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bride was conducted to his house, and the nuptials were officers were appointed by the Snoterim, genealogists or officonsummated.

cers (as they are termed in our version), who probably chose 4. Every newly married man, during the first year after the heads of families; but after the monarchy took place, his marriage. The humanity of these exemptions will be they received their commissions either from the king in the the more evident, when it is recollected that, anciently, it same manner as at present, as appears from 2 Sam. xviii. 1. was deemed an excessive hardship for a person to be obliged and 2 Chron. xxv.5.; or from the commander-in-chief (2 Sam. to go to battle (in which there was a probability of his being xviii. 11.): and it should seem that a captain's commission slain) who had left a new house unfinished, a newly pur- was denoted by giving a military girdle or sash. (2 Sam. chased heritage half tilled, or a wife with whom he had just xviii. 11.) contracted marriage. Homer represents the case of Protesi- The first and principal Head of the armies of Israel was laus as singularly afflicting, who was obliged to go to the the Almighty himself, who is so frequently termed in ScripTrojan war, leaving

his wife in the deepest distress, and his ture the Lord of Hosts. The whole nation marched forth house unfinished.

under the superintending guidance of their God. Subordinate 5. The last exemption was in favour of the fearful and to Him, and as his lieutenant-general, was the principal officer, faint hearted; an exemption of such a disgraceful nature, or leader of the whole army, who, in the Scriptures, is termed that one would think it never would have been claimed. the CAPTAIN OF THE LORD's Host, and who appears to have Such, however, was the case in Gideon's expedition against been of the same rank with him who is now called the comthe Midianites. Ten thousand only remained out of thirty- mander-in-chief of an army. Such were Joshua and the two thousand, of which number his army originally consisted; Judges under the primitive constitution of their government twenty-two thousand having complied with his proclamation, as settled by God himself: such was Abner under Saul (2 Sam. that whosoever was fearful and afraid might return and depart ii. 8.), Joab under David (2 Sam. xx. 23.), and Amasa under early from Mount Gilead. (Judg. vii. 3.)?.

Absalom, when he was raising a rebellion against his father. Before the regal government was established, the Israeli-|(2 Sam. xvii. 25.) The command and authority of this captain tish army was entirely disbanded at the conclusion of a war of the host appear to have been very great, sometimes indeed, The earliest instance recorded of any military force being nearly equal to that of the sovereign. David seems to have kept in time of peace, is in the reign of Saul, who retained been afraid of Joab his commander-in-chief; otherwise he two thousand for his body guard, and one thousand for his would never have suffered him to live after the sanguinary son Jonathan's guard. (1 Sam. xiii, 1, 2.). David had a dis- assassinations which he had perpetrated. It is evident that tinct guard, called Cherethites and Pelethites, concerning the the captain of the host enjoyed great influence in the time of origin of whose name various contradictory opinions have Elisha : for we read, that the prophet

having been hospitably been offered. Josephus, however, expressly says, that they entertained by an opulent woman at Shunem, and being dewere his guards, and the Chaldee paraphrast terms them sirous of making her some acknowledgment for her kindness, archers and slingers. Besides these he had twelve bodies of ordered his servant Gehazi to inquire what she would wish twenty-four thousand men each, who were on duty for one to have done for her. Wouldst thou be spoken for to the king, month, forming an aggregate of two hundred and eighty-eight or to the CAPTAIN OF The Host? (2 Kings iv. 13.) thousand men. (1 Chron. xxvii. 1—15.) Subsequently, when After the establishment of the monarchy, the kings went to the art of war was improved, a regular force seems to have war in person, and at first fought on foot, like the meanest of been kept up both in peace and war; for, exclusive of the their soldiers. Thus David fought, until the danger to which vast army which Jehoshaphat had in the field, we read that he exposed himself became so great, that his people would he had troops throughout all the fenced cities, which doubt- no longer allow him to lead them on to battle. (2 Sam. xxi. less were garrisoned in time of peace as well as during war. 17.). It does not appear that there were any horse in the Is

III. The OFFICERS who were placed at the head of the raelitish army before the time of Solomon. In the time of Hebrew forces appear not to have differed materially from David there were none; for the rebel Absalom was mounted those whom we find in ancient and modern armies.. on a mule in the battle in which he lost his life. (2 Sam.

