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viii. 8, 9. besought the aid of the compassionate Redeemer, of the wicked, and take the helmet 8 of salvation, and the sword appears to have been of this last order. He was a man un- of the Spirit, which is the word of God.” der authority, that is, of the Principes or Triarii, and had Having thus equipped the spiritual soldier with the divine none under him but the hundred men, who appear to have panoply, the apostle proceeds to show him how he is to use been in a state of the strictest military subordination, as well it: he therefore subjoins-Praying always with all prayer as of loving subjection to him. I am, said the centurion, a man and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all under authority, having soldiers under me, and I say to this perseverance. The Greeks and other ancient nations, we have man, Go, and he goeth, and to another, Come, and he cometh ; already observed, offered up prayers before they went into and to my slave (Tw dcurao pecu), Do this, and he doeth it. The the battle. Alluding to this, Saint Paul adds the exhortation application of his argument, addressed to Christ, seems to be to believers, praying always, at all seasons, and on all occathis :-If I, who am a person subject to the control of others, sions, with all prayer (more correctly, supplication for what yet have some so completely subject to myself, that I can is good) and deprecation of evil; and watching thereuntosay to one, Come, and he cometh, &c. how much more then being always on their guard lost their spiritual enemies should canst thou accomplish whatsoever thou willest, being under surprise them—with all perseverance, being always intent on no control, and having all things under thy command ? their object, and never losing sight of their danger or of their
The action=601 or Spearmen, mentioned in Acts xxiii. 23., interest.10 were soldiers, carrying spears or lances in their right hand, “In the Epistle to the Romans, the apostle, exhorting men whose duty it was, not only to attend as guards upon their to renounce those sins to which they had been long accussovereign or commander, but also to guard prisoners, who tomed, and to enter upon a new and holy life, uses a beautiwere bound by a chain to their right hand.2 The EmEXCUALTOPES ful similitude, borrowed from the custom of soldiers throw(in Latin, Spiculatores or Speculatores, from the spiculum, a ing off their ordinary habit in order to put on a suit of armour. javelin or spear which they carried) were a kind of soldiers The night is far spent, the day is at hand: let us therefore CAST who formed the body-guard of princes. Among other duties off the works of darkness, and let us Put on the Armour of of these guards, was that of putting condemned persons to light. (Rom. xiii. 12.) In another passage he represents, death.3
by a striking simile, in what manner the apostles were forIl. The allusions in the New Testament to the military tified against the opposition with which they were called to discipline, armour, battles, sieges, and military honours of conflict in this world. By the word of truth, by the power of the Greeks, and especially of the Romans, are very nume- God, by the armour of righteousness ON THE RIGHT HAND AND rous; and the sacred writers have derived from them meta- ON THE LEFT.” (2 Cor. vi. 7.)!2 phors and expressions of singular propriety, elegance, and III. It is well known that the strictest subordination and energy, for animating Christians to fortitude against tempta- obedience were required of every Roman soldier. An allutions, and to constancy in the profession of their holy faith sion to this occurs in the speech of the centurion to Jesus under all persecutions, and also for stimulating them to Christ (Matt. viii. 8, 9.) which has already been noticed persevere unto the end, that they may receive those final above, and which is greatly illustrated by two striking pashonours and that immortal crown which await victorious sages in Arrian's Discourses of Epictetus :-speaking of the piety.
Saturnalia, he says,—“ We agreed to play Agamemnon and In the following very striking and beautiful passage of St. Achilles. He who is appointed for Agamemnon says to me, Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians (vi. 11–17.), the various Go to Achilles, and force away Briseis.-I 60.—Come.'-Í parts of the panoply-armour of the heavy troops among the come."]3 Again, discoursing on all things being under the Greeks and Romans (those who had to sustain the rudest divine inspection, he says,—When God commands the plants assaults) " are distinctly enumerated, and beautifully applied to blossom, they bear blossoms. When he commands them to to those moral and spiritual weapons with which the believer bear seed, they bear seed. When he commands them to bring ought to be fortified. Put on the whole armour of God, that forth fruit, they put forth their fruit. When he commands ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we them to ripen, they grow ripe. When he commands them to wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, fade and shed their leaves, and to remain inactive, and involvagainst powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, ed (or contracted) within themselves, they thus remain and against spiritual wickedness in high places. Wherefore, take are inactive."'14 unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to with- Nor is the military subordination adverted to by the censtand in the evil day, and having done all to stand. Stand, turion, without its (almost verbal) parallel in modern times therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having in the
East:-Kirtee-Ranah, a captive Ghoorkha chief, who on the breast-plate of righteousness : and your feet shod with the was marching to the British head-quarters-on being interpreparation of the gospel of peace : above all,- taking the shielde rogated concerning the motives that induced him to quit his of faith, wherewith you shall be able to quench all the fiery darts7 native land and enter into the service of the Rajah of Nepal, 1 Dr. A. Clarke, on Matt. viii. 9.
—replied in the following very impressive manner :-—"My 2 Valpy's Gr. Test. vol. ii. p. 255.
master, the rajah, sent me: He says to his people-to one, 'Go 3 Robinson's Gr. Lex. to the New Test. in voce.
