Go to Achilles, and force away Briseis.'-I Go.-' COME.'-1 come."13 Again, discoursing on all things being under the divine inspection, he says,- When God commands the plants to blossom, they bear blossoms. When he commands them to bear seed, they bear seed. When he commands them to bring forth fruit, they put forth their fruit. When he commands them to ripen, they grow ripe. When he commands them to fade and shed their leaves, and to remain inactive, and involved (or contracted) within themselves, they thus remain and are inactive."14

Nor is the military subordination adverted to by the cen turion, without its (almost verbal) parallel in modern times in the East:-Kirtee-Ranah, a captive Ghoorkha chief, who was marching to the British head-quarters, on being interrogated concerning the motives that induced him to quit his native land and enter into the service of the Rajah of Nepal, -replied in the following very impressive manner:-"My master, the rajah, sent me: He says to his people,—to one, 'Go consisted of a hollowed reed, to the lower part of which, under the point or barb, was fastened a round receptacle, inade of iron, for combustible materials, so that such an arrow had the form of a distaff. This was filled with burning naphtha; and when the arrow was shot from a slack bow (for if discharged from a tight bow the fire went out), it struck the enemies' ranks and remained infixed, the flame consuming whatever it met with; water poured on it increased its violence; there were no other means to extinguish it but by throwing earth upon it. Similar darts or arrows, which were twined round with tar and pitch, and set fire to, are described by Livy (lib. xxi. c. 8.), as having been made use of by the inhabitants of the city of Saguntum, when besieged by the Romans.

On the tops of the ancient helmets, as well as on those now in use, is a crest or ridge, furnished with ornaments; some of the ancient helmets had emblematic figures, and it is probable that Saint Paul, who in 1 Thess. v. 8. terms the helmet the hope of salvation, refers to such helmets as had on them the emblematic representation of hope. His meaning therefore is, that as the helmet defended the head from deadly blows, so the hope of salvation (of conquering every adversary, and of surmounting every difficulty, through Christ strengthening the Christian), built on the promises of God, will ward off, or preserve him from, the fatal effects of all temptations, from worldly terrors and evils, so that they shall not disorder the imagination or pervert the judgment, or cause men to desert the path of duty, to their final destruction.

Dr. Harwood's Introd. to the New Test. vol. ii. pp. 49, 50.

10 Drs. Chandler, Macknight, and A. Clarke, on Eph. vi. 11-17. In the fifth of Bishop Horne's Discourses (Works, vol. v. pp. 60-72.) the reader will find an admirable and animated exposition of the Christian armour. Fulgentiaque induit arma. Virgil, Eneid. ii. ver. 747. Ipolov TOVUN ATO11 Αποθώμεθα τα έργα του σκολους και ενδυσωμεθα τα όπλα του φωίος. cian, tom. ii. p. 256. edit. Grævii. δυσωμεν, ἀνάγκη γαρ τους μελλον]ας ὁπλίζεσθαι, γυμνουσίαι πρότερον. Lu

12 Harwood's Introd. vol. ii. p. 52.

13 Arrian's Epictetus, book i. c. 25. § 1. (Mr. Carter's translation, vol. i. p. 113.) 14 Ibid. book i. c. 14. Raphelii Annotationes in Sacram Scripturam, ex Herodoto, &c. vol. i. pp 242, 243,

"By a very striking metaphor, taken from the pay of a soldier, he represents the wages with which SIN rewards those who fight under her banners, to be certain and inevitable death. The WAGES of SIN is DEATH.

you to Gurwhal;' to another, 'Go you to Cashmire, or to any distant part. My Lord, thy slave OBEYS; it is DONE.'None ever inquires into the reason of an order of the rajah." In his Epistle to Timothy, who appears to have been greatly dejected and dispirited by the opposition he met with, St. Paul animates him to fortitude, and among other directions encourages him to ENDURE HARDSHIP as a good soldier of Jesus Christ (2 Tim. ii. 3.)—and what hardship a Roman soldier supported, the following passage in Josephus will abundantly evince. It is the most striking commentary upon this text that ever was written. "When they march out of their encampment, they advance in silence and in great decorum, each man keeping his proper rank just as in battle. Their infantry are armed with breastplates and helmets, and they carry a sword on each side. The sword they wear on their left side is by far the longest, for that on the right is not above a span's length. That select body of infantry, which forms part of the general's life-guards, is armed with lances and bucklers, but the rest of the phalanx have a spear and a long shield, besides which they bear a saw and basket, a spade and a hatchet; they also carry with them a cord, a sickle, a chain, and provisions for three days! so that a Roman foot-soldier is but very little different from a BEAST OF BURDEN."2