The Division of the army into three bands or companies, xviii. 9.). Solomon, who had married the daughter of the mentioned in Gen. xiv. 14, 15. Job i. 17. Judg, vii. 16. 20. king of Egypt, procured horses from that country at a great 1 Sam. xi. 11. and 2 Sam. xviii. 2., was probably no other expense (1 Kings x. 28, 29.); and afterwards had four thouthan the division into the centre, left, and right wing, which sand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand horseobtains in the modern art of war. The Hebrews, when they men. (2 Chron. ix. 25.) From Zech. xiv. 20. it should seem, departed from Egypt, marched in military order, annys Sy that bells formed a part of the caparison of war-horses. Sub(AL TSEBOTAM) by their armies or hosts* (Exod. xii. 51.), and sequent kings of Judah and Israel went into the battle in D'erny (ve-CHAMUSHIM), which word in our English Bibles chariots, arrayed in their royal vestments, or sometimes in (Exod. xlii. 18.) is rendered harnessed, and in the margin, disguise. They generally had a spare chariot to attend them: by five in a rank. It is probable, from these expressions, thus we read that king Josiah, after he was mortally wounded, that they followed each other in ranks fifty deep, and that at was taken out of his war-chariot, and put into another, in the head of each rank or file of fifty was the captain of fifty. which he was carried to Jerusalem. (2 Chron. xxxv. 23, 24. (1 Sam. viii. 12. 2 Kings i. 9–14.) The other divisions 1 Kings xxii. 34.) Both kings and generals had armourconsisted of tens, hundreds, thousands, &c.; and the officers bearers, who were chosen from the bravest of the soldiery, that commanded them are styled captains of thousands, cap- and not only bore the arms of their masters, but were also tains of hundreds, captains of fifties, and captains of tens; employed to give his commands to the subordinate captains, of these mention is made in 1 Chron. xii. 14. 20. xjii. 1. and were present at his side in the hour of peril. (i Sam. xxviii. 1. and 2 Kings i. 9. 11. 13. These, probably, were of xiv. 6. xvii. 7.) the same rank with those whom Moses constituted in the Military chariots were much in use among the Egyptians, wilderness, rulers of thousands, &c. (Exod. xviii. 25.), and Canaanites, and other oriental nations. Two sorts are menwho at first acted in a double capacity, being at the same time tioned in the Scriptures; one in which princes and generals civil magistrates and military officers. The captains of thou- rode, the other to break the enemy's battalions by rushing in sands seem to have been much the same as colonels of regi- among them, armed with iron scythes, which caused terrible ments with us; and the captains of hundreds might probably havoc. The most ancient war-chariots, of which we read, answer to those who in our army have the command of troops are those of Pharaoh, which were destroyed in the Red Sea and companies; the captains of fifties and tens to our subal- (Exod. xiv. 7.): his infantry, cavalry, and war-chariots were terns, sergeants, and corporals. During the Mosaic com- so arranged as to form separate divisions of his army. (Exod. monwealth, in conformity to the law in Deut. xx. 9., all these xiv. 6, 7), The Canaanites, whom Joshua engaged at the

waters of Merom, had cavalry and a multitude of chariots. 1 Iliad, lib. ii. 700—702.

(Josh. xi. 4.). Sisera, the general of Jabin, king of Hazor 9 Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 34-37.

had nine hundred chariots of iron in his army. (Judg. iv. 3.) : On this subject the reader may consult the Dissertations of Ikenius, The tribe of Judah could not obtain possession of part of the Philologicæ, part ii. pp. 1144., and also Michaelis's

Commentaries on the lands allotted to them, because the inhabitants of the country ** It is from this circumstance " that the Divine Being calls himself the tines, in their war with Saul, had thirty thousand chariots,

were strong in chariots of iron. (Judg. i. 19.) The PhilisEgypt under his direction, marshalled and ordered by himself, guided by and six thousand horsemen. (1 Sam.

xii. 5.) David, having Inis wisdoín, supported by his providence, and protected by his mighi. taken a thousand war-chariots from Hadadezer, king of DaScripture the Lord of Hosis: for the Lord did bring the children of Israel mascus, ham-strung the horses, and burnt nine hundred chaout of Egypt by their armies." Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary, on Exod.

• They were also used among the ancient Britons.

xii. 51.

A shield-bearer was an office among the Jews as well as and those with which they annoyed the enemy at a distance. he Philistines, for David when he first went to court was of the former description were the sword and the battle-axe. made king Saul's armour-bearer (1 Sam. xvi. 21.), and Jona- 1. The Sword is the most ancient weapon of offence menthan had a young man who bore his armour before him. tioned in the Bible. With it Jacob's sons treacherously as(1 Sam. xiv. 1.) Besides this tsinnah, or great massy shield, sassinated the Shechemites. (Gen. xxxiv. 25.) It was worn Goliath was furnished with a less one (1 Sam. xvii. 6. and on the thigh (Psal. xlv. 3. Exod. xxxii. 27.), and it should 45.), which is not expressed by one of the fore-mentioned seem on the left thigh; though it is particularly mentioned words, but is called cidon, which we render a target in one that Ehud, a Benjamite, put a dagger or short sword under place and a shield in another, and was of a different nature his garments on his right thigh. (Judg. iii

. 16.) The palanfrom the common shields. He seems not only to have held quin, or travelling couch of Solomon (Song iii

. 7, 8. where it in his hand when he had occasion to use it, but could also our version terms it a bed), was surrounded by threescore at other times conveniently hang it about his neck and turn valiant Israelitish soldiers, every one of whom had his sword it behind, on which account it is added, that it was between girt upon his thigh. There appear to have been two kinds his shoulders. The loss of the shield in fight was excessively of swords in use, a larger one with one edge, which is called resented by the Jewish warriors, as well as lamented by in Hebrew the mouth of the sword (Josh. vi. 21.); and a them, for it was a signal ingredient of the public mourning, shorter one with two edges, like that of Ehud. The modern that the shield of the mighty was vilely cast away. (2 Sam. Arabs, it is well known, wear a sabre on one side, and a i. 21.) David, a man of arms, who composed the beautiful cangiar or dagger in their girdles. elegy on the death of Saul related in 2 Sam. i. 19—27., was 2. Of the BATTLE-AXE we have no description in the sensible how disgraceful a thing it was for soldiers to quit Sacred Volume: it seems to have been a most powerful their shields in the field, yet this was the deplorable case of weapon in the hands of cavalry, from the allusion made to the Jewish soldiers in that unhappy engagement with the it by Jeremiah :- Thou art my battle-axe and weapons of war; Philistines (1 Sam. xxxi. 7.), they fled away and left their for with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee shields behind them ; this vile and dishonourable casting will I destroy kingdoms : and with thee will I break in pieces away of that principal armour is deservedly the subject of the horse and his rider, and with thee will I break in pieces the the royal poet's lamentation.

