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presence, and an incitement to valiant achievements. It tened his body and the bodies of his sons to the wall of Bethwas taken by the Philistines in the time of the high-priest shan ; whence they were soon taken by the brave inhabitants Eli (1 Sam. iv. 11.), but subsequently restored. °in like of Jabesh Gilead. (1 Sam. xxxi. 9–12.) A heap of stones manner the Philistines carried their deities into the field of was raised over the grave of princes, as in the case of Absabattle (1 Chron. xiv. 12.); and it appears that Jeroboam and lom. (2 Sam. xviii. 17.). The daily diminishing cairn of the Israelites of the ten tribes had their golden calves with pebble-stones, situated about two miles from the lake of them in the field. (2 Chron. xiii. 8.). Before they engaged Grasmere, in Cumberland, and known by the appellation of in battle, the law of Moses appointed two priests to blow Dunmail Raise-stones, was raised in a like manner to comwith two silver trumpets (Num. x. 9.), which are described memorate the name and defeat of Dunmail, a petty king of by Josephus' to have been a cubit long, and narrow like a Cumbria, A. D. 945 or 946, by the Anglo-Saxon monarch pipe, but wider, as ours are, at the bottom; no more than two Edmund'I. were at first ordered for present use, but more were after- When a city was taken, after being rased to the foundawards made when the priests and the people were increased. tion, it was sometimes sowed with salt, and ploughed up, in There were others called trumpets of rams' horns (Josh. vi. token of perpetual desolation. In this manner Åbimelech, 4.), probably from their shape, which were used in war, to after putting the inhabitants of Shechem to the sword, levelincite the soldiers to the conflict. These instruments were led it with the ground, and sowed it with salt: and thus blown to call the people to the sanctuary to pay their devo- many centuries after, the emperor Frederick Barbarossa (A.D. tion, and pray to God before they engaged ; and they were 1163), irritated at the long and strenuous defence made by sounded with a particular blast, that they might know the the besieged inhabitants of Milan, on capturing that city, meaning of the summons: then the anointed for the war, abandoned it to pillage, and sparing nothing but the churches, going from one battalion to another, was to exhort the sol- ordered it to be entirely rased to the ground, which was diers to fight valiantly. (Deut. xx. 2.). There were officers ploughed and sown with salt, in memory of its rebellion. whose duty it was to make proclamation, that those whose The prophet Micah (iii. 12.) foretold that Jerusalem should business it was shculd make sufficient provision for the army be ploughed as a field, and his prediction (as we have seen in before they marched ; and every tenth man was appointed for another part of this work) was most literally fulfilled after that purpose. (Josh. i. 10, 11. Judg. xx. 10.). Sometimes Jerusalem was taken by the Roman army under Titus. It they advanced to battle singing, hymns (2 Chron. xx. 21, was not unusual in remote antiquity to pronounce a curse 22.); and the signal was given by the priests sounding the upon those who should rebuild a destroyed city. Thus trumpets. (Num. x. 9. Judg. vi. 34. 2 Chron. xiii. 14. Joshua denounced a curse upon the man who should rebuild 1 Macc. iii. 54. iv. 13.) It should seem that a notion pre- Jericho (Josh. vi. 26.), the fulfilment of which is recorded vailed among the ancient idolatrous nations of the East, of in 1 Kings xvi. 34. In like manner Cræsus uttered a curse the efficacy of devoting an enemy to destruction. Under on him who should rebuild the walls of Sidene, which he this persuasion Balak engaged Balaam to curse the Israel- had destroyed; and the Romans also upon him who should ites because they were too mighty for him (Num. xxii. 6.); rebuild the city of Carthage. and Goliath cursed David by his gods. (1 Sam. xvii. 43.)2 Various indignities and cruelties were inflicted on those The Romans in later times had a peculiar form of evoking or who had the misfortune to be taken captive. On some occacalling out the gods, under whose protection a place was sions particular districts were marked out for destruction. supposed to be, and also of devoting the people, which is (2 Sam. viii. 2.). Of those whose lives were spared, the fully described by Macrobius,3 and many accounts are related victors set their feet upon the necks (Josh. x. 24.), or mutiin the Hindoo puranas of kings employing sages to curse lated their persons (Judg. i. 7. 2 Sam. iv. 12. Ezek. xxiii. their enemies when too powerful for them. It was custom- 25.8), or imposed upon them the severest and most laborious ary for the Hebrew kings or their generals (in common with occupations. (2 Sam. xii. 31.). It was the barbarous custom other ancient nations) to deliver an address to their armies. of the conquerors of those times, to make their unhappy (2 Chron. xiii. 4–12. xx. 21. 1 Macc. iv. 8-11.). These captives bow down that they might go over them (Isa. li. harangues had a great share in the success of the day, and 23.), and also to strip them naked, and make them travel in often contributed to the gaining of a battle. The Greek and that condition, exposed to the inclemency of the weather, Roman historians abound with pieces of this kind; but they and, which was worst of all, to the intolerable heat of the are too long, and too elaborate, to be originals. Those only sun. Nor were women, as appears from Isa. iii. 17., exwhich are recorded in the Scriptures appear to be natural: empted from this treatment. To them this was the height the terms in which they are conceived carry certain marks of indignity, as well as of cruelty, especially to those deof truth, which cannot fail to strike the reader: they are short scribed by the prophets, who had indulged themselves in all but lively, moving, and full of pious sentiments.

manner of delicacies of living, and all the superfluities of The onset of the battle, after the custom of the orientals, was very violent (Num. xxiii. 24. xxiv. 8, 9.), and was made

s Modern Universal History, vol. xxvi. p. 11. 8vo. edit.

