that Sabbath-day was an high day), besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken


Burial was not always allowed by the Romans in these cases. For we find that sometimes a soldier was appointed to guard the bodies of malefactors, that they might not be taken away and buried. However it seems that it was not often refused unless the criminals were very mean and infamous. Cicero reckons it one of the horrid crimes of Verres's administration in Sicily, that he would take money of parents for the burial of their children whom he had put to death. Both Suetonius and Tacitus represent it as one of the uncommon cruelties of Tiberius, in the latter part of his reign, that he generally denied burial to those who were put to death by, his orders at Rome. Ulpian, in his treatise of the duty of a proconsul, says, "The bodies of those who are condemned to death are not to be denied to their relations:" and Augustus writes, in the tenth book of his own life," that he had been wont to observe this custom;"5 that is, to grant the bodies to relations. Paulus says, "that the bodies of those who have been punished [with death] are to be given to any that desire them in order to burial."

It is evident, therefore, from these two lawyers, that the governors of provinces had a right to grant burial to the bodies of those who had been executed by their order: nay,

they seem to intimate that it ought not usually to be denied when requested by any.

Hence it appears, that burial was ordinarily allowed to persons who were put to death in Judæa: and the subsequent conduct of Pilate shows that it was seldom denied by the Roman governors in that country. There is, moreover, an express command in the law (of which we know that the latter Jews were religiously observant), that the bodies of those who were hanged should not be suffered to remain all night upon the tree. (Deut. xxi. 23.) "On this account it was, that, after the crucifixion, a number of leading men among the Jews waited on Pilate in a body, to desire that he would hasten the death of the malefactors hanging on their crosses. (John xix. 31.) Pilate, therefore, despatched his orders to the soldiers on duty, who broke the legs of the two criminals who were crucified along with Christ; but when they came to Jesus, finding he had already breathed his last, they thought this violence and trouble unnecessary; but one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, whose point appears to have penetrated into the pericardium, or membrane surrounding the heart; for St. John, who says he was an eye-witness of this, declares that there issued from the wound a mixture of blood and water. This wound, had he not been dead, must necessarily have been fatal. This circumstance St. John saw, and has solemnly recorded and attested."8



I. Days.-II. Hours.-Watches of the Night.-III. Weeks.-IV. Months.-V. Years, civil, ecclesiastical, and naturalJewish Calendar.-VI. Parts of the Time taken for the Whole.-VII. Remarkable Æras of the Jews.

It is well known that, in the perusal of ancient authors, we are liable to fall into many serious mistakes, if we consider their modes of computing time to be precisely the same as ours and hence it becomes necessary that we observe their different notations of time, and carefully adjust them to our own. This remark is particularly applicable to the sacred writers, whom sceptics and infidels have charged with various contradictions and inconsistencies, which fall to the ground as soon as the various computations of time are considered and adapted to our own standard. The knowledge of the different divisions of time mentioned in the Scriptures will elucidate the meaning of a multitude of passages with regard to seasons, circumstances, and ceremonies.

I. The Hebrews computed their DAYS from evening to evening, according to the command of Moses." (Lev. xxiii. 32.) It is remarkable that the evening or natural night precedes the morning or natural day in the account of the creation (Gen. i. 5, &c.) whence the prophet Daniel employs the compound term evening-morning (Dan. viii. 14. marginal reading) to denote a civil day in his celebrated chronological prophecy of the 2300 days; and the same portion of time is termed in Greek νυχθημερον.

The Romans had two different computations of their days, 1 See the passage cited from Petronius Arbiter, in note 11, p. 71. Rapiunt eum ad supplicium dii patrii: quod iste inventus est, qui e complexu parentum abreptos filios ad necem duceret, et parentes pretium pro sepultura posceret. In Ver. lib. i. cap. 3. Nemo punitorum non et in Gemonias adjectus uncoque tractus. Vit.

Tiber. c. 61.

6. c. 29.