chariot and his rider. (Jer. li. 20, 21.) But these honourable sentiments were not confined to the The other offensive weapons for annoying the enemy at a Jews. We find them prevailing among most other ancient distance, were the spear or javelin, the sling, and the bow nations, who considered it infamous to cast away or lose and arrow. their shield. With the Greeks it was a capital crime, and 3. The Spear or JAVELIN (as the words npo (Romach), and punished with death. The Lacedemonian women, it is well puan (CHANITH), are variously rendered in Num. xxv. 7. known, in order to excite the courage of their sons, used to 1 Sam. xiii. 10. and Jer. xlvi. 4.) was of different kinds, deliver to them their fathers' shields, with this short address : according to its length or make. Some of them might be “This shield thy father always preserved; do thou preserve thrown or darted (1 Sam. xviii. 11.); and it appears from it also, or perish.” Alluding to these sentiments, Saint Paul, 2 Sam. ii 23. that some of them were pointed at both ends. when exhorting the Hebrew Christians to steadfastness in When armies were encamped, the spear of the general or the faith of the Gospel, urges them not to cast away their commander-in-chief was stuck into the ground at his head.2 confidence, their confession of faith, which hath great recom- 4. Slings are enumerated among the military stores colpense of reward, no less than the approbation of God, the lected by Uzziah. (2 Chron. xxvi. 14.) In the use of the peace which passeth all understanding here, and the glories sling, David eminently excelled, and 'slew Goliath with a of heaven, as their eternal portion. (Heb. x. 35.)

stone from one. The Benjamites were celebrated in battle It may be further observed, that they used to scour and because they had attained to a great skill and accuracy in polish their arms, as may be inferred from the prophet's ex- handling this weapon; they could sling stones to a häir's pressions of furbishing the spears and making bright the ar- breadth, and not miss (Judg. xx. 16.); and where it is said rows (Jer. xlvi. 4. and li. 11.), and it should seem that such that they were left-handed, it should rather be rendered amshields as were covered with leather were oiled in order to bidexters, for we are told, they could use both the right-hand keep them clean, and prevent them from becoming too dry. and the left (1 Chron. xii. 2.); that is, they did not con

To this custom there is an allusion in 2 Sam. i. 21. and Isa. stantly use their right hand as others did, when they shot xxi. 5. When the shields were not in use, they were co-arrows or slung stones, but they were so expert in their milivered with a case, in order to preserve them from being rusty tary exercises, that they could perform them with their left and soiled; hence we read of uncovering the shield, which hand as well as with their right. signifies preparing for war, and having that weapon espe- 5. Bows and Arrows are of great antiquity: indeed, no weacially in readiness. (Isa. xxii. 6.),

pon is mentioned so early. Thus Isaac said to Esau, Take 4. Another defensive provision in war was the MILITARY thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow (Gen. xxvii. 3.); though GIRDLE, or Belt, which answered a twofold purpose, viz. it is true, these are not spoken of as used in war, but in first, in order to wear the sword, which hung at the soldier's hunting, and so they are supposed and implied before this; girdle or belt (1 Sam. xvii. 39); secondly, it was necessary where it is said of Ishmael, that he became an archer, and to gird their clothes and armour together, and thus David used bows and arrows in shooting of wild beasts. (Gen. xxi. girded his sword upon his armour. To gird and to arm are 20.) This afterwards became so useful a weapon, that care synonymous words in Scripture; for those who are said to was taken to train up the Hebrew youth to it betimes. When be able to put on armour are, according to the Hebrew and David had in a solemn manner lamented the death of king the Septuagint, girt with a girdle, and hence comes the ex- Saul, he gave orders for teaching the young men the use of pression of girding to the battle. (1 Kings xx. 11. Isa. viii. 9. the bow (2 Sam. i. 18.), that they might be as expert as the 2 Sam. xxii. 40.) The military girdle was the chief orna- Philistines, by whose 'bows and arrows Saul and his army ment of a soldier, and was highly prized among all ancient were slain. These were part of the military ammunition nations : it was also a rich present from one chieftain to (for in those times bows were used instead of guns, and aranother. Thus, Jonathan gave his girdle to David, as the rows supplied the place of powder and ball); From Job xx. highest pledge of his esteem and perpetual friendship. 24. and from Psal. xviii. 34. it may be collected, that the (1 Sam. xviii. 4.)