Eph. vi. 13. 'Arxv12 xalspyxorpsvor. This verb frequently signifies consisted of a hollowed reed, to the lower part of which, under the point to despach a foe, totally to vanquish and subdue an adversary. So it or barb, was fastened a round receptacle, inade of iron, for combustible should be translated in this place. Ov quloxe spot xuls«pg 468T0: Whom he materials, so that such an arrow had the form of a distaff. This was filled despatched with his own hand. Dion. Halicarn. tom. i. p.: 99. Oxon. 1704. with burning naphtha; and when the arrow was shot from a slack bow IIxuls sonsuz xx?spyroxevos : Having quelled all hostilities. Idem, p. (for if discharged from a tight bow the fire went out), it struck the ene985. M:5's non vorious vous nous xulsipuris: By which you have yan mies ranks and remained infixed, the flame consuming whatever it met quished many enemies. Polyani
Stratag: p. 421. Lugd. 1589. II:1p=5 with ; water poured on it increased its violence; there were no other means bulous rodnpw xxlsopy torpy. Idem, p. 599. Casaubon. Taupor ag provato extinguish it but by throwing earth npon it. Similar darts or arrows, 74.5 % spor xovais uzle.pyutusvw : He despatched a wild hull only with his which were twined round with tar and pitch, and set fire to, are described hands. Appian. vol. i. p. 201. Amst. 1670. See also pp. 5. 291. 410.531. by Livy (lib. xxi. c. 8.), as having been made use of by the inhabitants of Tollii. The word here used by the apostle has also this signification in the city of Saguntum, when besieged by the Romans. Dion Cassius, Josephus, and Philo. • E70 wxiv, after all, or besides all: it never signifies above all. Aulosa crest or ridge, furnished with ornaments; some of the ancient helmets
8 On the tops of the ancient helmets, as well as on those now in use, is 85 %*15WS ! i cao 80218 21vww: After all, he himself passed with difficulty. had emblematic figures, and it is probable that Saint Paul, who in 1 Thess. Plutarch, Cæsar, p. 1311. edit. Gr. Stephan. Agorleepwlov Thu *dx9yc, v. 8. terms the helmet the hope of salvation, refers to such helmets as had
174 Txulce Tous i* *565, 57* *0.85 Tooxtvo popor: First, he led up the pha- on them the emblematic representation of hope. His meaning therefore lanx, next the cavalry, after all the baggage. Polybius, p. 664. Casaubon. is, that as the helmet defended the head from deadly blows, so the hope of Emı *** 8e Arris sense *** TITT%paxortve xmi ryvas duo: After all, Assis salvation (of conquering every adversary, and of surmounting every reigned forty-nine years and two months. Josephus contra Apion. p. 445. difficulty, through Christ strengthening the Christian), built on the proHavercamp
of God, will ward off, or preserve him from, the fatal effects of all shield here intended (Jupeos) is the scutum, or large oblong shield temptations, from worldly terrors and evils, so that they shall not disorder of the Romans, which was made of wood covered with hides, and derived the imagination or pervert the judgment, or cause men to desert the path its name from its resemblance to a door (supx), As faith is that Christian of duty, to their final destruction. grace, by which all the others are preserved and rendered active, it is $ Dr. Harwood's Introd, to the New Test. vol. ii.
pp. 49, 50. here properly represented under the figure of a shield; which covered
10 Drs. Chandler, Macknight, and A. Clarke, on Eph. vi. 11-17. In the anil protected the whole body; and enables the believer to quench-to fifth of Bishop Horne's Discourses (Works, vol. v. pp. 60—72.) the reader intercept, blunt, and extinguish, as on a shiel.l--the fiery darts of the will find an admirable and animated exposition of the Christian armour, wicked one, that is, all those evil thoughts, and strong injections, as they
11 Αποθεωμεθα τα εργα του σκολους και ενδυσωμεθα τα όπλα του φωτος. . are termed, which inflame the passions of the unrenewed, and excite the Fulgentiaque induit arma. Virgil, Æneid, ii, ver. 747. Iipulov TorVUY ATOsoul to acts of transgression. "Bean Uppsvz. These dreadful weapons were frequently employed cian, tom. ii. p. 256. edit. Grævii.
δυσωμεν, αναγκη γαρ τους μελλονίας όπλιζεσθαι, γυμνουσθαι προτερον. Lu. by the ancients. Πυρφορα τοξευμαία. Appian. p. 329. Πυρφοροις οίστοις 12 Harwood's Introd. vol. ii. p. 52. EUX ses. Thucydides, tom. ii. lib. xi. p. 202. Glasg.
13 Arrian's Epictetus, book i. c. 25. 5 1. (Mr. Carter's translation, vol. i. Τοιους, αγριε δαιμον, εχεις συρσενας οϊστους.