"Our Lord in that wonderful prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem accurately represents the Roman manner of besieging and taking towns,-which was by investing the place, digging a deep trench round it, and encompassing it with a strong wall, to prevent escape, and consume the inhabitants by famine. The days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a TRENCH about thee, and COMPASS thee ROUND, and keep thee in on every side: and shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee, and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knowest not the time of thy visitation. (Luke xx. 42, 43.) "In expatiating upon the difficulties and distresses with which the first preachers of the Gospel conflicted, the apostle Paul in a strong figure compares their situation to that of an army pent up in a narrow place annoyed on every side a-but not totally precluded from an escape their condition to the last degree perplexed and wretched, yet not altogether desperate and forlorn. (2 Cor. iv. 8.) We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed: we are perplexed, but not in despair." Once more, as among the other military honours and recompenses, rich and splendid crowns, 10 frequently of gold, were publicly bestowed upon the illustrious conqueror, and upon every man who, acting worthy the Roman name, had distinguished himself by his valour and his virtue-in allupassages of Sacred Scripture, which represent Jesus Christ, before angels and the whole assembled world, acknowledg ing and applauding distinguished piety, and publicly conferring crowns of immortal glory upon persevering and victorious holiness. Be thou faithful unto death: I will give thee a CROWN of life. (Rev. ii. 10.) Blessed is the man that endureth temptation; for when he is tried, he shall receive the CROWN of life (James i. 12.), which the Lord hath promised to them that love him. When the chief shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a CROWN of glory that fadeth not away. (1 Pet. v. 4.) I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: Henceforth there is laid up for me a CROWN of righteousness, which the Lord the righteous judge shall give me at that day; and not to ME only, but unto ALL them also that love his appearing." (2 Tim. iv. 8.)

According to a military custom, established in an early period of the commonwealth, every Roman soldier chose his favourite comrade; and by that tie of friendship all were mutually bound to share every danger with their fellows.3 Saint Paul, alluding to this practice, terms Epaphroditus his companion in labour and fellow-soldier. (Phil. ii. 25.) Fur-sion to this custom how beautiful and striking are those many ther, "it is well known that the Roman soldiers were not allowed to marry; by this prohibition the Roman providence, as much as possible, studying to keep their military disembarrassed from the cares and distractions of secular life. To this law the apostle refers; no one that warreth, ENTANGLETH HIMSELF WITH THE AFFAIRS OF THIS LIFE; that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier. (2 Tim. ii. 4.)4

"The names of those who died or were cashiered for misconduct were expunged from the muster-roll. To this custom, probably, the following text alludes; in this view the similitude is very striking, I will not BLOT OUT his NAME out of the BOOK of life. (Rev. iii. 5.)5

"The triumphant advancement of the Christian religion through the world, St. Paul compares to the irresistible progress of a victorious army, before which every fortified place, and all opposition, how formidable soever, yielded and fell. (2 Cor. x. 4.) For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strongholds; casting down imaginations, and every thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ. Having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them.

1 Fraser's Notes on the Hills at the Foot of the Himala Mountains, p. 226. London, 1820. 4to. 2 Josephus, De Bell. Jud lib. iii. c. 5. §5. Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. p. 52. The following particulars, collected from Roman authors, will confirm and illustrate the statements of Josephus: "The load which a Roman soldier carried is almost incredible (Virg. Georg. iii. 346. Horat. Sat. ii. 10.); victuals (cibaria) for fifteen days (Cic. Tusc. ii. 15, 16.), sometimes more (Liv. Epit. 57.), usually corn, as being lighter, sometimes drest food (coctus cibus, Liv. iii. 27.), utensils (utensilia, ib. 42.), a saw, a basket, a mattock, an axe, a hook, and leather thong, a chain, a pot, &c. (Liv. xxviii. 45. Horat. Epod. ix. 13.), stakes usually three or four, sometimes twelve (Liv. iii. 27.); the whole amounting to sixty pounds weight, besides arms: for a Roman soldier considered these not as a burden, but as a part of himself (arma membra milites ducebant. Cic. Tusc. ii. 16.)."-Adain's Roman Antiquities, p. 377.

