himself of his own accord. When an oath was exacted, 2 Kings ii. 2. Judg. vi. 13. 15. 1 Kings iii. 17. 26.; a pracwhether by a judge or another, the person who exacted it tice which obtains in Syria to this day. In some instances, put the oath in form; and the person to whom it was put, persons adjured others by the beasts of the field (Sol. Song responded by saying, Amen, Amen, so let it be: or gave his li. 7.), a sort of adjuration which still makes its appearance response in other expressions of like import, such as ou utus, in the writings of the Arabian poets.? Thou hast said it. (Num. v. 19–22. 1 Kings xxii. 16. In the time of Christ, the Jews were in the habit of swearDeut. xxvii. 15—26.) Sometimes the exacter of the oath ing by the altar, by Jerusalem, by heaven, by the earth, by merely used the following adjuration, viz. I adjure you by themselves, by their heads, by the gold of the temple, by sacrithe living God to answer, whether this thing be so or not. And fices, &c. Because the name of God was not mentioned in the person sworn accordingly made answer to the point in these oaths, they considered them as imposing but small, if quired of. (Num. v. 22. Matt. xxvi. 64.) It should be re- any obligation ;; and we, accordingly, find, that our Saviour marked here, that although the formulary of assent on the takes occasion to inveigh, in decided terms, against such arts part of the respondent to an oath was frequently Amen, AMEN, of deception. (Matt. v. 33–37. xxiii

. 16–22.) It is against yet this formulary did not always imply an oath, but, in oaths of this kind, and these alone (not against an oath uttered some instances, was merely a protestation. As the oath was in sincerity), that he expresses his displeasure, and prohibits an appeal to God (Lev. xix. 12. Deut. vi. 13.), the taking them. This is clear, since he himself consented to take upon of a false oath was deemed a heinous crime; and perjury, ac- him the solemnity of an oath (Matt. xxvi. 64.); and since cordingly, was forbidden in those words, Thou shalt not take Panl himself, in more than one instance, utters an adjuration: the name of the Lord thy God in vain, that is, shalt not call Compare Rom. ix. 1. 2 Cor. i. 23. God to witness in pretended confirmation of a falsehood. In the primitive periods of their history,

the Hebrews re(Exod. xx. 6.)

ligiously observed an oath (Josh. ix. 14, 15.); but we find, It was also common to swear by those whose life and pros- that, in later times, they were often accused by the prophets perity were dear to the party making oath. Thus, Joseph of perjury. After the captivity, the Jews became again celeswore by the life of the king (Gen. xlii. 15.); and this prac- brated for the scrupulous observance of what they had sworn tice prevailed 'subsequently among the Hebrews. (1 Sam. to, but corruption soon increased among them : they revived xxv. 26. 2 Sam. xi. 11. xiv. 19. comp. Psal. Ixiii. ìl.) A the old forms, the words without the meaning; and acquired person sometimes swore by himself, and sometimes by the among all nations the reputation of perjurers. life of the person before whom he spoke, as in 1 Sam. 1. 26.



I. Of Strangers.-II. Of the Aged, Blind, and Deaf.III. Of the Poor. All wise legislators have deemed it an important branch | the Hebrews, appear to have been placed in favourable cirof political economy, to direct their attention towards aliens cumstances. At a later period, viz. in the reigns of David and to the poor: and the humanity and wisdom of the Mo- and Solomon, they were compelled to labour on the religious saic regulations in this respect will be found not unworthy edifices, which were erected by those princes; as we may of a divinely inspired legislator.

learn from such passages as these : ŞAnd Solomon numbered I. STRANGERS are frequently mentioned in the laws of Mo- all the strangers that were in the land of Israel, after the numses, who specifies two different descriptions of them, viz. 1. bering wherewith David his father had numbered them; and guavin (TOSCHABIM), or those who had no home, whether they were found a hundred and fifty thousand and three thouthey were Israelites or foreigners; and 2. D'W (Gerim), or sand and six hundred; and he set threescore and ten thousand those who were strangers generally, and who possessed no of them to be bearers of burdens, and fourscore thousand to be landed property, though they might have purchased houses. hewers in the mountain. (2 Chron. ii. 1. 17, 18. compared Towards both of these classes the Hebrew legislator en- with 1 Chron. xxii. 2.) The exaction of such laborious forced the duties of kindness and humanity, by reminding the services from foreigners' was probably limited to those who Israelites that they had once been strangers in Egypt. (Lev. had been taken prisoners in war; and who, according to xix. 33, 34. Deut. x. 19. xxiii. 7. xxiv. 18.). Hence he or the rights of war as they were understood at that period, dained the same rights and privileges for the Israelites, as for could be justly employed in any offices, however low strangers. (Lev. xxiv. 19–22. Num. ix. 14. xv. 5.) Stran- and however laborious, which the conqueror thought proper gers might be naturalized, or permitted to enter into the con- to impose. In the time of Christ, the degenerate Jews gregation of the LORD, by submitting to circumcision, and re- did not find it convenient to render to the strangers from a nouncing idolatry. (Deut. xxiii. 1—9.) The Edomites and foreign country those deeds of kindness and humanity, which Egyptians were capable of becoming citizens of Israel after were not only their due, but which were demanded in their the third generation. Doeg the Edomite (1 Sam. xxi. 8. behalf by the laws of Moses. They were in the habit of Psal. lii.) was thus naturalized ; and, on the conquest of Idu- understanding by the word neighbour, their friends merely, mæa by the Jews, about 129 years before the birth of Christ, and accordingly restricted the exercise of their benevolence the Jews and Idumeans became one people. It appears, by the same narrow limits that bounded in this case their also, that other nations were not entirely excluded from being interpretation; contrary as both were to the spirit of those incorporated with the people of Israel : for Uriah the Hittite, passages, which have been adduced in the preceding parawho was of Canaanitish descent, is represented as being a fully graph." naturalized Israelite. But the “ Ammonites and Moabites, I). In a monarchy or aristocracy, birth and office alone in consequence of the hostile disposition which they had ma- give rank, but in a democracy, where all are on an equal nifested to the Israelites in the wilderness, were absolutely footing, the right discharge of official duties, or the arrival excluded from the right of citizenship.”'5