Oppian. Kuvny. lib. ii. ver. 425. 14 Ibid. book i. c. 14. Raphelii Annotationes in Sacram Scripturam, ex According to Ammianus Marcellinus (lib. xxiii. c. 4.) these fiery darts Herodoto, &c.
vol. i. pp 242, 243,
you to Gurwhal;' to another, 'Go you to Cashmire, or to any “ By a very striking metaphor, taken from the pay of a distant part.'— My Lord, thy slave OBEYS; it is done.'- soldier, he represents the wages with which sin rewards those None ever inquires into the reason of an order of the rajah.”! who fight under her banners, to be certain and inevitable
In his Epistle to Timothy, who appears to have been death. The WAGES8 of sin is DEATH. greatly dejected and dispirited by the opposition he met with, “Our Lord in that wonderful prophecy of the destruction St. Paul animates him to fortitude, and among other direc- of Jerusalem accurately represents the Roman manner of tions encourages him to ENDURE HARDSHIP as a good soldier besieging and taking towns, which was by investing the of Jesus Christ (2 Tim. ii. 3.)—and what hardship a Roman place, digging a deep trench round it, and encompassing it soldier supported, the following passage in Josephus will with a strong wall, to prevent escape, and consume the inabundantly evince. It is the most striking commentary upon habitants by famine. The days shall come upon thee, that this text that ever was written. “When they march out of thine enemies shall cast a TRENCH about thee, and compass thee their encampment, they advance in silence and in great de- ROUND, and keep thee in on every side : and shall lay thee even corum, each man keeping his proper rank just as in battle. with the ground, and thy children within thee, and they shall Their infantry are armed with breastplates and helmets, and not leave in thee one stone upon another ; because thou knowest they carry a sword on each side. The sword they wear on not the time of thy visitation. (Luke xx. 42, 43.) their left side is by far the longest, for that on the right is “In expatiating upon the difficulties and distresses with not above a span's length. That select body of infantry, which the first preachers of the Gospel conflicted, the aposwhich forms part of the general's life-guards, ís armed with tle Paul in a strong figure compares their situation to that lances and bucklers, but the rest of the phalanx have a spear of an army pent up in a narrow place—annoyed on every side and a long shield, besides which they bear a saw and a - but not totally precluded from an escape their condition to basket, a spade and a hatchet; they also carry with them a the last degree perplexed and wretched, yet not altogether cord, a sickle, a chain, and provisions for three days! so that desperate and forlorn. (2 Cor. iv. 8.) We are troubled on a Roman foot-soldier is but very little different from a BEAST every side, yet not distressed: we are perplexed, but not in OF BURDEN.
despair.” According to a military custom, established in an early
as among the other military honours and reperiod of the commonwealth, every Roman soldier chose his compenses, rich and splendid crowns, 10 frequently of gold, favourite .comrade; and by that tie of friendship all were were publicly bestowed upon the illustrious conqueror, and mutually bound to share every danger with their fellows. upon every man who, acting worthy the Roman name, had Saint Paul, alluding to this practice, terms Epaphroditus his distinguished himself by his valour and his virtue—in allucompanion in labour and fellow-soldier. (Phil. il. 25.) Fur-sion to this custom how beautiful and striking are those many ther, “it is well known that the Roman soldiers were not passages of Sacred Scripture, which represent Jesus Christ
, allowed to marry; by this prohibition the Roman providence, before angels and the whole assembled' world, acknowledgas much as possible, studying to keep their military disem- ing and applauding distinguished piety, and publicly conferbarrassed from the cares and distractions of secular life. ring crowns of immortal glory upon persevering and victorious To this law the apostle refers; no one that warreth, ENTAN- holiness. Be thou faithful unto death: I will give thee a GLETH HIMSELF WITH THE AFFAIRS OF THis life; that he Crown of life. (Rev. ii. 10.). Blessed is the man that endumay please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier. (2 Tim. reth temptation ; for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown ii. 4.)*
of life (James i. 12.), which the Lord hath promised to them " The names of those who died or were cashiered for mis- that love him. When the chief shepherd shall appear, ye shall conduct were expunged from the muster-roll. To this cus-receive a crown of glory that fudeth not away. (1 Pet. v. 4.) tom, probably, the following text alludes; in this view the I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have similitude is very striking, I will not blot out his name out kept the faith : Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of of the Book of life. (Rev. iii. 5.)5
righteousness, which the Lord the righteous judge shall give me “ The triumphant advancement of the Christian religion at that day; and not to me only, but unto All them also that through the world, St. Paul compares to the irresistible pro- love his appearing;” (2 Tim. iv. 8.) gress of a victorious army, before 'which every fortified place, IV. But the highest military honour that could be conferred and all opposition, how formidable soever, yielded and fell in the Roman state was a triumph, or solemn procession, (2 Cor. x. 4.) For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, with which a victorious general and his army advanced but mighty through Gode to the pulling down of strongholds, through the city to the capitol; and which was the most casting down imaginations, and every thing that exalteth itself grand and magnificent spectacle ever beheld in ancient times. against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity “ After a decisive batile gained, and the complete conquest every thought to the obedience of Christ. Having spoiled prin- of a kingdom, the most illustrious captives in war, kings, cipalities and powers, he made a show of them openly, triumph- princes, and nobles, with their wives and children, to the ing over them.
perpetual infamy of this people, were, with the last dis
honour and ignominy, led in fetters before the general's cha1 Fraser's Notes on the Hills at the foot of the Himala Mountains, p. 226. riot, through the public streets of Rome: scaffolds being London, 1820. 410.