6 Burder's Oriental Literature, vol. i. p. 301. with a great shout. (Exod. xxxii. 17. 1 Sam. xvii. 20. 52. * That the cutting off the thumbs and toes of captured enemies was an 2 Chron. xiii

. 15. Jer. 1. 42.), The same practice obtained ancient mode of treating them, we learn from Ælian (Var. Hist. lib. ii.c. in the age of the Maccabees (1 Mace. iii. 54.), as it does to 9.), who tells us, that the " Athenians, at the instigation of Cleon, son of this day among the Cossacks, Tartars, and Turks. All the Sheanatas, made a decree that all the inhabitants of the island of Ægina wars, in the earliest times, were carried on with great cru- after be disabled from holding a spear, yet might handle an oar." It was a elty and ferocity; of which we may see instances in Judg. custom among those Romans who disliked a military life, to cut off their own viii. 7. 16. 2 Kings iii. 27. viii. 12. xv. 16. 2 Chron. xxv. times the parents cut off the thumbs of their children, that they might not 12. Amos i. 3. 13. and Psal. cxxxvii. 8, 9. Yet the kings be called into the army. According to Suetonius, a Roman knight, who of Israel were distinguished for their humanity and lenity had cut off the thumbs of his two sons, to prevent them from being called towards their enemies. (1 Kings xx. 31. 2 Kings vi. 21–23. toisa military life, was, by the order of Augustus, publicly sold, both he and 2 Chron. xxviii. 8–15.) When the victory was decided, causa detractandi sacramenti, pollices amputasset, ipsum bonaque subjecit the bodies of the slain were interred. (1 Kings xi. 15. hasta Vit. August. c. 24. Calmet remarks, that the Italian language has 2 Sam. ii. 32. xxi. 14. Ezek. xxxix. 11, 12. 2 Macc. xii. preserved a terin, poltrone, which signifies one whose thumb is cut off, 10

designate a soldier destitute of courage. Burder's Oriental Literature, 39.). Sometimes, however, the heads of the slain were cut vol. 1. p. 310. off, and deposited in heaps at the palace gate (2 Kings x.

8 Ezek. xxiii. 25. They shall take away thy nose and thine EARS. This 7, 8.), as is frequently done to this day in Turkey, and in cruelty is still practised under some of the despotic governments of the Persia ;4 and when the conquerors were irritated at the ob- Messrs. Waddington and Hanbury, during their visit to some parts of stinacy with which a city was defended, they refused the Ethiopia :-"Our servants, in their

expedition into the village, found only rites of burial to the dead, whose bodies were cast out, a fifty piastres apiece, which leads to a thousand unnecessary cruelties, prey to carnivorous birds and beasts. This barbarity is and barbarizes the system of warfare; but enables his highness to collect feelingly deplored by the Psalmist. (lxxix. 1–3.) And on a large stock of ears, which