of OLD AGE, are the only sources of rank. Hence the Mosaic “ In the earlier periods of the Hebrew state, persons who statute in Lev. xix. 32. (before the hoary head thou shalt stand were natives of another country, but who had come, either up, and shalt reverence the aged), will be found suited to the from choice or necessity, to take up their residence among republican circumstances of the Israelites, as well as con

formable to the nature and wishes of the human heart : for in Syria, p. 40.), but the most common catho jni that country is, -" On my old age cannot be a matter

that will ever affect a young man 1. "By your life" is still a common oath in Syria (Burckhardt's Travels no man has any desire to sink in honour, or to be of less

consequence than he was before; and to allow precedence to Consult the Koran, Sura lxxxv. 1-3. lxxxvi. 1. 11–13. lxxxix. 1-4. very sensibly. Nor does Moses confine his attention to the xci. 1-8, &c. • Martialis Epigrammat. XI. 95.

aged. He extends the protection of a special statute to the • Alber, Hermeneut. Vet. Test: pp: 210, 211. Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, DEAF and the blind, in Lev. xix. 14., which prohibits re translated by Mr. Upham, pp. 494, 495. • Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. ii. pp. 233—239.

6 Jahn's Archäologia Biblica, by Upham, p. 197.

viling the one or putting a stumbling-block in the way of the were consumed on the altar : the remainder, after deducting other. In Deut. xxvii. 18. a curse is denounced against him the priest's portion, was appropriated to the sacrifice feasts, who misleads the blind.

to which the Israelites were bound to invite the stranger, the III. With regard to those whom misfortune or other cir- widow, and the orphan. “When any part of these tenths cumstances had reduced to poverty, various humane regula- remained, which they had not been able to bring to the altar tions were made: for though Moses had, by his statutes or to consume as offerings, they were obliged every three relative to the division of the land, studied to prevent any years to make a conscientious estimate of the amount, and, Israelites from being born poor, yet he nowhere indulges the without presenting it as an offering to God, employ it in hope that there would actually be no poor. On the contrary benevolent entertainments in their native cities. (Deut. he expressly says (Deut. xv. 11.), The Poor shall never cease xii. 5—12. 17—19. xiv. 22–29. xvi. 10, 11. xxvi. 12, out of thy lund, and he enjoins the Hebrews to open wide 13.) their hands to their brethren, to the poor and to the needy in But though Moses has made such abundant provision for their land. He exhorts the opulent to assist a decayed Isra- the poor, yet it does not appear that he has said any thing elite with a loan, and not to refuse even though the sabbati- respecting beggars. The earliest mention of beggars occurs cal year drew nigh (Deut. xv. 7–10.); and no pledge was in Psal. cix. 10. In the New Testament, however, we read to be detained for the loan of money that served for the pre- of beggars, blind, distressed, and maimed, who lay at the servation of his life or health (Deut. xxiv. 12, 13.), or was doors of the rich, by the way sides, and also before the gate necessary to enable him to procure bread for himself and of the temple. (Mark x. 46. Luke xvi. 20, 21, Acts iii. 2.)2 family, as the upper and nether mill-stones. During harvest, But “we have no reason to suppose, that there existed in the owner of field was prohibited from reaping the corn the time of Christ that class of persons called vagrant bege that grew in its corners, or the after-growth: and the scat- gars, who present their supplications for alms from door to tered ears, or sheaves carelessly left on the ground, equally door, and who are found at the present day in the East, belonged to the poor. After å man had once shaken or although less frequently than in the countries of Europe. beaten his olive trees, he was not permitted to gather the That the custom of seeking alms by sounding a trumpet or olives that still hung on them: so that the fruit, which did horn, which prevails among a class of Mohammedan monasnot ripen until after the season of gathering, belonged to the tics, Kalendar or Karendal, prevailed also in the time of poor. (Lev. xix. 9, 10. Deut. xxiv. 19, 20, 21. Ruth ii. 2- Christ, may be inferred from Matt. vi. 2. ; where the verb 19.) Further, whatever grew during the sabbatical year, in orations, which possesses the shade of signification, that the fields, gardens, or vineyards, the poor might take at plea- would be attached to a corresponding word in the Hiphil sure, having an equal right to it with the owners of the land. form of the Hebrew verbs, is to be rendered transitively, as Another important privilege enjoyed by the poor was, what is the case with many other verbs in the New Testament. were called second tenths and second firstlings. “Besides the There is one thing characteristic of those orientals, who are tenth received by the Levites, the Israelites were obliged to reduced to the disagreeable necessity of following the vocaset apart another tenth of their field and garden produce; and tion of mendicants, which is worthy of being mentioned; in like manner, of their cattle, a second set of offerings, for they do not appeal to the pity or to the alms-giving spirit, the purpose of presenting as thank offerings at the high fes- but to the justice of their benefactors. (Job xxii. 7. xxxi. tivals." of these thank offerings only certain fat pieces 16. Prov. iii. 27, 28.)"3