Josephus, De Bell. Jud lib. iii. c. 5. $5. Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. every where erected, the streets and public places crowded, p. 52. The following particulars, collected from Roman authors, will con and this barbarous and uncivilized nation all the while in firm and illustrate the statements of Josephus:-"The load which a Ro the highest excess of joy, and in the full fruition of a speman soldier carried is alınost incredible Virg: George : 316. Horat. Sat. tacle that was a reproach to humanity. Nor was only the !! more (Liv. Epit. 57.), usually corn, as being lighter, sometimes drest food sovereign of large and opulent kingdoms, the magnanimous (coclus cibus, Liv. ii. 27.), uieusils (utensilia, ib. 42.), a saw, a basket, a heroi2 who had fought valiantly for his country and her libermattock, an axe, a hook, and leather thong, a chain, a pot, &c. (Liv. xxviii. 45. Horat. Epod. ix. 13.), stakes usually three or four, soinetimes twelve (Liv. iii. 27.); the whole announting to sixty pounds weight, besides arms: 8 Rom. vi. 23. Obwice, the pay of a soldier. O:wwrou t? cTP:':54,for a Roman soldier considered these not as a burden, but as a part of himxelsveg*«v7:s acy upoor: Bringing money to pay the army. Dion. Ilalicarn. self (arma membra milites ducebant. Cic. Tusc. ii. 16.).”—Adalu's Roman tom. i. p. 568. Oxon. Az6wv O WYR TE %20 pintor uv test the otprinse. Antiquities, p. 377.
p. 587. : Livy, lib. ix. C. 39. Tacitus, Hist. lib. i. c. 13.—Murphy's note, in his • Harwood's Introd. vol. ii. pp. 53–58. translation of Tacitus, vol. v. p. 356. 8vo. edit.
10 Στεφανους επι ταις νικαις συχνουη-κρυσoυς ελαβε : IHe received several «Τοις δε στραλευομενοις, επειδη γυναικας ουκ εδυναν7ο εκ γε των νομων crowns of gold on account of his
victories. Dion. Cassias, lib. xlii. p. szerv. Dion. Cassius, lib. Ix. p. 961. Reimar. Tacitus, speaking of some 334. edit. Reimar. Vid. etiam notas Fabricii ad loc. Tois de Su veux pulventi Roman veterans, says, Neque conjugiis suscipiendis neque alendis liberis
*** OTE**VOV 81,4649 88wxs: To those who had conquered in the naval sueti. Taciti Annales, tom. ii. lib. xiv. cap. 27. p. 210. Dublin.
engagement he gave crowns of olire. Lib. xlix. p. 597. See also pp. 537. 6 It is, however, possible that this allusion may be drawn from civil life, 580. So also Josephus says that Titus gave croirns of gold to those who in which case the meaning of the above cited passage will be this :- As in had distinguished themselves in the siege of Jerusalem ; TTitmous i7 87,556 states and cities, those who obtained freedom and fellowship were enrolled 2pursus. Bell. Jud. lib. vii. p. 401. See also p. 412. Havercamp. in the public registers, which enrolment was their title to the privileges of '11 Behind the children and their train walked Persens himself [the capcitizens; so the King of Heaven, of the New Jerusalem, engages to pre- tive king of Macedon), and wearing sandals of the fashion of his country. serve in his register and enrolment, in the book of life, the names of those He had the appearance of a man overwhelmed with terror, and whose who, like the faithful members of the church of Sardis, in a corrupted and reason alnjost staggered under the load of his misfortunes. He was folsupine society, shall preserve allegiance, and a faithful discharge of their lowed by a great number of friends and favourites, whose countenances Christian duties. He will own them as his fellow-citizens, before men and were oppressed with sorrow; and who, by fixing their weeping eyes con. angels. Compare Matt. xx. 32. Luke xii. &. See also Psal. lxix. 29. Ezek. tinually upon their prince, testified to the spectators that it was his lot xiil. 9. Exod. xxxiii. 33. Dan. xii. 1. Mal. iii. 16. Luke x. 20. Dr. Woodhouse which they lamented, and that they were regardless of their own. Pluzon the Apocalypse, p. 84.
tarchi Vitæ, in Æmil. tom. ii. pp. 186, 187. edit. Briani. 6 Avvald TW , exceeding powerful. Moses is called «OTINOS TW 3ew, 19 Thus, at the conclusion of the second Punic war, the Numidian and exceeding beautiful. Acts viii. 20.
Carthaginian captive generals were led in triumph. Appian. tom. i. p. 58 : See the conquest of the Gospel and its triumph over idolatry in a very edit
. Tollii, Amst. 1670. Several kings, princes, and generals were also striking manner represented by Eusebius, lib. x. p. 463. Cantab.
led in Pompey's triuinph. Appian. tom. I. p. 417.