Et quia damnati, publicatis bonis, sepulturâ prohibebantur. Ann. lib. Corpora eorum qui capite damnantur cognatis ipsorum neganda non sunt: et id se observasse etiam D. Aug. lib. x. de vitâ suâ, scribit. Hodie autem eorum, in quos animadvertitur, corpora non aliter sepeliuntur, quam si fuerit petitum et permissum; et nonnunquam non permittitur, maxime majestatis causâ damnatorum. 1. i. ff. de cadaver. Punit.

Corpora animadversorum quibuslibet petentibus ad sepulturam danda

sunt. 1. iii. eod.

See an instance, incidentally mentioned by Josephus. De Bell. Jud. lib. iv. c. 5. §2.

And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true; and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe. John xix. 35. Tacitus, speaking of the ancient Germans, takes notice that their account of time differs from that of the Romans; and that instead of days they reckoned the number of nights. De Mor. Germ. c. 11. So also did the ancient Gauls (Cæsar de Bell. Gall. lib. vi. c. 17.); and vestiges of this ancient practice still remain in our own country. We say last Sunday se'n night or this day fortnight. The practice of computing time by nights, instead of days, obtains among the Mashoos, an inland nation, dwelling in the interior of South Africa. Travels by the Rev. John Campbell, vol. i. p. 182. (London, 1822. 8vo.)

and two denominations for them. The one they called the civil, the other the natural day; the civil day was from midnight to midnight; and the natural day was from the rising to the setting sun.10 The natural day of the Jews varied in length according to the seasons of the year: the longest day in the Holy Land is only fourteen hours and twelve minutes of our time; and the shortest day, nine hours and forty-eight minutes. This portion of time was at first divided into four parts (Neh. ix. 3.); which, though varying in length according to the seasons, could nevertheless be easily discerned from the position or appearance of the sun in the horizon. Afterwards the natural day was divided into twelve hours, which were measured from dials constructed for that purpose. Among these contrivances for the measurement of time, the sun-dial of Ahaz is particularly mentioned in 2 Kings xx. 11.11 Jahn thinks it probable that Ahaz first introduced it from Babylon.12

II. The earliest mention of HOURS in the Sacred Writings occurs in the prophecy of Daniel (iii. 6. 15. v. 5.); and as the Chaldæans, according to Herodotus,13 were the inventors of this division of time, it is probable that the Jews derived their hours from them. It is evident that the division of hours was unknown in the time of Moses (compare Gen. xv. 12. xviii. 1. xix. 1. 15. 23.); nor is any notice taken of them by the most ancient of the profane poets, who mentions only the morning or evening or mid-day.14 With Homer corresponded the notations of time referred to by the royal Psalmist, who mentions them as the times of prayer. (Psal. Iv. 17.) The Jews computed their hours of the civil day from six in the morning till six in the evening: thus their first hour corresponded with our seven o'clock; their second to our eight; their third to our nine, &c.

The knowledge of this circumstance will illustrate several passages of Scripture, particularly Matt. xx., where the third,

10 Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. ii. c. 77.; Censorinus de Die Natali, c. 23. ; Macrobius Saturnal. lib. iii. c. 3. See also Dr. Ward's Dissertations on several passages of Scripture, p. 126. ; and Dr. Macknight's Harmony, vol. i. Prelim. Obs. v. Adam's Roman Antiquities, p. 305.

11 Few topics have caused more discussion among biblical commentators than the sun-dial of Ahaz. As the original word signifies, properly, steps or stairs, many have imagined that it was a kind of ascent to the gate of the palace, marked at proper distances with figures showing the division of the day, rather than a regular piece of dial-work. On this subject the reader will find some very ingenious and probable illustrations, together with a diagram, in Dr. A Clarke's Commentary, on 2 Kings xx. 12 Jahn, Archæol. Hebr. § 101. 13 Lib. ii. c. 109. -Ήως, η δειλή, η μεσον ήμαρ.--Hom. f. lib. xxi. 3.