he sends down to his father, as proofs of his some occasions the remains of the slain were treated with instances of this kind of cruelty may be seen in Dodwell's Classical Tour every mark of indignity. Thus the Philistines cut off the through Greece, vol. i. p. 20. šir James Malcolin's Hist of Persia, vol. i. head of Saul, and stripped off his armour, which they put in p. 555.; and Burckhardt's Travels in Nubia, p. 35. the house of their deity, Ashtaroth or Astarte; and they fas- The Roman emperor Valerian, being through treachery betrayed to Sapor ornamental dress; and even whose faces had hardly ever came to Jerusalem with psalteries and harps, and trumpets unto been exposed to the sight of men. This is always mentioned the house of the Lord. (2 Chron. xx. 27, 28.) The same as the hardest part of the lot of captives. Nahum (iii. 5,6.), custom still obtains in India and in Turkey. In further denouncing the fate of Nineveh, paints it in very strong co-commemoration of signal victories, it was a common praclours. Women and children were also exposed to treatment tice, both among the ancient heathen nations and the Jews, at which humanity shudders. (Zech. xiv. 2. Esth. iii. 13. to hang up the arms that were taken from their enemies in 2 Kings viii. 12. Psal. cxxxvii. 9. Isa. xiii. 16. 18. 2 Kings their temples. Thus we find, that the sword with which xv. 16. Hos. xiii. 16. Amos i. 13.) And whole nations were David cut off Goliath's head, being dedicated to the Lord, carried into captivity, and transplanted to distant countries: was kept as a memorial of his victory, and of the Israelites this was the case with the Jews (2 Kings xxiv. 12—16. Jer. deliverance, and was deposited in the tabernacle ; for we find xxxix. 9, 10. xl. 7.), as Jeremiah had predicted (Jer. xx. 5.), that when David came to Abimelech at Nob, where the and instances of similar conduct are not wanting in the mo- tabernacle was, Abimelech acknowledged it was there, and dern history of the East.? In some cases, indeed, the con- delivered it to David. (1 Sam. xxi. 8, 9.) For when occaquered nations were merely made tributaries, as the Moabites sions of state required it, it was no unusual thing to take and Syrians were by David (2 Sam. viii. 4. 6.): but this such trophies down, and employ them in the public service. was considered a great ignominy, and was a source of re- Thus when Joash was crowned king of Judah, Jehoiada, the proach to the idol deities of the countries which were thus high-priest (who had religiously educated him), delivered to subjected. (2 Kings xix. 12, 13.) Still further to show their the captains of hundreds spears, and bucklers, and shields, that absolute superiority, the victorious sovereigns used to change had been king David's, which were in the house of God. the names of the monarchs whom they subdued. Thus we (2 Chron. xxiii. 9.) find the king of Babylon changing the name of Mattaniah XII. By the law of Moses (Num. xxxi. 19—24.) the whole into Zedekiah, when he constituted him king of Judah. army that went out to war were to stay without, seven days (2 Kings xxiv. 17.) Archbishop Usher remarks, that the before they were admitted into the camp, and such as had had king of Egypt gave to Eliakim the name of Jehoiakim their hands in blood, or had touched a dead body, though (? Chron. xxxvi. 4.), thereby to testify that he ascribed his killed by another, were to be purified on the third and on the victory over the Babylonians to Jehovah the God of Israel, seventh day by the water of separation. All spoil of garby whose command, as he pretended (2 Chron. xxxv. 21, ments, or other things that they had taken, were to be purified 22.), he undertook the expedition. Nebuchadnezzar also in the same manner, or to be washed in running water, as the ordered his eunuch to change the name of Daniel, who after- method was in other cases. All sorts of metals had, besides wards was called Belteshazzar; and the three companions sprinkling with the water of separation, a purification by fire, of Daniel, whose names formerly were Hananiah, Mishael, and what would not bear the fire passed through the water and Azariah, he called Shadrach, Meshach, and Ábednego before it could be applied to use: (Dan. i. 7.) It was likewise a custom among the heathens In the DISTRIBUTION OF THE Spoil, the king anciently had to carry in triumph the images of the gods of such nations the tenth part of what was taken. Thus Abraham gave a as they had vanquished: Isaiah prophesies of Cyrus, that tenth to Melchisedec king of Salem. (Gen. xiv.20. Heb. vii. in this manner he would treat the gods of Babylon, when he 4.) And if any article of peculiar beauty or value were found says, Bel boweth, Nebo stoopeth, their idols were upon the beasts, among the spoil, it seems to have heen reserved for the comand upon the cattle, and themselves have gone into captivity: mander-in-chief. To this Deborah alludes in her triumphal (Isa. xlvi. 1, 2.) Daniel foretells that the gods of the Sy- ode. (Judg. y. 30.) After the establishment of the monarchy, rians, with their princes, should be carried captive into Egypt the rabbinical writers say (but upon what authority it is im(Dan: xi. 8.); and similar predictions are to be met with in possible now to ascertain that the king had all the gold, silJeremiah (xlviii. 7.) and in Amos. (i. 15.)

king of Persia, was treated by him as the basest and most abject slave : 1 Antiq. lib. iii. c. 11.

for the Persian monarch commanded the unhappy Roman to bow himself 3 In like manner, the Cingalese frequently utter imprecations in the down, and offer him his back, on which he set his foot, in order to mount name of the most inalignant of their desties. "Callaway's Oriental Obser his chariot or his horse, whenever he had occasion. (Lactantins, de Morte vations, p. 20.

Persecutorum, c. 5. Aurelius, Victor, Epitome, c. 32.) Bp. Lowih's a Saturnalia, lib. iii. c. 9. • Morier's Second Journey, p. 186. Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 315. In p. 307. he has given another similar insance.

ver, and other precious articles, besides one half of the rest XI. On their return home, the VICTORS were received with of the spoil, which was divided between him and the people. every demonstration of joy. The women preceded them with In the case of the Midianitish war (Num. xxxi. 27.), the instruments of music, singing and dancing. In this manner whole of the spoil was, by divine appointment, divided into Miriam and the women of Israel joined in chorus with the two parts: the army that won the victory had one, and those men, in the song of victory which Moses composed on occa- that stayed at home had the other, because it was a common sion of the overthrow of Pharaoh and his Egyptian host in cause in which they engaged, and the rest were as ready to the Red Sea, and which they accompanied with timbrels and fight as those that went out to battle. This division was by dances. (Exod. xv. 1-21.) Thus, also, Jephthah was hailed a special direction, but was not the rule in after-ages; for, by his daughter, on his return from discomfiting the children after the general had taken what he pleased for himself, the of Ammon (Judg. xi. 34.); and Saul and David were greeted, rest was divided among the soldiers, as well those who kept in like manner, on their return from the defeat of the Philistines. the baggage, or were disabled by wounds or weariness, as The women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and those who were engaged in the fight, but the people had no dancing, to meet king Šaul, with tabrets, with joy, and with share; and this was ordained, as a statute to be observed instruments of music. And the women answered one another throughout their generations (1 Sam. xxx. 24.): but in the as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands and time of the Maccabees the Jewish army thought fit to recede David his ten thousands ! (1 Sam. xviii. 7, 8.) The victori- from the strictness of this military law, for when they had ous army of Jehoshaphat, the pious king of Judah, long

after- obtained a victory over Nicanor, under the

conduct of Judas, wards, returned, every man of Judah and Jerusalem with the they divided among themselves many spoils, and made the king at their head, to go again to Jerusalem with joy; for the maimed, orphans, widows, yea, and the aged also, equal in Lord had made them to rejoice over their enemies. And they spoils with themselves. (2 Macc. viii. 28. 30.). In the Midi

anitish war, after the distribution of the spoils among the · Bp. Lowth's Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 45. Kahn overran and conquered 'Asia, “ the inhabitants who had subinitted to the service of the priesthood, and the Levitical ministry.