Livy, lib. ix. c. 39. Tacitus, Hist. lib. i. c. 18.-Murphy's note, in his translation of Tacitus, vol. v. p. 356. 8vo. edit.

4 Τοις δε στρατευομένοις, επειδη γυναίκας ουκ εδυναν7ο εκ γε των νόμων Z. Dion. Cassius, lib. lx. p. 961. Reimar. Tacitus, speaking of some Roman veterans, says, Neque conjugiis suscipiendis neque alendis liberis sueti. Taciti Annales, tom. ii. lib. xiv. cap. 27. p. 210. Dublin.

It is, however, possible that this allusion may be drawn from civil life, in which case the meaning of the above cited passage will be this:-As in states and cities, those who obtained freedom and fellowship were enrolled in the public registers, which enrolment was their title to the privileges of citizens; so the King of Heaven, of the New Jerusalem, engages to preserve in his register and enrolment, in the book of life, the names of those who, like the faithful members of the church of Sardis, in a corrupted and supine society, shall preserve allegiance, and a faithful discharge of their Christian duties. He will own them as his fellow-citizens, before men and angels. Compare Matt. xx. 32. Luke xii. 8. See also Psal. Ixix. 28. Ezek. xiii. 9. Exod. xxxiii. 33. Dan. xii. 1. Mal. iii. 16. Luke x. 20. Dr. Woodhouse on the Apocalypse, p. 84.

• Auvale To Os, exceeding powerful. Moses is called aσT105 TW DEW, exceeding beautiful. Acts viii. 20.

See the conquest of the Gospel and its triumph over idolatry in a very striking manner represented by Eusebius, lib. x. p. 469. Cantab.

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IV. But the highest military honour that could be conferred in the Roman state was a triumph, or solemn procession, with which a victorious general and his army advanced through the city to the capitol; and which was the most grand and magnificent spectacle ever beheld in ancient times.

"After a decisive battle gained, and the complete conquest of a kingdom, the most illustrious captives in war, kings, princes, and nobles, with their wives and children, to the perpetual infamy of this people, were, with the last dishonour and ignominy, led in fetters before the general's chariot, through the public streets of Rome: scaffolds being every where erected, the streets and public places crowded, and this barbarous and uncivilized nation all the while in the highest excess of joy, and in the full fruition of a spetacle that was a reproach to humanity. Nor was only the " sovereign of large and opulent kingdoms, the magnanimous heroi2 who had fought valiantly for his country and her liber

Rom. vi. 23. Or, the pay of a soldier. OwHION TH OTPRTEIX,xlsveg xxvles apgupcov: Bringing money to pay the army. Dion. Halicarn. tom. i. p. 568. Oxon. Axbwv oviX TO XXI T'λAX DOWN EDEL TH Oтpaina. p. 587.

Harwood's Introd. vol. ii. pp. 53-58.

10 Στέφανους επί ταις νίκαις συχνουν-χρυσους ελαξε : Ie received several crowns of gold on account of his victories. Dion. Cassius, lib. xlii. p. 334. edit. Reimar. Vid. etiam notas Fabricii ad loc. Tois Se Sy vauxpan XI TERVOV EXRING dwxs: To those who had conquered in the naval engagement he gave crowns of olire. Lib. xlix. p. 597. See also pp. 537. 580. So also Josephus says that Titus gave crowns of gold to those who had distinguished themselves in the siege of Jerusalem; Tavous me?1581 purus. Bell. Jud. lib. vii. p. 404. See also p. 412. Havercamp.

11 Behind the children and their train walked Perseus himself [the captive king of Macedon], and wearing sandals of the fashion of his country. He had the appearance of a man overwhelmed with terror, and whose reason almost staggered under the load of his misfortunes. He was fol lowed by a great number of friends and favourites, whose countenances were oppressed with sorrow; and who, by fixing their weeping eyes continually upon their prince, testified to the spectators that it was his lot which they lamented, and that they were regardless of their own. Plutarchi Vitæ, in mil. tom. ii. pp. 186, 187. edit. Briani.