I. The earliest Wars, predatory Excursions.-II. Character of the Wars of the Israelites.-Their Levies how raised.Mosaic Statutes concerning the Israelitish Soldiers.—III. Divisions,

and Officers of the Jewish Armies ;—which were sometimes conducted by the Kings in Person.Military Chariots.IV. Encampments.-V. Military Schools and Training.VI. Defensive Arms.–VII. Offensive Arms.-VIII. Fortifications.-IX. Mode of declaring War.—X. Military Tactics.Order of Battle.Treatment of the Slain, of captured Cities, and of Captives.-XI. Triumphant Reception of the Conquerors.—XII. Distribution of the Spoil. - Military Honours conferred on eminent Warriors.-A military Order established by David.—XIII. Trophies.

I. There were not wanting in the earliest ages of the discomfited them. (Gen. xiv. 14–16.) The other patriarchs world men who, abusing the power and strength which they also armed their servants and dependants, when a conflict possessed to the purposes of ambition, usurped upon their was expected. (Gen. xxxii. 7—12. xxxiii. 1.) weaker neighbours. Such was the origin of the kingdom II. Although the Jews are now the very reverse of being founded by the plunderer Nimrod (Gen. x. 8—10.), whose a military people (in which circumstance we may recognise name signifies a rebel; and id was most probably given him, the accomplishment of prophecy), yet anciently they were from his rejection of the laws both of God and man, and eminently distinguished for their prowess. But the notices supporting by force a tyranny over others. As mankind concerning their discipline which are presented to us in the continued to increase, quarrels and contests would naturally Sacred Writings, are few and brief. arise, and, spreading from individuals to families, tribes and The wars in which th, Israelites were engaged, were-of nations, produced wars. Of the military affairs of those two kinds, either such as were expressly enjoined by divine times we have very imperfect notices in the Scriptures. • This section is chiefly translated from Calmet's Dissertation sur la These wars, however, appear to have been nothing more Milice des anciens Hebreux, inserted in the third volume of his Commenthan predatory incursions, like those of the modern Waha- taire Littérale sur la Bible, and also in vol. i. pp. 205-240. of his Dissertabees and Bedouin Arabs, so often described by oriental tra-judgment of the celebrated tactician, the Chevalier Folard, discusses the vellers. The patriarch Abraham, on learning that his kins- military affairs of the Hebrews with so much accuracy and knowledge, as man Lot had been taken captive by Chedorlaomer and his to leave scarcely any room for additions. (Dissertation on the Military confederate emirs or petty kings, mustered his trained ser- of Calmet's Dictionary.) The Dissertation of the Chevalier Folard has vants, three hundred and eighteen in number; and coming also been consulted; together with Alber's Inst. Herm. Vet. Test. tom. i. against the enemy by night, he divided his forces, and totally pp. 239:247.; Schulzii Archæologia Hebraica, pp. 132-146.; Jahn, Archæ. command, or such as were voluntary and entered upon by mode of selection. Hence we read in the Scriptures of the prince for revenging some national affronts, and for the choosing the men, not of levying them. In like manner, honour of his sovereignty. Of the first sort were those un- under the Roman republic, all the citizens of the military age dertaken against the seven nations of Canaan, whom God (seventeen to forty-six years) were obliged to serve a certain had devoted to destruction, viz. the Hittites, the Amorites, number of campaigns, when they were commanded. On the the Canaanites (strictly so called), the Perizzites, the Hi- day appointed, the consuls held a levy (delectum habebant), vites, the Jebusites, and the Girgashites. These the Israel- by the assistance of the military or legionary tribunes; when ites were commanded to extirpate, and to settle themselves it was determined by lot in what manner the tribes should in their place. (Deut. vii. 1, 2, and xx. 16, 17.) There were be called. Tne consuls ordered such as they pleased to be indeed other nations who inhabited this country in the days cited out of each tribe, and every one was obliged to answer of Abraham, as may be seen in Gen. xv. 19, 20, But these to his name, under a severe penalty. On certain occasions, had either become extinct since that time, or being but a some of the most refractory were put to death. To the small people were incorporated with the rest. To these above described mode of selecting troops, our Saviour alluded, seven nations no terms of peace could be offered ; for, being when he said that many are called, but few chosen (Matt. xx. guilty of gross idolatries and other detestable vices of all 16.): the great mass of the people being convened, choice kinds, God thought them unfit to live any longer upon the was made of those who were the most fit for service. face of the earth. These wars, thus undertaken by the com- This mode of selecting soldiers accounts for the formation mand of God, were called the wars of the Lord, of which a of those vast armies, in a very short space of time, of which particular record seems to have been kept, as mentioned in we read in the Old Testament. The men of Jabesh Gilead, Num. xxi. 14.