hin the thirteenth century, when the Moguls or Tartars under Zinghis army and the people, there was another division made for their discretion, were ordered to evacuate their houses, and to assemble (Num. xxxi. 28–30.) The priests, out of the share that in some plain arljacent to the city, where a division was made of the van. fell to the army, were allotted one out of five hundred of all garrison, and of the yming men capable of bearing arms ; and their fate women and children, and cattle that were taken; and the was instantly decided they were either enlisted among the Moguls, or Levites, from the part that fell to the people, received one they were massacred on the spot by the troops, who with pointed spears out of fifty, so that the priest had just a tenth part of what second class, composed of the young and beautiful women, of the arti was allowed to the Levites, as they had a tenth part of the ficers of every rank and profession, and of the more wealthy or honourable Levitical tithes, which was paid them for their constant supcitizens, froin whom a private ransom might be expected, was distributed port: but whether this was the practice in future wars is unalike useless to the conquerors, were permitted to return to the city, which certain. Sometimes all the spoils were, by divine appointin the

mean while had been stripped of its valuable furniture ; and a tax ment, ordered to be destroyed; and there is an instance in was imposed on those wretched inhabitants for the indulgence of breath the siege of Jericho, when all the silver and the gold (except ing their native air." (Gibbons Decline and

Fall of the Roman Empire, the gold and the silver of their images, which were to be conthe distinction made by Jeremiah (xx. 5.) of the strength of the city (that sumed utterly), and vessels of brass and iron, were devoted is, the men of war who constitute the strength of a city or state); its to God, and appropriated to his service. They were to be all the precious things thereof, all that is valuable in it, or the honourable brought into the treasury which was in the tabernacle, after and respectable members of the community not included in the two former they

were purified by making them pass through the fire acclasses, and also those poorer and meaner citizens who, according to Jer. cording to the law; the Jews conceive that these spoils xxxix. 18. and xl. 7., were left in Judæa, but still tributary to the Chal. dæans, first under Zedekiah, and next under Gedaliah. Dr. Blayney, on 3 Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 295. Lady Mary Wortley Mon. Jer. xx. 5.

tague's Letters, vol. 1. p. 197.

(called in the Scripture the accursed thing on the account of nissi, that is, The LORD is my banner. (Exod. xvii. 15.) Un their being devoted with a curse upon him who should take der the influence of similar devout affections, David consethem for his own use) were given to God, because the city crated the sword and other arms of Goliath in the tabernacle, was taken upon the Sabbath-day. But in succeeding ages, and subsequently deposited in the sacred treasury the rich it appears to be an established rule that the spoil was to be spoils won in battle, as Samuel and Saul had done before divided among the army actually engaged in battle; those him (1 Chron. xxvi. 26—28.), and as several of his pious who had the charge of the baggage (as already noticed) successors on the throne of Judah also did. Thus they being considered entitled to an equal share with the rest. gratefully acknowledged that they were indebted to the Lord (1 Sam. xxx. 24.)

of Hosts alone for all their strength and victories. Besides a share of the spoil and the honours of a triumph, various military rewards were bestowed on those warriors who had pre-eminently distinguished themselves. Thus Saul promised to confer great riches on the man who should

SECTION II. conquer Goliath, and further to give his daughter in marriage to him, and to exempt his father's house from all taxes in ALLUSIONS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT TO THE MILITARY DISCIIsrael. (1 Sam. xvii. 25.) How reluctantly the jealous mo

PLINE AND TRIUMPHS OF THE ROMANS. narch fulfilled his promise is well known. David promised the command in chief of all his forces to him who should I. Divisions of the Roman army, and Roman military officers first mount the walls of Jerusalem, and expel the Jebusites mentioned in the New Testament.-II. Allusions to the ar. out of the city (2 Sam. v. 8. 1 Chron. xi. 6.); which honour mour of the Romans.—III. To their military discipline.was acquired by Joab. In the rebellion of Absalom against Strict subordination.Rewards to soldiers who had distinDavid, Joab replied to a man who told him that the prince guished themselves.-IV. Allusions to the Roman triumphs. was suspended in an oak,-Why didst thou not smite him to the ground, and I would have given thee ten shekels of silver I. At the time the evangelists and apostles wrote, the Roand a girdle? (2 Sam. xviii. 11.) Jephthah was constituted mans had extended their empire almost to the utmost boundhead and captain over the Israelites beyond Jordan, for deli- aries of the then known world, principally by their unparalvering them from the oppression of the Ammonites. (Judg. leled military discipline and heroic valour. Judæa was at xi. 11. compared with xii. 7.),