ties, the weak and tender sex, born to a happier fate, and and powerful, celebrates a most magnificent triumph over young children,' insensible of their wretched condition, led them, leads them in procession, openly exposing them to the in triumph ; but vast numbers of wagons, full of rich fur- view of the WHOLE WORLD, as the captives of his omniponiture, statutes, pictures, plate, vases, vests, of which they tence, and the trophies of his Gospel! Having spoiled princihad stripped palaces and the houses of the great; and carts palities and powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing loaded with the arms they had taken from the enemy, and over them !16- The second passage, whose beautiful and strikwith the coin, of the empires they had conquered, pillaged, ing imagery is taken from a Roman triumph, occurs in 2 and enslaved, preceded the triumphal car. On this most Cor. ii. 14–16. Now thanks be unto God, who always caussplendid occasion, imperial Rome was a scene of universal eth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour festivity: the temples were all thrown open, were adorned of his knowledge by us in every place. For we are unto God wi'h garlands, and filled with clouds of incense and the a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them richest perfumes; the spectators were clothed in white gar- that perish ; to the one we are a savour of death unto death; ments:5 hecatombs of victims were slain, and the most and to the other, of life unto life. In this passage God Alsumptuous entertainments were given. The illustrious cap- mighty, in very striking sentiments and language, is repretives, after having been dragged through the city in this pro- sented as leading the apostles in triumphil through the world cession, and thus publicly exposed, were generally imprison- showing them every where as the monuments of his grace ed, frequently strangled and despatcheds in dungeons, or sold and mercy, and by their means diffusing in every place the for slaves. To several of these well known circumstances odour of the knowledge of God-in reference to a triumph, attending a Roman triumph, the sacred writers evidently when all the temples were filled with fragrance, and the allude in the following passages. In the first of which whole air breathed perfume ; and the apostle, continuing Jesus Christ is represented as a great conqueror, who, after the allusion, adds, that this odour would prove the means of having totally vanquished and
subjugated all the empires and the salvation of some, and destruction of others as in a kingdoms of false religion, and overturned the mighty esta- triumph, after the pomp and procession was concluded, some blishment of Judaism and Paganism, supported by the great of the captives were put to death, others saved alive,"iż
SACRED ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, AND OF OTHER NATIONS INCIDENTALLY MENTIONED
IN THE SCRIPTURES.
OF SACRED PLACES.
The whole world being the workmanship of God, there is | him with a reverential awe that might cause him to defer his no place, in which men may not testify their reverence for villanous design till he came into the field where he slew His supreme Majesty. From the very beginning of time him. some place was always appropriated to the solemn duties of The patriarchs, both before and after the flood, used altars religious worship. Adam, even during his continuance in and mountains and groves for the same purpose : thus we Paradise, had some place where to present himself before read of Noah's building an altar to the Lord, and offering the Lord; and, after his expulsion thence, his sons in like burnt-offerings upon it. (Gen. viii. 20.) Abraham, when he manner had whither to bring their oblations and sacrifices. was called to the worship of the true God, erected altars This, probably, was the reason why Cain did not immedi- wherever he pitched his tent (Gen. xii. 8. and xiii. 4.): he ately fall upon his brother, when his offering was refused, planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there on the name of because perhaps the solemnity and religion of the place, and the Lord (Gen. xxi. 33.): and it was upon a mountain that the sensible appearance of the divine Majesty there, struck God ordered him to offer up his son Isaac. (Gen. xxii. 2.)
Jacob in particular called a place by the name of God's House, Macedon, represents this tragical circumstance in a very affecting manner: him. (Gen. xxviii. 22.)
Plutarch, in his account of the triumph of Æmilius at the conquest of where he vowed to pay the tithes of all that God should give The king's children were also led captive, and along with them a train of nurses, and tutors, and governors; all bathed in tears, stretching out their There were several public places appropriated to the relihands to the spectators, and teaching the children to entreat and supplicate gious worship of the Jews, viz. 1. The Tabernacle, which in their mercy. There were two boys and a girl, whose tender age rendered time gave place to, 2. The Temple, both of which are oftenbility was the nost affecting circumstance in their unhappy condition. times in Scripture called the Sanctuary; between which there Plutarch. Æmil. tom. ii. p. 156. See also Appian. p. 417. edit. Amst. 1670. was no other difference as to the principal design (though there was in beauty and workmanship) than that the taber-1 This tabernac e was set up in the wilderness of Sinai, and nacle was a moveable temple, as the temple was an immove-carried along with the Israelites from place to place as they able tabernacle; on which account the tabernacle is some journeyed towards Canaan, and is often called the Tabernacle times called the temple (1 Sam. i. 9, and iii. 3.), as the tem- of the Congregation. In form, it appears to have closely reple is sometimes called the tabernacle. (Jer. x. 20. Lam. ii. sembled our modern tents, but it was much larger, having 6.) 3. There were also places of Worship called in Scrip- the sides and roof secured with boards, hangings, and coverture High Places, used promiscuously during the times of ings, and was surrounded on all sides by a large outer court, both the tabernacle and temple until the captivity; and, lastly, which was enclosed by pillars, posted at equal distances, there were Synagogues among the Jews, and other places, whose spaces were filled up with curtains fixed to these pilused only for prayer, called Proseuchæ or Oratories, which lars: whence it is evident that this tabernacle consisted first chiefly obtained after the captivity; of these various struc-of the tent or house itself, which was covered, and next of tures some account will be found in the following sections. the court that surrounded it, which was open: all which are
2. Κρητηρας αργυρους, και κεραία, και φιαλάς και κυλικας. Ρlutarch, ibid.