ologia Biblica, SS 266_296.; Ackermann, Archæologia Biblica, $$ 260-288.;

Home's Hiet. of the Jews, vol. ii. pp. 303-316.; Bruning, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 1 Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. ii. pp. 254–259. 3 Ibic p. 249. 74–91. ; Carpzovii Antiquitates Gentis Hebrææ, pp. 665-671. : Jahn's Archæologia, by Upham, p. 198.

. See Lev. xxvi. 36. Deut. xxviii. 65, 66.

who, in the beginning of Saul's reign, were besieged by the In the voluntary wars of the Israelites, which were un- Ammonites, had only seven days' respite given them to send dertaken upon some national account, such as most of those messengers to the coasts of Israel, after which, if no relief were in the times of the Judges, when the Moabites, Philis- came to them, they were to deliver up the city and have tines, and other neighbouring nations invaded their country, their eyes put out, which was the best condition, it seems, and such as that of David against the Ammonites, whose they could procure. (1 Sam. xi. 1, 2, 3.) As soon as Saul king had violated the law of nations by insulting his ambas- was informed of it, he, by à symbolical representation of cutsadors,—there were certain rules established by God, which ting a yoke of oxen in pieces, and sending them all over were to regulate their conduct, both in the undertaking and Israel, signified what should be done to the oxen of such as carrying on of these wars. As, first, they were to proclaim did not appear upon this summons. In consequence of this peace to them, which, if they accepted, these people were to summons, we find that an army of three hundred and thirty become tributaries to them ; but if they refused, all the thousand men was formed, who relieved the place within the males, upon besieging the city, were allowed to be slain, if seven days allowed them. In like manner, when the chilthe Israelites thought fit; but the women and little ones were dren of Israel had heard of the crime that was committed to be spared, and the cattle with the other goods of the city by the inhabitants of Gibeah against the Levite's concubine, were to belong, as spoil, to the Israelites.°(Deut. xx. 10– it is said, that they resolved not to return to their houses till 15.) Secondly, in besieging a city they were not to commit they had fully avenged this insult (Judg. xx. 8.), and acunnecessary waste and depredations; for though they were cordingly, upon the tribe of Benjamin's refusing to deliver allowed to cut down barren trees of all sorts, to serve the up these men, an army was soon gathered together of four purposes of their approaches, yet they were obliged to spare hundred thousand men of war. (verse 17.) Nor was the prothe fruit trees, as being necessary to support the lives of the viding of their armies with necessaries any impediment to inhabitants in future times, when the little rancour, which these sudden levies; for in the beginning of the Jewish was the occasion of their present hostilities, should be re- republic, their armies consisting altogether of infantry, every moved and done away. (Deut. xx. 19, 20.)

one served at their own expense, and ordinarily carried their The Israelites, in the beginning of their republic, appear own arms and provisions along with them. And thus we to have been a timorous and cowardly people; their spirits find that Jesse sent a supply of provisions by David to his were broken by their bondage in Egypt; and this base temper other three sons that were in Saul's camp (1 Sam. xvii. 13. soon appeared upon the approach of Pharaoh and his army, 17.), which gave David an opportunity of engaging Goliath ; before the Israelites passed through the Red Sea, which made and this was the chief reason why their wars in those days them murmur so much against Moses. (Exod. xiv. 10, 11, were ordinarily but of a short continuance, it being hardly pos12.) But in no instance was their cowardice more evident, sible that a large body could subsist long upon such provisions than when they heard the report of the spies concerning the as every one carried along with him. After the time of Soloinhabitants of the land, which threw them into a fit of mon, their armies became vastly numerous: we read that despair, and made them resolve to return into Egypt, not- Abijah king of Judah had an army of four hundred thousand withstanding all the miracles wrought for them by God. men, with which he fought Jeroboam king of Israel, who had (Num. xiv. 1—6.) It was on this account that David, who double that number (2 Chron. xiii. 3.), and it is said there was well acquainted with their disposition, says, that they got were five hundred thousand killed of Jeroboam's army. (yer, not the land in possession by their own sword, neither did their 17.) Asa king of Judah had an army of nearly six hundred own arm save them, but thy right hand and thine arm, and the thousand men, when he was actacked by Zerah the Ethiopian light of thy countenance, because thou hadst a favour unto with a host of a million of men. (2 Chron. xiv. 8, 9.) Jethem. (Psal. xliv. 3.)