this time subject to their sway, and their troops were staFrom 2 Sam. xxiii. 8–39. it appears that the heroes or tioned in different parts of that country. "mighty men,” during the reign of David, were thirty-seven The Roman army was composed of Legions (187scoves), in number, including Joab, who was commander-in-chief of each of which was divided into ten cohorts, each cohort into all his forces. These warriors were divided into three classes, three maniples, and each maniple (Erupe) into two centuries. the first and second of which consisted, each, of three men, The number of men in a legion was different at different Jashobeam, Eleazar, and Shammah; Abishai, Benaiah, and times. But besides the cohorts which were formed into Asahel; and the third class was composed of the remaining legions, there were certain others separate and distinct from thirty, of whom Asahel appears to have been the head. Such any legion; such were the Cohortes Urbanæ, and Prætoriæ, is the list according to 2 Sam. xxiii.; but in 1 Chron. xi. 10 &c. Such appears to have been the Italian Band (Irupe -47. the list is more numerous, and differs considerably from Itanan) mentioned in Acts x. 1., which was in attendance on the preceding. The most probable solution of these vari- the Roman governor, who at that time was residing at Cæsaations is, that the first list contains the worthies who lived in rea. It was probably called the Italian cohort, because most the former part of David's reign, and that it underwent vari- of the soldiers belonging to it were Italians, and also to disous changes in the course of his government of the kingdom tinguish it from the other troops which were drawn from of Israel. At the head of all these mighty men” was Syria and the adjacent regions. The Italian legion was not Jashobeam the son of Hachmoni (1 Chron. xi. 11.), who in existence at this time. Of the same description also was from his office in 2 Sam. xxiii. 8., (Hebr. and marginal ren- the Augustan Band or Cohort (Acts xxvi. 1.), (Štups E620Tn), dering) is termed Joseb-Bassebet, the Tachmonite, head of the which, most probably, derived its name from Sebaste, the three; and whose military appellation was Adino-He-Ezni capital of Samaria. The commanding officer of the Præto(the lifting upor striking with a spear) because he lifted rian Cohorts at Rome (a body of troops instituted by Augusup his spear against, or encountered, three hundred soldiers tus to guard his person, and to whom the care of the city was at once. However extraordinary it may seem, we may here subsequently committed) was termed Præfectus Prætorio. clearly perceive a distinct order of knighthood, similar to our This last ofńcer was the Captain of the Guard (ETP2TORESpXns), modern orders, and presenting the same honorary degrees, to whose custody Paul was committed, it being a part of his and of which Jashobeam, according to modern parlance, was office to take the charge of accused persons. (Acts xxviii. the grand-master. An institution of this kind was in every 16.). The commanding officer of an ordinary cohort was respect adapted to the reign, the character, and the policy of called Tribunus Cohortis, if it was composed of Roman citiDavid.

zens; or Præfectus Cohortis, if composed of auxiliary troops. After the return of the Jewish armies to their several The officer intended by both these words is in the New Teshomes, their military dress was laid aside. The militia, tament termed Xorazpzés, or Captain of a Thousand, most which been raised for the occasion, were disbanded; their probably because each tribune had under him ten centuries warlike instruments, with the exception of such as were of troops. This was the officer who commanded the legion private property, were delivered up as the property of the of soldiers that garrisoned the tower of Antonia, which overstate, until some future war should call them forth ; and the looked the temple at Jerusalem, in the porticoes of which a soldiers themselves returned (like Cincinnatus) to the plough, company kept guard (rcustafier) to prevent any tumult at the and the other avocations of private life. To this suspension great festivals. Claudius Lysias was the tribune or Roman of their arms, the prophet Ezekiel alludes (xxvii. 10, 11.) captain of this fort, who rescued Paul from the tumultuous when he says, that they of Persia, and of Lud, and of Phut, attack of the murderous Jews. (Acts xxi. 31. xxii. 34. xxiii. and of Arvăd, were in the Tyrian army as men of war, and 26.) Under the command of the tribune was the centurion hanged their shields upon the walls of Tyre. To the same cus- (Kertup.cey or 'ExzTCUTLPXOs), who, as his name implies, had one tom also the bridegroom refers in the sacred idyls of Solomon hundred men under him. (Song iv. 4.), when he compares the neck of his bride to The Roman infantry were divided into three principal the tower of David builded for an armoury, whereon there hang classes, the Hastati, the Principes, and the Triarii, each of a thousand bucklers, all shields of mighty men.

which was composed of thirty manipuli or companies, and XIII. It does not certainly appear from the Sacred Writ- each manipulus contained two centuries or hundreds of men: ings, that the Hebrews were accustomed to erect Trophies over every company were placed two centurions, who, howor monuments for commemorating their victories. In 1 Sam. ever, were very far from being equal in rank and honour, though xv. 12. Saul is said to have set him up a place on Mount Car- possessing the same office. The Triarii and Principes were mel; which some expositors understand to be a column, or esteemed the most honourable, and had their centurions elected other monument, while others imagine it to have been sim- first, and these took precedency of the centurions of the Hastati, ply a hand, pointing out the place where he had obtained his who were elected last. The humble centurion, who in Matt. decisive victory over the Amalekites. Far more devout was the conduct of Moses, who, after discomfiting Amalek, 2 Biscoe on the Acts, vol, i. pp. 328-332. Doddridge on Acts x. 1. and erected an altar to the Lord, with this inscription, Jehovaha Kuinöel on Acts x...; and xxvii. 1.

3 Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. v. c. 5. $ 8. Ant. Jud. lib. xx. c. 4. $ 3.

+ Biscoe on the Acts, vol. i. pp. 328, 329. Adam's Roman Antiquities, · Coquerel, Biographie Sacrée, tom. ii. p. 167.

pp. 336. 339. 52.