12 Thus, at the conclusion of the second Punic war, the Numidian and Carthaginian captive generals were led in triumph. Appian. tom. i. p. 58. edit. Tollii, Amst. 1670. Several kings, princes, and generals were also led in Pompey's triumph. Appian. tom. i. p. 417.

ties, the weak and tender sex, born to a happier fate, and young children,' insensible of their wretched condition, led in triumph; but vast numbers of wagons, full of rich furniture, statutes, pictures, plate, vases, vests, of which they had stripped palaces and the houses of the great; and carts loaded with the arms they had taken from the enemy, and with the coin,3 of the empires they had conquered, pillaged, and enslaved, preceded the triumphal car. On this most splendid occasion, imperial Rome was a scene of universal festivity: the temples were all thrown open, were adorned with garlands, and filled with clouds of incense and the richest perfumes; the spectators were clothed in white garments: hecatombs of victims were slain, and the most sumptuous entertainments were given. The illustrious captives, after having been dragged through the city in this procession, and thus publicly exposed, were generally imprisoned, frequently strangled and despatched in dungeons, or sold for slaves. To several of these well known circumstances attending a Roman triumph, the sacred writers evidently allude in the following passages. In the first of which Jesus Christ is represented as a great conqueror, who, after having totally vanquished and subjugated all the empires and kingdoms of false religion, and overturned the mighty establishment of Judaism and Paganism, supported by the great

and powerful, celebrates a most magnificent TRIUMPH Over them, leads them in procession, openly exposing them to the view of the WHOLE WORLD, as the captives of his omnipotence, and the trophies of his Gospel! Having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them 10-The second passage, whose beautiful and striking imagery is taken from a Roman triumph, occurs in 2 Cor. ii. 14-16. Now thanks be unto God, who always causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour of his knowledge by us in every place. For we are unto God a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that perish; to the one we are a savour of death unto death; and to the other, of life unto life. In this passage God Almighty, in very striking sentiments and language, is represented as leading the apostles in triumphu through the world showing them every where as the monuments of his grace and mercy, and by their means diffusing in every place the odour of the knowledge of God-in reference to a triumph, when all the temples were filled with fragrance, and the whole air breathed perfume;-and the apostle, continuing the allusion, adds, that this odour would prove the means of the salvation of some, and destruction of others as in a triumph, after the pomp and procession was concluded, some of the captives were put to death, others saved alive."12





THE whole world being the workmanship of God, there is no place, in which men may not testify their reverence for His supreme Majesty. From the very beginning of time some place was always appropriated to the solemn duties of religious worship. Adam, even during his continuance in Paradise, had some place where to present himself before the Lord; and, after his expulsion thence, his sons in like manner had whither to bring their oblations and sacrifices. This, probably, was the reason why Cain did not immediately fall upon his brother, when his offering was refused, because perhaps the solemnity and religion of the place, and the sensible appearance of the divine Majesty there, struck

Plutarch, in his account of the triumph of Æmilius at the conquest of Macedon, represents this tragical circumstance in a very affecting manner. The king's children were also led captive, and along with them a train of nurses, and tutors, and governors; all bathed in tears, stretching out their hands to the spectators, and teaching the children to entreat and supplicate their mercy. There were two boys and a girl, whose tender age rendered then insensible to the greatness of their calamity, and this their insensibility was the most affecting circumstance in their unhappy condition. Plutarch. Æmil. tom. ii. p. 156. See also Appian. p. 417. edit. Amst. 1670. 2 Κρατηρας αργυρους, και κεραία, και φιαλάς και κύλικας, Plutarch, ibid. p. 497. Αιχμαλωτοις ανδριασί και γράφεις και κολοσσοις κ. λ. p. 496. See also Appian. tom. i. p. 58. and p. 417. Tollii.