hoshaphat king of Judah had eleven hundred and sixty thouAfter their departure from Egypt, the whole of the men, sand men, without reckoning the garrisons in his fortified from twenty years and upwards, until the age of fifty (when places. (2 Chron. xvii. 14–19.), they might demand their discharge if they chose), were lia- Various regulations were made by Moses concerning the ble to military service, the priests and Levites not excepted. Israelitish soldiers, which are characterized by equal wis(Num. i. 3. 22. 2 Sam. xxiii

. 20. 1 Kings ii. 35.) Like the dom and humanity. Not to repeat what has already been militia in some countries, and the hardy mountaineers of Le noticed above, we may remark' that the following classes banon at this day, they were always ready to assemble at of persons were wholly exempted from military service the shortest notice. If the occasion were extremely urgent, (Deut. xx. 5–8. xxiv. 5.); viz. affecting their existence as a people, all were summoned to 1. He, who had built a new house, and had not dedicated war; but ordinarily, when there was no necessity for con- it, was to return home, lest he should die in battle, and anvoking the whole of their forces, a selection was made. Thus other man dedicate it. From the title of Psal. xxx.—1 Psalm Joshua chose twelve thousand men, in order to attack the or Song at the dedication of the house of David,-it was eviArnalekites (Exod. xvii. 9, 10.): in the war with the Midi- dently a custom in Israel to dedicate a new house to Jehoanites, one thousand men were selected out of each tribe vah, with prayer, praise, and thanksgiving, in order that he (Num. xxxi. 4,5.), and in the rash assault upon the city of might obtain the divine blessing. Ài, three thousand men were employed. (Josh. vii. 3, 4.) 2. Those who had planted a vine or olive yard, and who The book of Judges furnishes numerous instances of this had not yet eaten of its produce.

3. Every man who had betrothed a wife and had not taken 1 A recent Icarned traveller in the Holy Land, describing the present her home. It is well known, that among the Jews a consistate of Mount Lebanon, says, that, "of the peasants, great numbers derable time sometimes elapsed between the espousal or besoldier, and would in case of need muster as such: the gun which serves trothing of the parties and the celebration of a marriage. him for field-sport and sustenance is ready for the call of war; and his When the bridegroom had made proper preparations, the discipline consists in the bracing, hardy habits of a mountaineer.” Rev. Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, p. 74. (London, 1823. 8vo.)

Dr. Adanu's Roman Antiquities, pp. 362, 363. fifth edit.

bride was conducted to his house, and the nuptials were officers were appointed by the Snoterim, genealogists or officonsummated.

cers (as they are termed in our version), who probably chose 4. Every newly married man, during the first year after the heads of families ; but after the monarchy took place, his marriage. The humanity of these exemptions will be they received their commissions either from the king in the the more evident, when it is recollected that, anciently, it same manner as at present, as appears from 2 Sam. xviii. 1. was deemed an excessive hardship for a person to be obliged and 2 Chron. xxv.5.; or from the commander-in-chief (2 Sam. to go to battle (in which there was a probability of his being xviii. 11.): and it should seem that a captain's commission slain), who had left a new house unfinished, a newly pur- was denoted by giving a military girdle or sash. (2 Sam. chased heritage half tilled, or a wife with whom he had just xviii. 11.) contracted marriage. Homer represents the case of Protesi- The first and principal Head of the armies of Israel was laus as singularly afflicting, who was obliged to go to the the Almighty himself, who is so frequently termed in ScripTrojan war, leaving

his wife in the deepest distress, and his ture the Lord of Hosts. The whole nation marched forth house unfinished.

under the superintending guidance of their God. Subordinate 5. The last exemption was in favour of the fearful and to Him, and as his lieutenant-general, was the principal officer, faint hearted; an exemption of such a disgraceful nature, or leader of the whole army, who, in the Scriptures, is termed that one would think it never would have been claimed. the CAPTAIN OF THE LORD's Host, and who appears to have Such, however, was the case in Gideon's expedition against been of the same rank with him who is now called the comthe Midianites. Ten thousand only remained out of thirty- mander-in-chief of an army. Such were Joshua and the two thousand, of which number his army originally consisted ; Judges under the primitive constitution of their government twenty-two thousand having complied with

his proclamation, as settled by God himself: such was Abner under Saul (2 Sam. that whosoever was fearful and afraid might return and depart ii. 8.), Joab under David (2 Sam. xx. 23.), and Amasa under early from Mount Gilead. (Judg. vii. 3.)?.