11 Opexuesvorto irzes, Causeth us to triumph; rather, Leadeth us about 3 Ανδρες επεπορευοντο τρισχίλιοι, νομισμα φερονlες αργυρουν κ.λ. Eita in triumph. Es pospesu Śn xui avapeon, He was led in triumph, and then put MET% Toulous oito vomitum deportes. Plutarch. tom. ii. p. 184. Appian. to death. Appian. p. 403. Amst. 1670. "The Greek word,'pesem svoVTT,
which we render causcth us to triumph, properly signifies to triumph • IIxs ds vxoş evswx70, x51 OTS¢¢vWW x H o fupes creuulwv yu wlupus. Plutarch. over, or to lead in triumph, as our translators themselves have rightly tom. I. p. 496. Gr. 8vo.
rendered it in another place, Coloss. ii. 15. And so the apostle's true 5 Niveos ad fræna Quirites. Juvenal. Sat. x. ver. 45. Ku5zpeus sono meaning is plainly this: Now thanks be to God, who always triumpheth Xizor u svok, Plutarch. p. 496. Steph.
over us in Christ: leading us about in triumph, as it were in solemn pro6 Μετα τουτους ηγονο χρυσοκερω τροφίαι βους, έκατον εικοσι, μιραις | cession. This yields a most congruons and beautiful sense of his words. xoxrusvos *** Tuzoi. After these were led one hundred and twenty And in order to display the force of his fine sentiment, in its full compass fat oxen, which had their horns gilded, and which were adorned with and extent, let it be observed, that when St. Paul represents himself and ribands and garlands. Plutarch. ii. p. 885.
others as being led about in triumph, like so many captives, by the pre1 Aφικομενος δε ες το Καπιτωλιον ο Σκιπίων, την μεν πομπην κατεπαυσεν, vailing power and efficacy of Gospel grace and truth, his words naturally si tou si vous ponows, woTEp 555 &OTIV, 5 to ispov. Appian. tom. I. p. 59 imply and suggest three things worthy of particular notice and attention edit. Amst. 1670.
namely, a contest, a victory, and an open show of his victory.” (Brekell's 8 Παρελθων δ'ες Καπιτωλιον, ουδενα των αιχμαλωτων, ώς έτεροι των θριαμ. | Discourses, pp. 141, 142.) «While God was leading about each men in Cors Tapz7ky
Outwv (zv812sto) Appian. p. 418. For example, Aristobulus, triumph, he made them very serviceable and successful in promoting king of the Jews, after having been exposed, and dragged through the city Christian knowledge in every place wherever they came." (Ibid. p. 151.) in Pompey's triumph, was immediately, after the procession was con. 12 Harwood's Introduction to the New Testament, vol. ii. pp. 29-34. colcluded, put to death : Tigranes, some time afterwards, Aparto ou os su sus lated with Brunings's disquisition
De Triumpho Romanorum in the Appen. avaps $1, xx. Tagpurus urtepov. Appian. de Bellis Mithrid. p. 419. Amst. dix to his Compendium Antiquitatum Græcarum (pp. 415-434.), which 1670. See also p. 403.
seems to have guided Dr. Harwood in his manner of illustrating a Roman . Longe plurimos captivos ex Etruscis ante currum duxit, quibus sub triumph. He has, however, greatly improved upon Brunings's Disser hasta venumdatis. Livý, lib. vi. p. 409. edit. Elz. 1634.
minutely and exactly described in Exod. xxv.-xxx. xxxvi. -xl. from which chapters the following particulars are
abridged. SECTION 1.
III. The tent itself was an oblong square, thirty cubits in
length, and ten in height and breadth. The inside of it was OF THE TABERNACLE.
divided by a veil or hanging, made of rich embroidered linen,
which parted the Holy Place, which is called the first taberI. Different tabernacles in use among the Israelites.-II. The nacle in Heb. ix. 2. 6., from the Holy of Holies, called the
TABERNACLE, 80 called by way of eminence, not of Egyp- second tabernacle in Heb. ix. 7. In the former stood the altar tian origin.-Its materials.—III. Form and construction of of incense overlaid with gold, the table of shew-bread, conthe tabernacle.—Its contents.-IV. Its migrations.
sisting of twelve loaves, and the great candlestick of pure I. Mention is made in the Old Testament of three different allowed to go into the holy place, but only the priests. The
gold, containing seven branches: none of the people were tabernacles previously to the erection of Solomon's temple. Holy of Holies (so called because it was the most sacred The first, which Moses erected, is called the Tabernacle of place of the tabernacle, into which none went but the highthe Congregation (Exod. xxxiii. 7.); here he gave audience, priest) contained in it the ark, called the ark of the testimony heard causes, and inquired of Jehovah, and here also, at first, 1 (Exod. xxv. 22.), or the ark of the covenant. (Josh. iv. 7.) perhaps the public offices of religion were solemnized. The This was a small chest or coffer made of shittim-wood, oversecond tabernacle was that erected by Moses for Jehovah, and laid with gold, into which were put the two tables of the law at his express command, partly to be a palace of his presence (as well the broken ones, say the Jews, as the whole), with as the king of Israel (Exod. xl. 34, 35.), and partly to be the the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod that budded. (Heb. ix. 4.) medium of the most solemn public worship, which the peo- This was the most holy of all the sacred furniture. Noné ple were to pay to him. (26—29.) This tabernacle was but the priests were allowed to touch it; and only the Kohatherected on the first day of the first month in the second year ites, the sacerdotal family, were permitted to carry it, with after the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. The third poles made of shittim-wood, also overlaid with gold inserted public tabernacle was that erected by David in his own city, in two golden rings at each end. (1 Kings viii. 8.) Hence for the reception of the ark, when
he received it from the Uzziah the Levite was punished with death for touching it. house of Obed-Edom. (2 Sam. vi. 7. 1 Chron. xvi. 1.) of (2 Sam. vi. 7.) the second of these tabernacles we are now to treat, which was called The TABERNACLE by way of distinction. It was and called the mercy-seat : at the two ends of it were two
The lid or covering of the ark was wholly of solid gold, a moveable chapel, so contrived as to be taken to pieces and cherubim (or hieroglyphic figures, the form of which it is imput together again at pleasure, for the convenience of carry-possible now to ascertain), looking inwards towards each other, ing it from place to place. 11. It has been imagined that this tabernacle, together with ference of the mercy-seat, met on each side in the middle.