3 Ανδρες επεπορευόντο τρισχίλιοι, νόμισμα φεροντες αργυρουν κ.λ. Ειτα METH TOUTOUS OF TO VOμsoμx QEPORTES. Plutarch. tom. ii. p. 184. Appian. p. 417. 4 Πας δε ναός ανεωκίο, και στεφάνων και θυμιαμαίων ην πληρης. Plutarch. tom. i. p. 496. Gr. 8vo. Niveos ad fræna Quirites. Juvenal. Sat. x. ver. 45. Kasapaino XEXOμnμevo. Plutarch. p. 496. Steph. • Μετα τουτους ηγονίο χρυσοκερω τροφιαι βους, έκατον εικοσι, μίτραις noxyμevi Xai σT. After these were led one hundred and twenty fat oxen, which had their horns gilded, and which were adorned with ribands and garlands. Plutarch. ii. p. 885. * Αφικόμενος δε ες το Χαπιίωλιον ὁ Σκιπίων, την μεν πομπην κατέπαυσεν, STOTIN SE TOUS DIXOUS, WσTED EJOS COTIV, ES to ispov. Appian. tom. i. p. 59. edit. Amst. 1670. 8 Παρελθων δες Καπιζωλιον, ουδένα των αιχμαλώτων, ὡς ἕτεροι των θριαμ. COL TRY OUT [VESTO]. Appian. p. 418. For example, Aristobulus, king of the Jews, after having been exposed, and dragged through the city in Pompey's triumph, was immediately, after the procession was con cluded, put to death: Tigranes, some time afterwards, Apiorobouxos suus avnen, xx Typevns vσTepov. Appian. de Bellis Mithrid. p. 419. Amst. 1670. See also p. 403.

Longe plurimos captivos ex Etruscis ante currum duxit, quibus sub hasta venumdatis. Livy, lib. vi. p. 409. edit. Elz. 1634.



him with a reverential awe that might cause him to defer his villanous design till he came into the field where he slew him.

The patriarchs, both before and after the flood, used altars and mountains and groves for the same purpose: thus we read of Noah's building an altar to the Lord, and offering burnt-offerings upon it. (Gen. viii. 20.) Abraham, when he was called to the worship of the true God, erected altars wherever he pitched his tent (Gen. xii. 8. and xiii. 4.): he planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there on the name of the Lord (Gen. xxi. 33.): and it was upon a mountain that God ordered him to offer up his son Isaac. (Gen. xxii. 2.) Jacob in particular called a place by the name of God's House, where he vowed to pay the tithes of all that God should give him. (Gen. xxviii. 22.)

There were several public places appropriated to the religious worship of the Jews, viz. 1. The Tabernacle, which in time gave place to, 2. The Temple, both of which are oftentimes in Scripture called the Sanctuary; between which there was no other difference as to the principal design (though 10 Coloss. ii. 15. Opisσus Tous, Leading them in triumph.

11 Oppovos, Causeth us to triumph; rather, Leadeth us about in triumph. Εθριαμβεύθη και ανηρέθη, He was led in triumph, and then put to death. Appian. p. 403. Amst. 1670. "The Greek word, SpaSUOTI, which we render causeth us to triumph, properly signifies to triumph over, or to lead in triumph, as our translators themselves have rightly rendered it in another place, Coloss. ii. 15. And so the apostle's true meaning is plainly this: Now thanks be to God, who always triumpheth over us in Christ: leading us about in triumph, as it were in solemn procession. This yields a most congruous and beautiful sense of his words. And in order to display the force of his fine sentiment, in its full compass and extent, let it be observed, that when St. Paul represents himself and others as being led about in triumph, like so many captives, by the prevailing power and efficacy of Gospel grace and truth, his words naturally imply and suggest three things worthy of particular notice and attention; namely, a contest, a victory, and an open show of his victory." (Brekell's Discourses, pp. 141, 142.) ° “While God was leading about such men in triumph, he made them very serviceable and successful in promoting Christian knowledge in every place wherever they came." (Ibid. p. 151.) 12 Harwood's Introduction to the New Testament, vol. ii. pp. 29-34. collated with Brunings's disquisition De Triumpho Romanorum in the Appendix to his Compendium Antiquitatum Græcarum (pp. 415-434.), which seems to have guided Dr. Harwood in his manner of illustrating a Roman triumph. He has, however, greatly improved upon Brunings's Disser、



there was in beauty and workmanship) than that the taber-
nacle was a moveable temple, as the temple was an immove-
able tabernacle; on which account the tabernacle is some-
times called the temple (1 Sam. i. 9. and iii. 3.), as the tem-
ple is sometimes called the tabernacle. (Jer. x. 20. Lam. ii.
6.) 3. There were also places of worship called in Scrip-
ture High Places, used promiscuously during the times of
both the tabernacle and temple until the captivity; and, lastly,
there were Synagogues among the Jews, and other places,
used only for prayer, called Proseucha or Oratories, which
chiefly obtained after the captivity; of these various struc-
tures some account will be found in the following sections.