military bow was made of steel, and, consequently, was 5. Boots or GREAVES were part of the ancient defensive very stiff and hard to bend, on which account they used their harness, because it was the custom to cast certain qutodie, foot in bending their bows; and therefore when the prophets impediments (so called because they entangle their feet, speak of treading the bow, and of bows trodden, they are to be afterwards known by the name of gall-traps, which since, in understood of bows bent, as our translators rightly render it heraldry, are corruptly called call-trops), in the way before (Jer. 1. 14. Isa. v. 28. xxi. 15.); where the Hebrew word the enemy: the military boot or shoe was, therefore, neces- which is used in these places signifies to tread upon. This sary to guard the legs and feet from the iron stakes placed weapon was thought so necessary in war, that it is called in the way to gall and wound them; and thus we are ena- the bow of war, or the battle-bow. (Zech. ix. 10. X. 4.) bled to account for Goliath's greaves of brass which were VIII. Many of the cities of Palestine, being erected on upon his legs.

eminences, were fortified by nature; but most frequently they VII. The OFFENSIVE ARMS were of two sorts, viz. such were surrounded with a lofty wall, either single or double as were employed when they came to a close engagement; (Deut. xxviii. 52. 2 Chron. xxxiii. 14. Isa. xxii. 11.); 01

which were erected towers or bulwarks. (2 Chron. xiv. 7 1 In like manner, Ajax gave his girdle to Hector, as a token of the high. est respect. (Iliad, vii. 305.) Dr A. Clarke, on 2 Sam. xviii. 11.

. See p. 87. supra, for examples of this custom.

bride was conducted to his house, and the nuptials were officers were appointed by the Snoterim, genealogists or officonsummated.

cers (as they are termed in our version), who probably chose 4. Every newly married man, dạring the first year after the heads of families ; but after the monarchy took place, his marriage. The humanity of these exemptions will be they received their commissions either from the king in the the more evident, when it is recollected that, anciently, it same manner as at present, as appears from 2 Sam. xviii.

1. was deemed an excessive hardship for a person to be obliged and 2 Chron. xxv.5.; or from the commander-in-chief (2 Sam. to go to battle (in which there was a probability of his being xviii. 11.): and it should seem that a captain's commission slain) who had left a new house unfinished, a newly pur- was denoted by giving a military girdle or sash. (2 Sam. chased heritage half tilled, or a wife with whom he had just xviii. 11.) contracted marriage. Homer represents the case of Protesi- The first and principal Head of the armies of Israel was laus as singularly afflicting, who was obliged to go to the the Almighty himself, who is so frequently termed in ScripTrojan war, leaving his wife in the deepest distress, and his ture the Lord of Hosts. The whole nation marched forth house unfinished.

under the superintending guidance of their God. Subordinate 5. The last exemption was in favour of the fearful and to Him, and as his lieutenant-general, was the principal officer, faint hearted; an exemption of such a disgraceful nature, or leader of the whole army, who, in the Scriptures, is termed that one would think it never would have been claimed the CAPTAIN OF THE LORD's Host, and who appears to have Such, however, was the case in Gideon's expedition against been of the same rank with him who is now called the comthe Midianites. Ten thousand only remained out of thirty- mander-in-chief of an army. Such were Joshua and the two thousand, of which number his army originally consisted ; Judges under the primitive constitution of their government twenty-two thousand having complied with his proclamation, as settled by God himself: such was Abner under Saul (2 Sam. that whosoever was fearful and afraid might return and depart ii. 8.), Joab under David (2 Sam. xx. 23.), and Amasa under early from Mount Gilead. (Judg. vii. 3.32

Absalom, when he was raising a rebellion against his father. Before the regal government was established, the Israeli- (2 Sam. xvii. 25.) The command and authority of this captain tish army was entirely disbanded at the conclusion of a war of the host appear to have been very great, sometimes indeed, The earliest instance recorded of any military force being nearly equal to that of the sovereign. David seems to have kept in time of peace, is in the reign of Saul, who retained been afraid of Joab his commander-in-chief; otherwise he two thousand for his body guard, and one thousand for his would never have suffered him to live after the sanguinary son Jonathan's guard. (1 Sam. xiii, 1, 2.). David had a dis- assassinations which he had perpetrated. It is evident that tinct guard, called Cherethites and Pelethites, concerning the the captain of the host enjoyed great influence in the time of origin of whose name various contradictory opinions have Elisha : for we read, that the prophet having been hospitably been offered. Josephus, however, expressly says, that they entertained by an opulent woman at Shunem, and being dewere his guards, and the Chaldee paraphrast terms them sirous of making her some acknowledgment for her kindness, archers and slingers. Besides these he had twelve bodies of ordered his servant Gehazi to inquire what she would wish twenty-four thousand men each, who were on duty for one to have done for her. Wouldst thou be spoken for to the king, month, forming an aggregate of two hundred and eighty-eight or to the CAPTAIN OF THE Host? (2 Kings iv. 13.) thousand men.” (1 Chron. xxvii. 1–15.) Subsequently, when After the establishment of the monarchy, the kings went to the art of war was improved, a regular force seems to have war in person, and at first fought on foot, like the meanest of been kept up both in peace and war; for, exclusive of the their soldiers. Thus David fought, until the danger to which vast army which Jehoshaphat had in the field, we read that he exposed himself became so great, that his people would he had troops throughout all the fenced cities, which doubt- no longer allow him to lead them on to battle. (2 Sam. xxi. less were garrisoned in time of peace as well as during war. 17.). It does not appear that there were any horse in the Is

III. The Officers who were placed at the head of the raelitish army before the time of Solomon. In the time of Hebrew forces appear not to have differed materially from David there were none; for the rebel Absalom was mounted those whom we find in ancient and modern armies.. on a mule in the battle in which he lost his life. (2 Sam.