Absalom, when he was raising a rebellion against his father. Before the regal government was established, the Israeli- (2 Sam. xvii. 25.) The command and authority of this captain tish army was entirely disbanded at the conclusion of a war. of the host appear to have been very great, sometimes indeed, The earliest instance recorded of any military force being nearly equal to that of the sovereign. David seems to have kept in time of peace, is in the reign of Saul, who retained been afraid of Joab his commander-in-chief; otherwise he two thousand for his body guard, and one thousand for his would never have suffered him to live after the sanguinary son Jonathan's guard. (1 Sam. xiii. 1, 2.). David had a dis- assassinations which he had perpetrated. It is evident that tinct guard, called Cherethites and Pelethites, concerning the the captain of the host enjoyed great influence in the time of origin of whose name various contradictory opinions have Elisha: for we read, that the prophet having been hospitably been offered. Josephus, however, expressly says, that they entertained by an opulent woman at Shunem, and being dewere his guards, and the Chaldee paraphrast terms them sirous of making her some acknowledgment for her kindness, archers and slingers. Besides these he had twelve bodies of ordered his servant Gehazi to inquire what she would wish twenty-four thousand men each, who were on duty for one to have done for her. Wouldst thou be spoken for to the king, month, forming an aggregate of two hundred and eighty-eight or to the Captain of the Host? (2 Kings iv. 13.) thousand men. (1 Chron. xxvii. 1–15.) Subsequently, when After the establishment of the monarchy, the kings went to the art of war was improved, a regular force seems to have war in person, and at first fought on foot, like the meanest of been kept up both in peace and war; for, exclusive of the their soldiers. Thus David fought, until the danger to which vast army which Jehoshaphat had in the field, we read that he exposed himself became so great, that his people would he had troops throughout all the fenced cities, which doubt- no longer allow him to lead them on to battle. (2 Sam. xxi. less were garrisoned in time of peace as well as during war. 17.). It does not appear that there were any horse in the Is

III. The OFFICERS who were placed at the head of the raelitish army before the time of Solomon. In the time of Hebrew forces appear not to have differed materially from David there were none; for the rebel Absalom was mounted those whom we find in ancient and modern armies.,

on a mule in the battle in which he lost his life. (2 Sam. The Division of the army into three bands or companies, xviii. 9.). Solomon, who had married the daughter of the mentioned in Gen. xiv. 14, 15. Job i. 17. Judg, vii. 16. 20. king of Egypt, procured horses from that country at a great 1 Sam. xi. 11. and 2 Sam. xviii. 2., was probably no other expense (1 Kings x. 28, 29.); and afterwards had four thouthan the division into the centre, left, and right wing, which sand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand horseobtains in the modern art of war. "The Hebrews, when they men. (2 Chron. ix. 25.) From Zech, xiv. 20. it should seem, departed from Egypt, marched in military order, anns Sy that bells formed a part of the caparison of war-horses. Sub(AL TSEBOTOM) by their armies or hosts (Exod. xii. 51.), and sequent kings of Judah and Israel went into the battle in porn? (ve-chamushiM), which word in our English Bibles chariots, arrayed in their royal vestments, or sometimes in (Exod. xiii

. 18.) is rendered harnessed, and in the margin, disguise. They generally had a spare chariot to attend them: by five in a rank. It is probable, from these expressions, thus we read that king Josiah, after he was mortally wounded, that they followed each other in ranks fifty deep, and that at was taken out of his war-chariot, and put into another, in the head of each rank or file of fifty was the captain of fifty. which he was carried to Jerusalem. (2 Chron. xxxv. 23, 24. (1 Sam. viii. 12. 2 Kings i. 9–14.) The other divisions 1 Kings xxii. 34.) Both kings and generals had armourconsisted of tens, hundreds, thousands, &c.; and the officers bearers, who were chosen from the bravest of the soldiery, that commanded them are styled captains of thousands, cap- and not only bore the arms of their masters, but were also tains of hundreds, captains of fifties, and captains of tens; employed to give lis commands to the subordinate captains, of these mention is made in 1 Chron. xii. 14. 20. xiii. 1. and were present at his side in the hour of peril. (i Sam. xxviii. 1. and 2 Kings i. 9. 11. 13. These, probably, were of xiv. 6. xvii. 7.) the same rank with those whom Moses constituted in the Military chariots were much in use among the Egyptians, wilderness, rulers of thousands, &c. (Exod. xviii. 25.), and Canaanites, and other oriental nations. Two sorts are menwho at first acted in a double capacity, being at the same time tioned in the Scriptures; one in which princes and generals civil magistrates and military officers. The captains of thou- rode, the other to break the enemy's battalions by rushing in sands seem to have been much the same as colonels of regi- among them, armed with iron scythes, which caused terrible ments with us; and the captains of hundreds might probably havoc. The most ancient war-chariots, of which we read, answer to those who in our army have the command of troops are those of Pharaoh, which were destroyed in the Red Sea and companies; the captains of fifties and tens to our subal-|(Exod. xiv. 7.): his infantry, cavalry, and war-chariots were terns, sergeants, and corporals. During the Mosaic com- so arranged as to form separate divisions of his army. (Exod. monwealth, in conformity to the law in Deut. xx. 9., all these xiv. 6, 7) The Canaanites, whom Joshua engaged at the

waters of Merom, had cavalry and a multitude of chariots. 1 Iliad, lib. ii. 700—702.