I. Different tabernacles in use among the Israelites.-II. THE
TABERNACLE, so called by way of eminence, not of Egyp-
tian origin. Its materials.-III. Form and construction of
the tabernacle.-Its contents.-IV. Its migrations.

This tabernac e was set up in the wilderness of Sinai, and carried along with the Israelites from place to place as they journeyed towards Canaan, and is often called the Tabernacle of the Congregation. In form, it appears to have closely resembled our modern tents, but it was much larger, having the sides and roof secured with boards, hangings, and coverings, and was surrounded on all sides by a large outer court, which was enclosed by pillars, posted at equal distances, whose spaces were filled up with curtains fixed to these pillars: whence it is evident that this tabernacle consisted first of the tent or house itself, which was covered, and next of the court that surrounded it, which was open: all which are minutely and exactly described in Exod. xxv.-xxx. xxxvi. -xl. from which chapters the following particulars are abridged.

III. The tent itself was an oblong square, thirty cubits in length, and ten in height and breadth. The inside of it was divided by a veil or hanging, made of rich embroidered linen, which parted the Holy Place, which is called the first tubernacle in Heb. ix. 2. 6., from the Holy of Holies, called the second tabernacle in Heb. ix. 7. In the former stood the altar of incense overlaid with gold, the table of shew-bread, consisting of twelve loaves, and the great candlestick of pure allowed to go into the holy place, but only the priests. The gold, containing seven branches: none of the people were Holy of Holies (so called because it was the most sacred place of the tabernacle, into which none went but the highpriest) contained in it the ark, called the ark of the testimony (Exod. xxv. 22.), or the ark of the covenant. (Josh. iv. 7.) This was a small chest or coffer made of shittim-wood, overlaid with gold, into which were put the two tables of the law (as well the broken ones, say the Jews, as the whole), with the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod that budded. (Heb. ix. 4.) This was the most holy of all the sacred furniture. None but the priests were allowed to touch it; and only the Kohathites, the sacerdotal family, were permitted to carry it, with poles made of shittim-wood, also overlaid with gold inserted in two golden rings at each end. (1 Kings viii. 8.) Hence Uzziah the Levite was punished with death for touching it. (2 Sam. vi. 7.)

I. MENTION is made in the Old Testament of three different tabernacles previously to the erection of Solomon's temple. The first, which Moses erected, is called the Tabernacle of the Congregation (Exod. xxxiii. 7.); here he gave audience, heard causes, and inquired of Jehovah, and here also, at first, perhaps the public offices of religion were solemnized. The second tabernacle was that erected by Moses for Jehovah, and at his express command, partly to be a palace of his presence as the king of Israel (Exod. xl. 34, 35.), and partly to be the medium of the most solemn public worship, which the people were to pay to him. (26-29.) This tabernacle was erected on the first day of the first month in the second year after the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. The third public tabernacle was that erected by David in his own city, for the reception of the ark, when he received it from the house of Obed-Edom. (2 Sam. vi. 7. 1 Chron. xvi. 1.) Of the second of these tabernacles we are now to treat, which was called THE TABERNACLE by way of distinction. It was and called the mercy-seat: at the two ends of it were two The lid or covering of the ark was wholly of solid gold, a moveable chapel, so contrived as to be taken to pieces and cherubim (or hieroglyphic figures, the form of which it is imput together again at pleasure, for the convenience of carry-possible now to ascertain), looking inwards towards each other, ing it from place to place.