The Division of the army into three bands or companies, xviii. 9.) Solomon, who had married the daughter of the mentioned in Gen. xiv. 14, 15. Job i. 17. Judg, vii. 16. 20., king of Egypt, procured horses from that country at a great 1 Sam. xi. 11. and 2 Sam. xviii. 2., was probably no other expense (1 Kings x. 28, 29.); and afterwards had four thouthan the division into the centre, left, and right wing, which sand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand horseobtains in the modern art of war. The Hebrews, when they men. (2 Chron. ix. 25.) From Zech. xiv. 20. it should seem, departed from Egypt, marched in military order, anns Sy that bells formed a part of the caparison of war-horses. Sub(AL TSEBOTQM) by their armies or hosts (Exod. xii. 51.), and sequent kings of Judah and Israel went into the battle in DCP-, (ve-CHAMUSHIM), which word in our English Bibles chariots, arrayed in their royal vestments, or sometimes in (Exod. xiii. 18.) is rendered harnessed, and in the margin, disguise. They generally had a spare chariot to attend them: by five in a rank. It is probable, from these expressions, thus we read that king Josiah, after he was mortally wounded, that they followed each other in ranks fifty deep, and that at was taken out of his war-chariot, and put into another, in the head of each rank or file of fifty was the captain of fifty. which he was carried to Jerusalem. (2 Chron. xxxv. 23, 24. (1 Sam. viii. 12. 2 Kings i. 9—14.) The other divisions 1 Kings xxii. 34.) Both kings and generals had armourconsisted of tens, hundreds, thousands, &c.; and the officers bearers, who were chosen from the bravest of the soldiery, that commanded them are styled captains of thousands, cap- and not only bore the arms of their masters, but were also tains of hundreds, captains of fifties, and captains of tens; employed to give lis commands to the subordinate captains, of these mention is made in 1 Chron. xii. 14. 20. xjii. 1. and were present at his side in the hour of peril. (i Sam. xxviii. 1. and 2 Kings i. 9. 11. 13. These, probably, were of xiv. 6. xvii. 7.) the same rank with those whom Moses constituted in the Military chariots were much in use among the Egyptians, wilderness, rulers of thousands, &c. (Exod. xviii. 25.), and Canaanites, and other oriental nations. Two sorts are menwho at first acted in a double capacity, being at the same time tioned in the Scriptures; one in which princes and generals civil magistrates and military officers. The captains of thou- rode, the other to break the enemy's battalions by rushing in sands seem to have been much the same as colonels of regi- among them, armed with iron scythes, which caused terrible ments with us; and the captains of hundreds might probably havoc. The most ancient war-chariots, of which we read, answer to those who in our army have the command of troops are those of Pharaoh, which were destroyed in the Red Sea and companies; the captains of fifties and tens to our subal- |(Exod. xiv. 7.): his infantry, cavalry, and war-chariots were terns, sergeants, and corporals. During the Mosaic com- so arranged as to form separate divisions of his army. (Exod. monwealth, in conformity to the law in Deut. xx. 9., all these xiv. 6, 7), The Canaanites, whom Joshua engaged at the

waters of Merom, had cavalry and a multitude of chariots. 1 Iliad, lib. ii. 700—702.

(Josh. xi. 4.), Sisera, the general of Jabin, king of Hazor 2 Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 34–37.

had nine hundred chariots of iron in his army. (Judg. iv. 3.) : On this subject the reader may consult the Dissertations of Ikenius, The tribe of Judah could not obtain possession of part of the Philologicæ, part ii. pp. 11–44., and also Michaelis's

Commentaries on the lands allotted to them, because the inhabitants of the country ** It is from this circumstance " that the Divine Being calls himself the tines, in their war with Saul, had thirty thousand chariots,

were strong in chariots of iron. (Judg. i. 19.) The PhilisEgypt under his direction, marshalled and ordered by himself, guided by and six thousand horsemen. (1 Sam. xiii. 5.) David, having his wisdom, supported by his providence, and protected by his might taken a thousand war-chariots from Hadadezer, king of DaScripture the Lord of Hosis: for the LORD did bring the children of Israel mascus, ham-strung the horses, and burnt nine hundred chaout of Egypt by their armies.Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary, on Exod.

• They were also used among the ancient Britons.

xii. 51.