with wings expanded, which, embracing the whole circumall its furniture and appurtenances, was of Egyptian origin : Here the Shechinah or Divine Presence rested, both in the that Moses projected it after the fashion of some such struc- tabernacle and temple, and was visibly seen in the appearture which he had observed in Egypt, and which was in use ance of a cloud over it. (Lev. xvi. 2.) From this the divine among other
nations ; or that God directed it to be made with oracles were given out by an audible voice, as often as Jehoa view of indulging the Israelites in a compliance with their vah was consulted on behalf of his people. (Exod. xxv. 22. customs and modes of worship, so far as there was nothing Num. vii. 89.) And hence it is that the ark is called the in them directly sinful. The heathen nations, it is true, had footstool of God (Psal. xcix. 5.), who is so often said in such tabernacles or portable shrines as are alluded to by the to that of the Jews; but it has neither been proved, nor is it frame of planks, resting upon their bases, and over these prophet Amos (v.26.), which might bear a great resemblance Scripture, to dwell between the cherubim. (2 Kings xix. 15.
Psal. Ixxx. 1.) The roof of the tabernacle was a square probable, that they had them before the Jews, and that the were coverings or curtains
of different kinds; of which the Almighty so far condescended to indulge the Israelites,
a first on the inside was made of fine linen, curiously embroiwayward people, and prone to idolatry, as to introduce them dered in various colours of crimson and scarlet, purple, and into his own worship. It is far more likely
that the heathens hyacinth. The next was made of goats' hair curiously wove derived their tabernacles from that of the Jews, who had the whole of their religion immediately from God, than that the together; and the last, or outmost, was of sheep and badgers
skins (some dyed red, and others of azure blue), which Jews, or rather that God should take them from the heathens. served to preserve the other rich curtains from the rain, and
The materials of the tabernacle were provided by the peo- to protect the tabernacle itself from the injuries of the ple; every one brought his oblation according to his ability : weather. those of the first quality offered gold, those of a middle con
The tabernacle was surrounded by a large oblong court, dition brought silver and brass, and shittim-wood; and the an hundred cubits long, and fifty, broad, nearly in the centre offerings of the meaner sort consisted of yarn, fine linen, of which stood a vessel, called the Brazen Laver, in which goats’ hair and skins ; nor were the women backward in con- the priests washed their hands and feet, whenever they were tributing to this work, for they willingly
brought in their to offer sacrifices, or go into the tabernacle; and directly opbracelets, ear-rings, and other ornaments, and such of them posite to the entrance of the tabernacle stood the Brazen as were skilful in spinning made yarn and thread. In short, Altar of
burnt-offerings, in the open air, in order that the inthe liberality of the people on this occasion was so great, terior might not be spoiled by the fire, which was at first that Moses was obliged by proclamation to forbid any more miraculously kindled3 (Lev. ix. 24.), and which was kept offerings, and thereby restrain the excessive zeal of the people for that service. (Exod. xxxv. and xxxvi.)
3 God had previously ordered that the fire on this altar, when once
kindled, should never go out. (Lev. vi. 12, 13.) It was reckoned an impious 1 The hypothesis above noticed was advanced by Spencer in his learned, presumption to make use of any other but this sacred fire in burning but in many respects fanciful, treatise, De Legibus Hebræorum, lib. iii. incense before the Lord; which was sufficiently notified to Aaron by an diss. i. c. 3. and diss. vi. c. 1. His arguments were examined and refuted injunction given him, that he was to light the incense offered to God, in by Buddeus in his Historia Ecclesiastica Veteris Testamenti, part i. pp. the most holy place on the great day of expiation, at this fire only. (Lev. 310. 548.
xvi. 12, 13.) Notwithstanding which prohibition Nadab and Abihu, two 2 This shittim-wood is supposed to have been either the acacia or the unhappy sons of Aaron, forgetful of their duly, took their censers, and cedar, both which grow in Egypt and in Syria. The acacia is delineated putting common fire in them, laid incense thereon, and offered stranga by Prosper Alpinus, De Plantis Ægyptiacis, c. 4. Hasselquist found it in fire before the Lord, in their daily ministrations, which profane approach Palestine (Tour in the Levant, p. 250.), and Dr. Pococke found it both on God immediately resented; for we are told that a fire went out from the Mount Sinai and in Egypt. The cedar has been already mentioned. Lord, and devoured them, so that they died. (Lev. x. 1.)
perpetually upon it, and by the smoke arising from the vic-| liar oil, prepared by divine command for that very purpose tims that were there consumed.