(Josh. xi. 4.), Sisera, the general of Jabin, king of Hazor Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 34-37.

had nine hundred chariots of iron in his army. (Judg. iv. 3.) : On this subject the reader may consult the Dissertations of Ikenius, The tribe of Judah could not obtain possession of part of the Philologicæ, part ii. pp. 17–44., and also Michaelis's Commentaries on the lands allotted to them, because the inhabitants of the country

were strong in chariots of iron. (Judg. i. 19.) The Philis*** It is from this circumstance " that the Divine Being calls himself the tines, in their war with Saul, had thirty thousand chariots, Egypt under his direction, marshalled and ordered by himself, guided by and six thousand horsemen. (1 Sam.

xiii. 5.) David, having his wisdom, supported by his providence, and protected by his mighi. taken a thousand war-chariots from Hadadezer, king of DaScripture the Lord of Hosis: for the Lord did bring the children of Israel mascus, ham-strung the horses, and burnt nine hundred chaout of Egypt by their armies." Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary, on Exod.

• They were also used among the ancient Britons.

xii. 51.

A shield-bearer was an office among the Jews as well as and those with which they annoyed the enemy at a distance. he Philistines, for David when he first went to court was of the former description were the sword and the battle-axe. made king Saul's armour-bearer (1 Sam. xvi. 21.), and Jona- 1. The Sword is the most ancient weapon of offence menthan had a young man who bore his armour before him. tioned in the Bible. With it Jacob's sons treacherously as(1 Sam. xiv. 1.) Besides this tsinnah, or great massy shield, sassinated the Shechemites. (Gen. xxxiv. 25.) It was worn Goliath was furnished with a less one (1 Sam. xvii. 6. and on the thigh (Psal. xlv. 3. Exod. xxxii. 27.), and it should 45.), which is not expressed by one of the fore-mentioned seem on the left thigh; though it is particularly mentioned words, but is called cidon, which we render a target in one that Ehud, a Benjamite, put å dagger or short sword under place and a shield in another, and was of a different nature his garments on his right thigh. (Judg. iii. 16.) The palanfrom the common shields. He seems not only to have held quin, or travelling couch of Solomon (Song iii. 7, 8. where it in his hand when he had occasion to use it, but could also our version terms it a bed), was surrounded by threescore at other times conveniently hang it about his neck and turn valiant Israelitish soldiers, every one of whom had his sword it behind, on which account it is added, that it was between girt upon his thigh. There appear to have been two kinds his shoulders. The loss of the shield in fight was excessively of swords in use, a larger one with one edge, which is called resented by the Jewish warriors, as well as lamented by in Hebrew the mouth of the sword (Josh. vi. 21.); and a them, for it was a signal ingredient of the public mourning, shorter one with two edges, like that of Ehud. The modern that the shield of the nighly wus vilely cast away. (2 Sam. Arabs, it is well known, wear a sabre on one side, and a i. 21.) David, a man of arms, who composed the beautiful cangiar or dagger in their girdles. elegy on the death of Saul related in 2 Sam. i. 19—27., was 2. Of the BATTLE-AXE we have no description in the sensible how disgraceful a thing it was for soldiers to quit Sacred Volume: it seems to have been a most powerful their shields in the field, yet this was the deplorable case of weapon in the hands of cavalry, from the allusion made to the Jewish soldiers in that unhappy engagement with the it by Jeremiah :- Thou art my battle-axe and weapons of war; Philistines (1 Sam. xxxi. 7.), they fed away and left their for with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee shields behind them; this vile and dishonourable casting will I destroy kingdoms : and with thee will I break in pieces away of that principal armour is deservedly the subject of the horse and his rider, and with thee will I break in pieces the the royal poet's lamentation.

chariot and his rider. (Jer. li. 20, 21.) But these honourable sentiments were not confined to the The other offensive weapons for annoying the enemy at a Jews. We find them prevailing among most other ancient distance, were the spear or javelin, the sling, and the bow nations, who considered it infamous to cast away or lose and arrow. their shield. With the Greeks it was a capital crime, and 3. The Spear or JAVELIN (as the words npo (Romach), and punished with death. The Lacedemonian women, it is well man (CHONITH), are variously rendered in Num. xxv. 7. known, in order to excite the courage of their sons, used to 1 Sam. xiii