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A shield-bearer was an office among the Jews as well as and those with which they annoyed the enemy at a distance. he Philistines, for David when he first went to court was of the former description were the sword and the battle-axe. made king Saul's armour-bearer (1 Sam. xvi. 21.), and Jona- 1. The Sword is the most ancient weapon of offence menthan had a young man who bore his armour before him. tioned in the Bible. With it Jacob's sons treacherously as(1 Sam. xiv. 1.) Besides this tsinnah, or great massy shield, sassinated the Shechemites. (Gen. xxxiv. 25.) It was worn Goliath was furnished with a less one (1 Sam. xvii. 6. and on the thigh (Psal. xlv. 3. Exod. xxxii. 27.), and it should 45.), which is not expressed by one of the fore-mentioned seem on the left thigh; though it is particularly mentioned words, but is called cidon, which we render a target in one that Ehud, a Benjamite, put å dagger or short sword under place and a shield in another, and was of a different nature his garments on his right thigh. (Judg. iii. 16.) The palanfrom the common shields. He seems not only to have held quin, or travelling couch of Solomon (Song iii. 7, 8. where it in his hand when he had occasion to use it, but could also our version terms it a bed), was surrounded by threescore at other times conveniently hang it about his neck and turn valiant Israelitish soldiers, every one of whom had his sword it behind, on which account it is added, that it was between girt upon his thigh. There appear to have been two kinds his shoulders. The loss of the shield in fight was excessively of swords in use, a larger one with one edge, which is called resented by the Jewish warriors, as well as lamented by in Hebrew the mouth of the sword (Josh. vi. 21.); and a them, for it was a signal ingredient of the public mourning, shorter one with two edges, like that of Ehud. The modern that the shield of the mighty was vilely cast away. (2 Sam. Arabs, it is well known, wear a sabre on one side, and a i. 21.) David, a man of arms, who composed the beautiful cangiar or dagger in their girdles. elegy on the death of Saul related in 2 Sam. i. 19—27., was 2. Of the BATTLE-AXE we have no description in the sensible how disgraceful a thing it was for soldiers to quit Sacred Volume: it seems to have been a most powerful their shields in the field, yet this was the deplorable case of weapon in the hands of cavalry, from the allusion made to the Jewish soldiers in that unhappy engagement with the it by Jeremiah :>Thou art my battle-axe and weapons of war; Philistines (1 Sam. xxxi. 7.), they fled away and left their for with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee shields behind them; this vile and dishonourable casting will I destroy kingdoms : and with thee will I break in pieces away of that principal armour is deservedly the subject of the horse and his rider, and with thee will I break in pieces the the royal poet's lamentation.

chariot and his rider. (Jer. li. 20, 21.) But these honourable sentiments were not confined to the The other offensive weapons for annoying the enemy at a Jews. We find them prevailing among most other ancient distance, were the spear or javelin, the sling, and the bow nations, who considered it infamous to cast away or lose and arrow. their shield. With the Greeks it was a capital crime, and 3. The Spear or JAVELIN (as the words non (Romach), and punished with death. The Lacedemonian women, it is well P (CHANITH), are yariously rendered in Num. xxv. 7. known, in order to excite the courage of their sons, used to i Sam. xiii. 19. and Jer. xlvi. 4.) was of different kinds, deliver to them their fathers' shields,

with this short address : according to its length or make. Some of them might be “ This shield thy father always preserved ; do thou preserve thrown or darted (1 Sam. xviii. 11.); and it appears from it also, or perish.” Alluding to these sentiments, Saint Paul, 2 Sam. ii 23. that some of them were pointed at both ends. when exhorting the Hebrew Christians to steadfastness in When armies were encamped, the spear of the general or the faith of the Gospel, urges them not to cast away their commander-in-chief was stuck into the ground at his head, confidence, their confession of faith, which hath great recom- 4. Slings are enumerated among the military stores colpense of reward, no less than the approbation of God, the lected by Uzziah. (2 Chron. xxvi. 14.) In the use of the peace which passeth all understanding here, and the glories sling, David eminently excelled, and 'slew Goliath with a of heaven, as their eternal portion. (Heb. x. 35.)

stone from one. The Benjamites were celebrated in battle It may be further observed, that they used to scour and because they had attained to a great skill and accuracy in polish their arms, as may be inferred from the prophet's ex- handling this weapon; they could sling stones to a hair's pressions of furbishing the spears and making bright the ar- breadth, and not miss (Judg. xx. 16.); and where it is said rows (Jer. xlvi. 4. and li. 11.), and it should seem that such that they were left-handed, it should rather be rendered amshields as were covered with leather were oiled in order to bidexters, for we are told, they could use both the right-hand keep them clean, and prevent them from becoming too dry. and the left (1 Chron. xii. 2.); that is, they did not conTo this custom there is an allusion in 2 Sam. i. 21. and Isa. stantly use their right hand as others did, when they shot xxi. 5. When the shields were not in use, they were co-arrows or slung stones, but they were so expert in their milivered with a case, in order to preserve them from being rusty tary exercises, that they could perform them with their left and soiled; hence we read of uncovering the shield, which hand as well as with their right. signifies preparing for war, and having that weapon espe- 5. Bows and Arrows are of great antiquity: indeed, no weacially in readiness. (Isa. xxii. 6.)

pon is mentioned so early. Thus Isaac said to Esau, Tuke 4. Another defensive provision in war was the MilITARY thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow (Gen. xxvii. 3.); though GIRDLE, or Belt, which answered a twofold purpose, viz. it is true, these are not spoken of as used in war, but in first, in order to wear the sword, which hung at the soldier's hunting, and so they are supposed and implied before this; girdle or belt (1 Sam. xvii. 39); secondly, it was necessary where it is said of Ishmael, that he became an archer, and to gird their clothes and armour together, and thus David used bows and arrows in shooting of wild beasts. (Gen. xxi. girded his sword upon his armour. To gird and to arm are 20.) This afterwards became so useful a weapon, that care synonymous words in Scripture; for those who are said to was taken to train up the Hebrew youth to it betimes. When be able to put on armour are, according to the Hebrew and David had in a solemn manner lamented the death of king the Septuagint, girt with a girdle, and hence comes the ex- Saul, he gave orders for teaching the young men the use of pression of girding to the battle. (1 Kings xx. 11. Isa. viii. 9. the bow (2 Sam. i. 18.), that they might be as expert as the 2 Sam. xxii. 40.) The military girdle was the chief orna- Philistines, by whose bows and arrows Saul and his army ment of a soldier, and was highly prized among all ancient were slain. These were part of the military ammunition nations: it was also a rich present from one chieftain to (for in those times bows were used instead of guns, and aranother. Thus, Jonathan gave his girdle to David, as the rows supplied the place of powder and ball); From Job xx. highest pledge of his esteem and perpetual friendship. 24. and from Psal. xviii. 34. it may be collected, that the (1 Sam. xviii. 4.)'