ornamental dress; and even whose faces had hardly ever came to Jerusalem with psalteries and harps, and trumpets unto been exposed to the sight of men. This is always mentioned the house of the Lord.(2 Chron. xx. 27, 28.) The same as the hardest part of the lot of captives. Nahum (iii. 5, 6.), custom still obtains in India and in Turkey. In further denouncing the fate of Nineveh, paints it in very strong co-commemoration of signal victories, it was a common praclours. Women and children were also exposed to treatment tice, both among the ancient heathen nations and the Jews, at which humanity shudders. (Zech. xiv. 2. Esth. iii. 13. to hang up, the arms that were taken from their enemies in 2 Kings viii. 12. Psal. cxxxvii. 9. Isa. xiii. 16. 18. 2 Kings their temples. Thus we find, that the sword with which xv. 16. Hos. xiii. 16. Amos i. 13.) And whole nations were David cut off Goliath's head, being dedicated to the Lord, carried into captivity, and transplanted to distant countries: was kept as a memorial of his victory, and of the Israelites this was the case with the Jews (2 Kings xxiv. 12–16. Jer. deliverance, and was deposited in the tabernacle ; for we find xxxix. 9, 10. xl. 7.), as Jeremiah had predicted (Jer. xx. 5.), that when David came to Abimelech at Nob, where the and instances of similar conduct are not wanting in the mo- tabernacle was, Abimelech acknowledged it was there, and dern history of the East.? In some cases, indeed, the con- delivered it to David. (1 Sam. xxi. 8, 9.) For when occaquered nations were merely made tributaries, as the Moabites sions of state required it

, it was no unusual thing to take and Syrians were by David (2 Sam. viii. 4. 6.): but this such trophies down, and employ them in the public service. was considered a great ignominy, and was a source of re- Thus when Joash was crowned king of Judah, Jehoiada, the proach to the idol deities of the countries which were thus high-priest (who had religiously educated him), delivered to subjected. (2 Kings xix. 12, 13.) Still further to show their the captains of hundreds spears, and bucklers, and shields, that absolute superiority, the victorious sovereigns used to change had been king David's, which were in the house of God. the names of the monarchs whom they subdued. Thus we (2 Chron. xxiii. 9.) find the king of Babylon changing the name of Mattaniah XII. By the law of Moses (Num. xxxi. 19—24.) the whole into Zedekiah, when he constituted him king of Judah. army that went out to war were to stay without, seven days (2 Kings xxiv. 17.) Archbishop Usher remarks, that the before they were admitted into the camp, and such as had had king of Egypt gave to Eliakim the name of Jehoiakim their hands in blood, or had touched a dead body, though (2 Chron. xxxvi.

4.), thereby to testify that he ascribed his killed by another, were to be purified on the third and on the victory over the Babylonians to Jehovah the God of Israel, seventh day by the water of separation. All spoil of garby whose command, as he pretended (2 Chron. xxxv. 21, ments, or other things that they had taken, were to be purified 22.), he undertook the expedition. Nebuchadnezzar also in the same manner, or to be washed in running water, as the ordered his eunuch to change the name of Daniel, who after- method was in other cases. All sorts of metals had, besides wards was called Belteshazzar; and the three companions sprinkling with the water of separation, a purification by fire, of Daniel, whose names formerly were Hananiah, Mishael, and what would not bear the fire passed through the water and Azariah, he called Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. before it could be applied to use: (Dan. i. 7.) It was likewise a custom among the heathens In the DISTRIBUTION OF THE Spoil, the king anciently had to carry in triumph the images of the gods of such nations the tenth part of what was taken. Thus Abraham gave a as they had vanquished: (saiah prophesies of Cyrus, that tenth to Melchisedec king of Salem. (Gen. xiv. 20. Heb. vii. in this manner he would treat the gods of Babylon, when he 4.) And if any article of peculiar beauty or value were found says, Bel boweth, Nebo stoopeth, their idols were upon the beasts, among the spoil, it seems to have been reserved for the comand upon the cattle, and themselves have gone into captivity? mander-in-chief. To this Deborah alludes in her triumphal (Isa. xlvi. 1, 2.) Daniel foretells that the gods of the Sy- ode. (Judg. y. 30.) After the establishment of the monarchy, rians, with their princes, should be carried captive into Egypt the rabbinical writers say (but upon what authority it is im(Dan. xi. 8.); and similar predictions are to be met with in possible now to ascertain) that the king had all the gold, silJeremiah (xlviii. 7.) and in Amos, (i. 15.)

ver, and other precious articles, besides one half of the rest XI. On their return home, the Victors were received with of the spoil, which was divided between him and the people. every demonstration of joy. The women preceded them with In the case of the Midianitish war (Num. xxxi. 27.), the instruments of music, singing and dancing. In this manner whole of the spoil was, by divine appointment, divided into Miriam and the women of Israel joined in chorus with the two parts: the army that won the victory had one, and those men, in the song of victory which Moses composed on occa- that stayed at home had the other, because it was a common sion of the overthrow of Pharaoh and his Egyptian host in cause in which they engaged, and the rest were as ready to the Red Sea, and which they accompanied with timbrels and fight as those that went out to battle. This division was by dances. (Exod. xv. 1—21.) Thus, also, Jephthah was hailed a special direction, but was not the rule in after-ages; for, by his daughter, on his return from discomfiting the children after the general had taken what he pleased for himself, the of Ammon (Judg. xi. 34.); and Saul and David were greeted, rest was divided among the soldiers, as well those who kept in like manner, on their return from the defeat of the Philistines. the baggage, or were disabled by wounds or weariness, as The women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and those who were engaged in the fight, but the people had no dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with share; and this was ordained, as a statute to be observed instruments of music. And the women answered one another throughout their generations (1 Sam. xxx. 24.): but in the as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands and time of the Maccabees the Jewish army thought fit to recede David his ten thousands ! (1 Sam. xviii. 7, 8.). The victori- from the strictness of this military law, for when they had ous army of Jehoshaphat, the pious king of Judah, long after- obtained a victory over Nicanor, under the conduct of Judas, wards, returned, every man of Judah and Jerusalem with the they divided among themselves many spoils, and made the king at their head, to go again to Jerusalem with joy; for the maimed, orphans, widows, yea, and the aged also, equal in Lørd had made them to rejoice over their enemies. And they spoils with themselves. (2 Macc. viii. 28. 30.). In the Midi

anitish war, after the distribution of the spoils among the · Bp. Lowth's Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 45.