II. It has been imagined that this tabernacle, together with all its furniture and appurtenances, was of Egyptian origin: that Moses projected it after the fashion of some such structure which he had observed in Egypt, and which was in use among other nations; or that God directed it to be made with a view of indulging the Israelites in a compliance with their customs and modes of worship, so far as there was nothing in them directly sinful. The heathen nations, it is true, had such tabernacles or portable shrines as are alluded to by the to that of the Jews; but it has neither been proved, nor is it prophet Amos (v. 26.), which might bear a great resemblance probable, that they had them before the Jews, and that the Almighty so far condescended to indulge the Israelites, a wayward people, and prone to idolatry, as to introduce them into his own worship. It is far more likely that the heathens derived their tabernacles from that of the Jews, who had the whole of their religion immediately from God, than that the Jews, or rather that God should take them from the heathens. The materials of the tabernacle were provided by the people; every one brought his oblation according to his ability: those of the first quality offered gold, those of a middle condition brought silver and brass, and shittim-wood; and the offerings of the meaner sort consisted of yarn, fine linen, goats' hair and skins; nor were the women backward in contributing to this work, for they willingly brought in their bracelets, ear-rings, and other ornaments, and such of them as were skilful in spinning made yarn and thread. In short, the liberality of the people on this occasion was so great, that Moses was obliged by proclamation to forbid any more offerings, and thereby restrain the excessive zeal of the people for that service. (Exod. xxxv. and xxxvi.)

The hypothesis above noticed was advanced by Spencer in his learned, but in many respects fanciful, treatise, De Legibus Hebræorum, lib. iii. diss. i. c. 3. and diss. vi. c. 1. His arguments were examined and refuted by Buddeus in his Historia Ecclesiastica Veteris Testamenti, part i. pp. 310. 548.

This shittim wood is supposed to have been either the acacia or the cedar, both which grow in Egypt and in Syria. The acacia is delineated by Prosper Alpinus, De Plantis Ægyptiacis, c. 4. Hasselquist found it in Palestine (Tour in the Levant, p. 250.), and Dr. Pococke found it both on Mount Sinai and in Egypt. The cedar has been already mentioned.

ference of the mercy-seat, met on each side in the middle. with wings expanded, which, embracing the whole circumHere the Shechinah or Divine Presence rested, both in the tabernacle and temple, and was visibly seen in the appearance of a cloud over it. (Lev. xvi. 2.) From this the divine oracles were given out by an audible voice, as often as Jehovah was consulted on behalf of his people. (Exod. xxv. 22. Num. vii. 89.) And hence it is that the ark is called the footstool of God (Psal. xcix. 5.), who is so often said in frame of planks, resting upon their bases, and over these Scripture, to dwell between the cherubim. (2 Kings xix. 15. Psal. lxxx. 1.) The roof of the tabernacle was a square were coverings or curtains of different kinds; of which the first on the inside was made of fine linen, curiously embroidered in various colours of crimson and scarlet, purple, and hyacinth. The next was made of goats' hair curiously wove together; and the last, or outmost, was of sheep and badgers' skins (some dyed red, and others of azure blue), which to protect the tabernacle itself from the injuries of the served to preserve the other rich curtains from the rain, and weather.

The tabernacle was surrounded by a large oblong court, of which stood a vessel, called the Brazen Laver, in which an hundred cubits long, and fifty, broad, nearly in the centre the priests washed their hands and feet, whenever they were to offer sacrifices, or go into the tabernacle; and directly opposite to the entrance of the tabernacle stood the Brazen Altar of burnt-offerings, in the open air, in order that the interior might not be spoiled by the fire, which was at first miraculously kindled (Lev. ix. 24.), and which was kept

God had previously ordered that the fire on this altar, when once kindled, should never go out. (Lev. vi. 12, 13.) It was reckoned an impious presumption to make use of any other but this sacred fire in burning incense before the Lord; which was sufficiently notified to Aaron by an injunction given him, that he was to light the incense offered to God, in the most holy place on the great day of expiation, at this fire only. (Lev. xvi. 12, 13.) Notwithstanding which prohibition Nadab and Abihu, two unhappy sons of Aaron, forgetful of their duty, took their censers, and putting common fire in them, laid incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the Lord, in their daily ministrations, which profane approach God immediately resented; for we are told that a fire went out from the Lord, and devoured them, so that they died. (Lev. x. 1.)

perpetually upon it, and by the smoke arising from the vic- | liar oil, prepared by divine command for that very purpose tims that were there consumed.