military bow was made of steel and, consequently, was 5. Boots or Greaves were part of the ancient defensive very stiff and hard to bend, on which account they used their harness, because it was the custom to cast certain suresise, foot in bending their bows; and therefore when the prophets impediments (so called because they entangle their feet, speak of treading the bow, and of bows trodden, they are to be afterwards known by the name of gall-traps, which since, in understood of bows bent, as our translators rightly render it heraldry, are corruptly called call-trops), in the way before (Jer. 1. 14. Isa. v. 28. xxi. 15.); where the Hebrew word the enemy: the military boot or shoe was, therefore, neces- which is used in these places signifies to tread upon. This sary to guard the legs and feet from the iron stakes placed weapon was thought so necessary in war, that it is called in the way to gall and wound them; and thus we are ena- the bow of war, or the battle-bow. (Zech. ix. 10. x. 4.) bled to account for Goliath's greaves of brass which were VIII. Many of the cities of Palestine, being erected on upon his legs.

eminences, were fortified by nature; but most frequently they VII. The OFFENSIVE ARMS were of two sorts, viz. such were surrounded with a lofty wall, either single or double as were employed when they came to a close engagement; (Deut. xxviii. 52. 2 Chron. xxxiii. 14. Isa. xxii. 11.); 05

which were erected towers or bulwarks. (2 Chron. xiv. 7 In like manner, Ajax gave his girdle to Hector, as a token of the highest respect. (lliad, vii. 305.) Dr A. Clarke, on 2 Sam. xviii. II.

. See p. 87. supra, for examples of this custom.

bride was conducted to his house, and the nuptials were officers were appointed by the Snoterim, genealogists or officonsummated.

cers (as they are termed in our version), who probably chose 4. Every newly married man, during the first year after the heads of families, but after the monarchy took place, his marriage. The humanity of these exemptions will be they received their commissions either from the king in the the more evident, when it is recollected that, anciently, it same manner as at present, as appears from 2 Sam. xviii. 1. was deemed an excessive hardship for a person to be obliged and 2 Chron. xxv. 5.; or from the commander-in-chief (2 Sam. to go to battle (in which there was a probability of his being xviii. 11.): and it should seem that a captain's commission slain) who had left a new house unfinished, a newly pur- was denoted by giving a military girdle or sash. (2 Sam. chased heritage half tilled, or a wife with whom he had just xviii. 11.) contracted marriage. Homer represents the case of Protesi- The first and principal Head of the armies of Israel was laus as singularly afflicting, who was obliged to go to the the Almighty himself, who

is so frequently termed in ScripTrojan war, leaving

his wife in the deepest distress, and his ture the Lord of Hosts. The whole nation marched forth house unfinished.

under the superintending guidance of their God. Subordinate 5. The last exemption was in favour of the fearful and to Him, and as his lieutenant-general, was the principal officer, faint hearted; an exemption of such a disgraceful nature, or leader of the whole army, who, in the Scriptures, is termed that one would think it never would have been claimed the CAPTAIN OF The Lord's Host, and who appears to have Such, however, was the case in Gideon's expedition against been of the same rank with him who is now called the comthe Midianites. Ten thousand only remained out of thirty- mander-in-chief of an army. Such were Joshua and the two thousand, of which number his army originally consisted; Judges under the primitive constitution of their government twenty-two thousand having complied with his proclamation, as settled by God himself: such was Abner under Saul (2 Sam. that whosoever was fearful and afraid might return and depart ii. 8.), Joab under David (2 Sam. xx. 23.), and Amasa under early from Mount Gilead. (Judg. vii. 3.32

Absalom, when he was raising a rebellion against his father. Before the regal government was established, the Israeli- (2 Sam. xvii. 25.) The command and authority of this captain tish army was entirely disbanded at the conclusion of a war. of the host appear to have been very great, sometimes indeed, The earliest instance recorded of any military force being nearly equal to that of the sovereign. David seems to have kept in time of peace, is in the reign of Saul, who retained been afraid of Joab his commander-in-chief; otherwise he two thousand for his body guard, and one thousand for his would never have suffered him to live after the sanguinary son Jonathan's guard. (1 Sam. xiii, 1, 2.). David had a dis- assassinations which he had perpetrated. It is evident that tinct guard, called Cherethites and Pelethites, concerning the the captain of the host enjoyed great influence in the time of origin of whose name various contradictory opinions have Elisha : for we read, that the prophet

having been hospitably been offered. Josephus, however, expressly says, that they entertained by an opulent woman at Shunem, and being dewere his guards, and the Chaldee paraphrast terms them sirous of making her some acknowledgment for her kindness, archers and slingers, 3 esides these he had twelve bodies of ordered his servant Gehazi to inquire what she would wish twenty-four thousand men each, who were on duty for one to have done for her. Wouldst thou be spoken for to the king, month, forming an aggregate of two hundred and eighty-eight or to the Captain of the Host? (2 Kings iv. 13.) thousand men.” (1 Chron.