In the thirteenth century, when the Moguls or Tartars under Zinghis army and the people, there was another division made for Kahn overran and conquered 'Asia, " the inhabitants who had subunitted to the service of the priesthood, and the Levitical ministry. their discretion, were ordered to evacuate their houses, and to assemble (Num. xxxi. 28–30.) The priests, out of the share that in some plain adjacent to the city, where a division was made of the van. tell to the army, were allotted one out of five hundred of all garrison, and of the yming men capable of bearing arms ; and their fate women and children, and cattle that were taken; and the was instantly decided': they were either enlisted among the Moguls, or Levites, from the part that fell to the people, received one they were massacred on the spot by the troops, who with pointed spears out of fifty, so that the priest had just a tenth part of what second class, composed of the young and beautiful women, of the arti was allowed to the Levítes, as they had a tenth part of the ficers of every rank and profession, and of the more wealthy or honourable Levitical tithes, which was paid them for their constant supcitizens, froin whom a private ransom might be expected, was distributed port: but whether this was the practice in future wars is unin equal or proportionable lots. The remainder, whose life or death was certain. Sometimes all the spoils were, by divine appointin the

mean while had been stripped of its valuable furniture ; and a tax ment, ordered to be destroyed; and there is an instance in ing their native air." (Gibbon's Decline and

Fall of the Roman

Empire, the gold and the silver of their images, which were to be conwas imposed on those wretched inhabitants for the indulgence of breath the siege of Jericho, when all the silver and the gold (except the distinction made by Jeremiah (xx. 5.) of the strength of the city (that sumed utterly), and vessels of brass and iron, were devoted is, the men of war who constitute the strength. of city or state); its to God, and appropriated to his service. They were to be all the precious things thereof, all that is valuable in it, or the honourable brought into the treasury which was in the tabernacle, after and respectable members of ihe community not included in the two former they were purified by making them pass through the fire acclasses, and also those poorer and meaner citizens who, according to Jer: cording to the law; the Jews conceive that these spoils xxxix. 18. and xl. 7., were left in Judæa, but still tributary to the Chaldæans, first under Zedekiah, and next under Gedaliah. Dr. Blayney, on 3 Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 295. Lady Mary Wortley Mon.

tague's Letters, vol. 1. p. 197.

Jer. xx. 5.

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(called in the Scripture the accursed thing on the account of nissi, that is, The Lord is my banner. (Exod. xvii. 15.) Un
their being devoted with a curse upon him who should take der the influence of similar devout affections, David conse-
them for his own use) were given to God, because the city crated the sword and other arms of Goliath in the tabernacle,
was taken upon the Sabbath-day. But in succeeding ages, and subsequently deposited in the sacred treasury the rich
it appears to be an established rule that the spoil was to be spoils won in battle, as Samuel and Saul had done before
divided among the army actually engaged in battle; those him (1 Chron. xxvi. 26–28.), and as several of his pious
who had the charge of the baggage (as already noticed) successors on the throne of Judah also did. Thus they
being considered entitled to an equal share with the rest. gratefully acknowledged that they were indebted to the Lord
(1 Sam. xxx. 24.)

of Hosts alone for all their strength and victories.
Besides a share of the spoil and the honours of a triumph,
various military rewards were bestowed on those warriors
who had pre-eminently distinguished themselves. Thus
Saul promised to confer great riches on the man who should

SECTION II.
conquer Goliath, and further to give his daughter in marriage
to him, and to exempt his father's house from all taxes in ALLUSIONS IN THE NEW TESTAMENT TO THE MILITARY DISCI-
Israel. (1 Sam. xvii. 25.) How reluctantly the jealous mo-

PLINE AND TRIUMPHS OF THE ROMANS. narch fulfilled his promise is well known. David promised the command in chief of all his forces to him who should 1. Divisions of the Roman army, and Roman military officers first mount the walls of Jerusalem, and expel the Jebusites mentioned in the New Testament.-II. Allusions to the arout of the city (2 Sam. v. 8. 1 Chron. xi. 6.); which honour mour of the Romans.—III. To their military discipline. was acquired by Joab. In the rebellion of Absalom against Strict subordination.-Rewards to soldiers who had distinDavid, Joab replied to a man who told him that the prince guished themselves.-IV. Allusions to the Roman triumphs. was suspended in an oak,-Why didst thou not smite him to the ground, and I would have given thee ten shekels of silver I. At the time the evangelists and apostles wrote, the Roand a girdle? (2 Sam. xviii. 11.) Jephthah was constituted mans had extended their empire almost to the utmost boundhead and captain over the Israelites beyond Jordan, for deli- aries of the then known world, principally by their unparalvering them from the oppression of the Ammonites. (Judg. leled military discipline and heroic valour. Judæa was at xi. 11. compared with xii. 7.).