. 19. and Jer. xlvi. 4.) was of different kinds, deliver to them their fathers' shields,

with this short address : according to its length or make. Some of them might be “This shield thy father always preserved ; do thou preserve thrown or darted (1 Sam. xviii. 11.); and it appears from it also, or perish.” Alluding to these sentiments, Saint Paul, 2 Sam. ii 23. that some of them were pointed at both ends. when exhorting the Hebrew Christians to steadfastness in When armies were encamped, the spear of the general or the faith of the Gospel, urges them not to cast away their commander-in-chief was stuck into the ground at his head.2 confidence, their confession of faith, which hath great recom- 4. Slings are enumerated among the military stores colpense of reward, no less than the approbation of God, the lected by Uzziah. (2 Chron. xxvi. 14.). In the use of the peace which passeth all understanding here, and the glories sling, David eminently excelled, and 'slew Goliath with a of heaven, as their eternal portion. (Heb. x. 35.)

stone from one. The Benjamites were celebrated in battle It may be further observed, that they used to scour and because they had attained to a great skill and accuracy in polish their arms, as may be inferred from the prophet's ex- handling this weapon; they could sling stones to a hair's pressions of furbishing the spears and making bright the ar- breadth, and not miss (Judg. xx. 16.); and where it is said rows (Jer. xlvi. 4. and li. 11.), and it should seem that such that they were left-handed, it should rather be rendered amshields as were covered with leather were oiled in order to bidexters, for we are told, they could use both the right-hand keep them clean, and prevent them from becoming too dry. and the left (1 Chron. xii. 2.); that is, they did not conTo this custom there is an allusion in 2 Sam. i. 21. and Isa. stantly use their right hand as others did, when they shot xxi. 5. When the shields were not in use, they were co- arrows or slung stones, but they were so expert in their milivered with a case, in order to preserve them from being rusty tary exercises, that they could perform them with their left and soiled; hence we read of uncovering the shield, which hand as well as with their right. signifies preparing for war, and having that weapon espe- 5. Bows and Arrows are of great antiquity: indeed, no weacially in readiness. (Isa. xxii. 6.),

pon is mentioned so early. Thus Isaac said to Esau, Take 4. Another defensive provision in war was the MILITARY thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow (Gen. xxvii. 3.); though Girdle, or Belt, which answered a twofold purpose, viz. it is true, these are not spoken of as used in war, but in first, in order to wear the sword, which hung at the soldier's hunting, and so they are supposed and implied before this; girdle or belt (1 Sam. xvii. 39); secondly, it was necessary where it is said of Ishmael, that he became an archer, and to gird their clothes and armour together, and thus David used bows and arrows in shooting of wild beasts. (Gen. xxi. girded his sword upon his armour. To gird and to arm are 20.) This afterwards became so useful a weapon, that care synonymous words in Scripture; for those who are said to was taken to train up the Hebrew youth to it betimes. When be able to put on armour are, according to the Hebrew and David had in a solemn manner lamented the death of king the Septuagint, girt with a girdle, and hence comes the ex- Saul, he gave orders for teaching the young men the use of pression of girding to the battle. (1 Kings xx. 11. Isa. viii. 9. the bow (2 Sam. i. 18.), that they might be as expert as the 2 Sam. xxii. 40.) The military girdle was the chief orna- Philistines, by whose bows and arrows Saul and his army ment of a soldier, and was highly prized among all ancient were slain. These were part of the military ammunition nations: it was also a rich present from one chieftain to (for in those times bows were used instead of guns, and aranother. Thus, Jonathan gave his girdle to David, as the rows supplied the place of powder and ball); From Job xx. highest pledge of his esteem and perpetual friendship. 24. and from Psal. xviii. 34. it may be collected, that the (1 Sam. xviii. 4.)'

military bow was made of steel, and, consequently, was 5. Boots or GREAVES were part of the ancient defensive very stiff and hard to bend, on which account they used their harness, because it was the custom to cast certain qutodes, foot in bending their bows; and therefore when the prophets impediments (so called because they entangle their feet, speak of treading the bow, and of bows trodden, they are to be afterwards known by the name of gall-traps, which since, in understood of bows bent, as our translators rightly render it heraldry, are corruptly called call-trops), in the way before (Jer. 1. 14. Isa. v. 28. xxi. 15.); where the Hebrew word the enemy: the military boot or shoe was, therefore, neces- which is used in these places signifies to tread upon. This sary to guard the legs and feet from the iron stakes placed weapon was thought so necessary in war, that it is called in the way to gall and wound them; and thus we are ena- the bow of war, or the battle-bow. (Zech. ix. 10. x. 4.) bled to account for Goliath's greaves of brass which were VIII. Many of the cities of Palestine, being erected on upon his legs.

eminences, were fortified by nature; but most frequently they VII. The OFFENSIVE Arms were of two sorts, viz. such were surrounded with a lofty wall, either single or double as were employed when they came to a close engagement; (Deut. xxviii

. 52. 2 Chron. xxxiii. 14. Isa. xxii. 11.).; 01

which were erected towers or bulwarks. (2 Chron. xiv. 7 1 In like manner, Ajax gave his girdle to Hector, as a token of the highest respect. (Iliad, vii. 305.) Dr A. Clarke, on 2 Sam. xviii. 11.

9 See p. 87. supra,

cxamples of this custom.

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