xxvii, 1–15.) Subsequently, when After the establishment of the monarchy, the kings went to the art of war was improved, a regular force seems to have war in person, and at first fought on foot, like the meanest of been kept up both in peace and war; for, exclusive of the their soldiers. Thus David fought, until the danger to which vast army which Jehoshaphat had in the field, we read that he exposed himself became so great, that his people would he had troops throughout all the fenced cities, which doubt- no longer allow him to lead them on to battle. (2 Sam. xxi. less were garrisoned in time of peace as well as during war. 17.). It does not appear that there were any horse in the Is

III. The OFFICERS who were placed at the head of the raelitish army before the time of Solomon. In the time of Hebrew forces appear not to have differed materially from David there were none; for the rebel Absalom was mounted those whom we find in ancient and modern armies.. on a mule in the battle in which he lost his life. (2 Sam.

The Division of the army into three bands or companies, xviii. 9.). Solomon, who had married the daughter of the mentioned in Gen. xiv. 14, 15. Job i. 17. Judg, vii. 16. 20. king of Egypt, procured horses from that country at a great 1 Sam. xi. 11. and 2 Sam. xviii. 2., was probably no other expense (1 Kings x. 28, 29.); and afterwards had four thouthan the division into the centre, left, and right wing, which sand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand horseobtains in the modern art of war. The Hebrews, when they men. (2 Chron. ix. 25.) From Zech. xiv. 20. it should seem, departed from Egypt, marched in military order, anns Sy that bells formed a part of the caparison of war-horses. Sub(AL TSEBOTAM) by their armies or hosts* (Exod. xii. 51.), and sequent kings of Judah and Israel went into the battle in Olom(ve-CHUMUSHIM), which word in our English Bibles chariots, arrayed in their royal vestments, or sometimes in (Exod. xlii. 18.) is rendered harnessed, and in the margin, disguise. They generally had a spare chariot to attend them : by five in a rank. It is probable, from these expressions, thus we read that king Josiah, after he was mortally wounded, that they followed each other in ranks fifty deep, and that at was taken out of his war-chariot, and put into another, in the head of each rank or file of fifty was the captain of fifty. which he was carried to Jerusalem. (2 Chron. xxxv. 23, 24. (1 Sam. viii. 12. 2 Kings i. 9–14.) The other divisions 1 Kings xxii. 34.) Both kings and generals had armourconsisted of tens, hundreds, thousands, &c.; and the officers bearers, who were chosen from the bravest of the soldiery, that commanded them are styled captains of thousands, cap- and not only bore the arms of their masters, but were also tains of hundreds, captains of fifties, and captains of tens; employed to give his commands to the subordinate captains, of these mention is made in 1 Chron. xii. 14. 20. xiii. 1. and were present at his side in the hour of peril. (i Sam. xxviii. 1. and 2 Kings i. 9. 11. 13. These, probably, were of xiv. 6. xvii. 7.) the same rank with those whom Moses constituted in the Military chariots were much in use among the Egyptians, wilderness, rulers of thousands, &c. (Exod. xviii. 25.), and Canaanites, and other oriental nations. Two sorts are menwho at first acted in a double capacity, being at the same time tioned in the Scriptures; one in which princes and generals civil magistrates and military officers. The captains of thou- rode, the other to break the enemy's battalions by rushing in sands seem to have been much the same as colonels of regi- among them, armed with iron scythes, which caused terrible ments with us; and the captains of hundreds might probably havoc. The most ancient war-chariots, of which we read, answer to those who in our army have the command of troops are those of Pharaoh, which were destroyed in the Red Sea and companies; the captains of fifties and tens to our subal-|(Exod. xiv. 7.): his infantry, cavalry, and war-chariots were terns, sergeants, and corporals. During the Mosaic com- so arranged as to form separate divisions of his army. (Exod. monwealth, in conformity to the law in Deut. xx. 9., all these xiv. 6, 7) The Canaanites, whom Joshua engaged at the

waters of Merom, had cavalry and a multitude of chariots. 1 Iliad, lib. i. 700—702.

(Josh. xi. 4.). Sisera, the general of Jabin, king of Hazor 2 Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 34—37.

had nine hundred chariots of iron in his army. (Judg. iv. 3.) 3 On this subject the reader may consult the Dissertations of Ikenius, The tribe of Judah could not obtain possession of part of the Philologicæ, part ii, pp. 11–44., and also Michaelis's

Commentaries on the lands allotted to them, because the inhabitants of the country * It is from this circumstance "that the Divine Being calls himself the tines, in their war with Saul, had thirty thousand chariots,

were strong in chariots of iron. (Judg. i. 19.) The PhilisEgypt under his direction, marshalled and ordered by himself, guided by and six thousand horsemen. (1 Sam.

xiii. 5.) David, having his wisdom, supported by his providence, and protected by his might taken a thousand war-chariots from Hadadezer, king of DaScripture the Lord of Hosts: for the LORD did bring the children of Israel mascus, ham-strung the horses, and burnt nine hundred chaout of Egypt by their armies." Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary, on Exod.

• They were also used among the ancient Britons.

xi

51.

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