There is no precept in the law to make the altar a privileged place, but in conformity to the custom of other nations the Jews seem to have made it such; for, from the words in Exod. xxi. 14. where God ordered the wilful murderer to be taken from his altar, that he may die, it seems unquestionably true, that both in the wilderness and afterwards in Canaan, this altar continued a sanctuary for those who fled unto it; and very probably it was the horns of this altar (then at Gibeon) that Adonijah and Joab took hold of (1 Kings i. 50. and ii. 28.), for the temple of Solomon was not then erected. After the Israelites were settled in the land of promise, it appears that this tabernacle was surrounded with a great many other tents or cells, which were placed about it in the same manner as the buildings were afterwards placed round the temple. These were absolutely necessary for the reception of the priests during the time of their ministration, and for laying up the utensils and provisions which were used in the tabernacle. This circumstance explains what is related of Eli's sons going into the kitchen where the peace-offerings were dressing, and taking out of the pots whatever the fleshhook brought up. (1 Sam. ii. 14.) And thus Eli is said to be laid down in his place (iii. 2.), that is, was gone to bed in one of these tents near the tabernacle, next to which Samuel lay, which made him (being then a child) run to Eli, when he heard the voice of the Lord, thinking that Eli had called (4, 5, &c.) and this also explains what is said of David (Matt. xii. 4.), that he entered into the house of God and did eat the shew-bread, that is, he came to the priest's habitation, which was among these tents round the tabernacle, and which were reckoned as parts of the house of God.

When the tabernacle was finished, it was consecrated, with all the furniture therein, by being anointed with a pecu1 It is evident from this and other passages of Scripture, that the altar was considered as an asylum; and it is well known that, among almost all the heathen nations of antiquity, the altars of their deities were accounted so sacred that the vilest miscreant found safety, if he once reached an altar. Hence arose many abuses, and justice was greatly perverted: so that it became a maxim that the guilty should be punished even though they should have taken refuge there. We have remarked above that the presumptuous murderer was, by divine command, to be dragged thence and put to death. Euripides thus alludes to a similar ordinance among the

heathen nations in his time :

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(Exod. xxx. 22, &c.), after which God made His people sensible of His special presence in it, covering it with a cloud which overshadowed it by day, and by night gave light, as if it had been a fire, and by giving answers in an audible manner from the ark when consulted by the high-priest. Whenever the Israelites changed their camp the tabernacle was taken down, and every Levite knew what part he was to carry, for this was a part of their office; and sometimes, upon extraordinary occasions, the priests themselves bore the ark, as when they passed over Jordan, and besieged Jericho. (Josh. iii. 14. and vi. 6.) Concerning the manner of carrying the several parts of it, see Num. iv. When they encamped, the tabernacle stood always in the midst, being surrounded by the army of the Israelites on all sides in a quadrangular form, divided according to their several tribes; the Israelitish camp being at the distance of two thousand cubits from the tabernacle, which by computation is reckoned a mile, and is called a Sabbath-day's journey (Acts i. 12.), as being the distance they had to go on that day to the place of worship. Moses and Aaron, with the priests and Levites, encamped in their tents next the tabernacle, between it and the army; as represented in the diagram inserted in page 86. supra.

IV. The tabernacle being so constructed as to be taken to pieces and put together again as occasion required, it was removed as often as the camp of the Israelites moved from one station to another; and thus accompanied them in all their marches, until they arrived at the land of Canaan. It was at first set up at Gilgal, being the first encampment of the Israelites in Canaan; and here it continued for about seven years, during which Joshua was occupied in the con quest of that country. Afterwards, it was pitched in Shiloh, being nearly in the centre of the country then subdued; on being restored by the Philistines, who had taken it and deposited it in the temple of one of their idols, as related in 1 Sam. iv. 10, 11. v. vi., it remained for twenty years in the custody of Abinadab of Gibeah, and afterwards (for three months) in the house of Obed-Edom, whence David brought it with great solemnity into that part of Jerusalem which 25. xvi. 1.) Here it remained until it was deposited in the was called the city of David. (2 Sam. vi. 17. 1 Chron. xv. temple of Solomon, where (having been subsequently removed) it was again replaced by order of the pious king Josiah. (2 Chron. xxxv. 3.) It is supposed to have been consumed in the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchad


2 Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 183-204.; Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 94101.; Relandi Antiq, Hebr. pp. 11-24.; Home's Hist. of the Jews, vol. ii. pp. 129-138.; Brunings, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 145-159.

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