(Exod. xxx. 22, &c.), after which God made His people There is no precept in the law to make the altar a privi- sensible of His special presence in it
, covering it with a leged place, but in conformity to the custom of other nations cloud which overshadowed it by day, and by night gave light, the Jews seem to have made it such; for, from the words in as if it had been a fire, and by giving answers in an audible Exod. xxi. 14. where God ordered the wilful murderer to be manner from the ark when consulted by the high-priest. taken from his altar, that he may die, it seems unquestionably Whenever the Israelites changed their camp the tabernacle true, that both in the wilderness and afterwards in Canaan, was taken down, and every Levite knew what part he was this altar continued a sanctuary for those who fled unto it; to carry, for this was a part of their office; and sometimes, and very probably it was the horns of this altar (then at upon extraordinary occasions, the priests themselves bore the Gibeon) that Adonijah and Joab took hold of (1 Kings i. 50. ark, as when they passed over Jordan, and besieged Jericho. and ii. 28.), for the temple of Solomon was not then erected." (Josh. iii. 14. and vi. 6.) . Concerning the manner of carry
After the Israelites were settled in the land of promise, it îng the several parts of it, see Num. iv. When they enappears that this tabernacle was surrounded with a great camped, the tabernacle stood always in the midst, being many other tents or cells, which were placed about it in the surrounded by the army of the Israelites on all sides in å same manner as the buildings were afterwards placed round quadrangular form, divided according to their several tribes; the temple. These were absolutely necessary for the recep- the Israelitish camp being at the distance of two thousand tion of the priests during the time of their ministration, and cubits from the tabernacle, which by computation is reckoned for laying up the utensils and provisions which were used in a mile, and is called a Sabbath-day's journey (Acts i. 12.), the tabernacle. This circumstance explains what is related of as being the distance they had to go on that day to the place Eli's sons going into the kitchen where the peace-offerings of worship. Moses and Aaron, with the priests and Levites, were dressing, and taking out of the pots whatever the flesh-encamped in their tents next the tabernacle, between it and hook brought up. (1 Sam. ii. 14.) And thus Eli is said to be the army; 'as represented in the diagram inserted in page 86. laid down in his place (iii. 2.), that is, was gone to bed in one supra, of these tents near the tabernacle, next to which Samuel lay, IV. The tabernacle being so constructed as to be taken to which made him (being then a child) run to Eli, when he pieces and put together again as occasion required, it was heard the voice of the Lord, thinking that Eli had called (4, removed as often as the camp of the Israelites moved from 5, &c.): and this also explains what is said of David (Matt. one station to another; and thus accompanied them in all xii. 4.), that he entered into the house of God and did eat the their marches, until they arrived at the land of Canaan. It shew-bread, that is, he came to the priest's habitation, which was at first set up at Gilgal, being the first encampment of was among these tents round the tabernacle, and which were the Israelites in Canaan; and here it continued for about reckoned as parts of the house of God.
seven years, during which Joshua was occupied in the con When the tabernacle was finished, it was consecrated, quest of that country. Afterwards, it was pitched in Shiloh, with all the furniture therein, by being anointed with a pecu- being nearly in the centre of the country then subdued ; on
1. It is evident from this and other passages of Scripture, that the altar being restored by the Philistines, who had taken it and dewas considered as an asylum; and it is well known that, among almost all posited it in the temple of one of their idols, as related in the heathen nations of antiquity, the altars of their deities were accounted | 1 Sam. iv. 10, 11. v. vi., it remained for twenty years in the altar. Hence arose many abuses, and justice was greatly perverted: so custody of Abinadab of Gibeah, and afterwards (for three that it became a maxim that the guilty should be punished even though months) in the house of Obed-Edom, whence David brought they should have taken refuge there. We have remarked above that the it with great solemnity into that part of Jerusalem which and put to death. Euripides thus alludes to a similar ordinance among the 25. xvi. 1.) Here it remained until it was deposited in the
was called the city of David. (2 Sam. vi. 17. 1 Chron. xv. heathen nations in his time :Εγω, γαρ όστις μη δικαιος ων ανηρ
temple of Solomon, where (having been subsequently reΒωμον προσεξει, τον νόμον χαιρείν εων, Προς την δικην αγοιμ' αν, ου τρεσας θεους:
moved) it was again replaced by order of the pious king Κακον γαρ ανδρα κρη κακως πασχειν αει,
Josiah. (2 Chron. xxxv. 3.) It is supposed to have been Eurip. Frag. 42. edit. Musgrave. consumed in the destruction of Jerusalem by NebuchadIn English thus :
nezzar. "If an unrighteous man, availing himself of the law, should claim the protection of the altar, I would drag him to justice, nor fear the wrath of 2 Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 183–204. ; Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 94the gods: for it is necessary that a wicked
man should always suffer for 101.; Relandi Antiq. Hebr. pp. 11-24. ; Home's Hist. of the Jews, vol. ii. his crimes." Dr. A. Clarke on 1 Kings ij. 30.
pp. 129–138.; Brunings, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 145–159.