this time subject to their sway, and their troops were staFrom 2 Sam. xxiii. 8–39. it appears that the heroes or tioned in different parts of that country. "mighty men,” during the reign of David, were thirty-seven The Roman army was composed of Legions (Asy scoves), in number, including Joab, who was commander-in-chief of each of which was divided into ten cohorts, each cohort into all-his forces. These warriors were divided into three classes, three maniples, and each maniple (rup) into two centuries. the first and second of which consisted, each, of three men, The number of men in a legion was different at different Jashobeam, Eleazar, and Shammah; Abishai, Benaiah, and times. But besides the cohorts which were formed into Asahel; and the third class was composed of the remaining legions, there were certain others separate and distinct from thirty, of whom Asahel appears to have been the head. Such any legion; such were the Cohortes Urbanæ, and Prætoriæ, is the list according to 2 Sam. xxiii. ; but in 1 Chron. xi. 10 &c. Such appears to have been the Italian Band (Ensipe -47. the list is more numerous, and differs considerably from Itanın) mentioned in Acts x. 1., which was in attendance on the preceding. The most probable solution of these vari- the Roman governor, who at that time was residing at Cæsaations is, that the first list contains the worthies who lived in rea. It was probably called the Italian cohort, because most the former part of David's reign, and that it underwent vari- of the soldiers belonging to it were Italians, and also to disous

changes in the course of his government of the kingdom tinguish it from the other troops which were drawn from of Israel. At the head of all these “mighty men” was Syria and the adjacent regions. The Italian legion was not Jashobeam the son of Hachmoni (1 Chron. xi. 11.), who in existence at this time. Of the same description also was from his office in 2 Sam. xxiii. 8. (Hebr. and marginal ren- the Augustan Band or Cohort (Acts xxvi. 1.), (Étape Ettorn), dering) is termed Joseb-Bassebet, the T'achmonite, head of the which, most probably, derived its name from Sebaste, the three, and whose military appellation was Adino-He-Ezni capital of Samaria. The commanding officer of the Præto(the lifting up-or striking witha spear) because he lifted rian Cohorts at Rome (a body of troops instituted by Augusup his spear against, or encountered, three hundred soldiers tus to guard his person, and to whom the care of the city was at once. However extraordinary it may seem, we may here subsequently committed) was termed Præfectus Prætorio. clearly perceive a distinct order of knighthood, similar to our This last officer was the Captain of the Guard (ITPitoreSpæns), modern orders, and presenting the same honorary degrees, to whose custody Paul was committed, it being a part of his and of which Jashobeam, according to modern parlance, was office to take the charge of accused persons. (Acts xxviii. the grand-master. An institution of this kind was in every 16.). The commanding officer of an ordinary cohort was respect adapted to the reign, the character, and the policy of called Tribunus Cohortis, if it was composed of Roman citiDavid.

zens; or Præfectus Cohortis, if composed of auxiliary troops. After the return of the Jewish armies to their several The officer intended by both these words is in the New Teshomes, their military dress was laid aside. The militia, tament termed Xinceptos, or Captain of a Thousand, most which been raised for the occasion, were disbanded; their probably because each tribune had under him ten centuries warlike instruments, with the exception of such as were of troops. This was the officer who commanded the legion private property, were delivered up as the property of the of soldiers that garrisoned the tower of Antonia, which overstate, until some future war should

call them forth ; and the looked the temple at Jerusalem, in the porticoes of which a soldiers themselves returned (like Cincinnatus) to the plough, company kept guard (xcugte8l2v) to prevent any tumult at the and the other avocations of private life. To this suspension great festivals. Claudius Lysias was the tribune or Roman of their arms, the prophet Ezekiel alludes (xxvii. 10, 11.5 captain of this fort, who rescued Paul from the tumultuous when he says, that they of Persia, and of Lud, and of Phut, attack of the murderous Jews. (Acts xxi. 31. xxii. 34. xxiii. and of Arvad, were in the Tyrian army as men of war, and 26.) Under the command of the tribune was the centurion hanged their shields upon the walls of Tyre. To the same cus- (Kercupicy or 'ExLTCYTdpXOs), who, as his name implies, had one tom also the bridegroom refers in the sacred idyls of Solomon hundred

men under him. (Song iv. 4.), when he compares the neck of his bride to The Roman infantry were divided into three principal the tower of David builded for an armoury, whereon there hang classes, the Hastati, the Principes, and the Triarii, each of a thousand bucklers, all shields of mighty men,

which was composed of thirty manipuli cr companies, and XIII. It does not certainly appear from the Sacred Writ- each manipulus contained two centuries or hundreds of men: ings, that the Hebrews were accustomed to erect TROPHIES over every company were placed two centurions, who, howor monuments for commemorating their victories. In 1 Sam. ever, were very far from being equal in rank and honour, though xv. 12. Saul is said to have set him up a place on Mount Car- possessing the same office. The Triarii and Principes were mel; which some expositors understand to be a column, or esteemed the most honourable, and had their centurions elected other monument, while others imagine it to have been sim- first, and these took precedency of the centurions of the Hastati, ply a hand, pointing out the place where he had obtained his who were elected last. The humble centurion, who in Matt. decisive victory over the Amalekites. Far more devout was the conduct of Moses, who, after discomfiting Amalek, 2 Biscoe on the Acts, vol, i. pp. 328-332. Doddridge on Acts x. 1. and erected an altar to the Lord, with this inscription, Jehovah- Kuinöel on Acts x 1, and xxvii. 1.

a Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. v. c. 5. 68. Ant. Jud. lib. xx. c. 4. & 3.

* Biscoe on the Acts, vol. i. pp. 328, 329. Adam's Roman Antiquities, · Coquerel, Biographie Sacrée, tom. ii. p. 167.

pp. 336. 339. 52

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