sixth, ninth, and eleventh hours (ver. 3. 5. 6. 9.) respectively
denote nine o'clock in the morning, twelve at noon, three and
five in the afternoon; see also Acts ii. 15. iii. 1. x. 9. 30.
The first three hours (from six to nine) were their morning:
during the third hour, from eight to nine, their morning sacri-
fice was prepared, offered up, and laid on the altar precisely
at nine o'clock; this interval they termed the preparation
(Tapaonan). Josephus confirms the narrative of the evange-
lists. As the Israelites went out of Egypt at the vernal
equinox, the morning watch would answer to our four o'clock
in the morning.2
Before the Captivity the night was divided into three parts
or WATCHES. (Psal. Ixiii. 6. xc. 4.) The first or beginning
of watches is mentioned in Lam. ii. 19.; the middle-watch
in Judg. vii. 19.; and the morning-watch, or watch of day-
break, in Exod. xiv. 24. It is probable that these watches
varied in length according to the seasons of the year: conse-
quently those who had a long and inclement winter watch to
encounter, would ardently desire the approach of morning
light to terminate their watch. This circumstance would
beautifully illustrate the fervour of the Psalmist's devotion
(Psal. cxxx. 6.) as well as serve to explain other passages
of the Old Testament. These three watches are also men-
tioned by various profane writers.4

our passover," the antitype of the paschal lamb, "expired at the ninth hour, and was taken down from the cross at the eleventh hour, or sunset."

III. Seven nights and days constituted a WEEK; six of these were appropriated to labour and the ordinary purposes of life, and the seventh day or Sabbath was appointed by God to be observed as a day of rest, because that on it he had restea from all his work which God had created and made. (Gen. ii. 3.) This division of time was universally observed by the descendants of Noah; and some eminent critics have conjectured that it was lost during the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt, but was revived and enacted by Moses agreeably to the divine command. This conjecture derives some weight from the word Sabbat or Sabbata, denoting a week among the Syrians, Arabians, Christian Persians, and Ethiopians, as in the following ancient Syriac Calendar, expressed in Hebrew characters:9

snavn... One of the Sabbath, or Week...Sunday.

...Two of the Sabbath...

naw-non... Three of the Sabbath.
-Nya... Four of the Sabbath..

Dawn... Five of the Sabbath..
nay..Eve of the Sabbath...
Nay. The Sabbath.......





......Friday. ....Saturday.

During the time of our Saviour, the night was divided into four watches, a fourth watch having been introduced among The high antiquity of this calendar is evinced by the use the Jews from the Romans, who derived it from the Greeks. of the cardinal numbers, one, two, three, &c. instead of the The second and third watches are mentioned in Luke xii. 38.; ordinals, first, second, third, &c. following the Hebrew idiom; the fourth in Matt. xiv. 25.; and the four are all distinctly as in the account of the creation, where we read in the origimentioned in Mark xiii. 35. Watch, therefore, for ye know nal," one day-two day-three day," &c.; where the Sepnot when the master of the house cometh; at EVEN (of, or the tuagint retains it in the first, calling it up. It is relate watch), or at MIDNIGHT (TOVURTIU), or at the COCK-CROW-markable that all the evangelists follow the Syriac calendar, ING (anen Topcowvids), or in the MORNING (TP, the early watch). both in the word 662, used for " a week," and also in reHere, the first watch was at even, and continued from six till taining the cardinal number xxxray," one of the week," nine; the second commenced at nine and ended at twelve, or to express the day of the resurrection. (Matt. xxviii. 1. Mark midnight; the third watch, called by the Romans gallicinium, xvi. 2. Luke xxiv. 1. John xx. 1.) Afterwards Mark adopts lasted from twelve to three; and the morning watch closed at the usual phrase, parn σabbars, "the first of the week" (Mark six. A double cock-crowing, indeed, is noticed by St. Mark xvi. 9.), where he uses the singular Care for a week; and (xiv. 30.), where the other evangelists mention only one. so does Luke, as Norww fis To σa66ars, "I fast twice in the (Matt. xxvi. 34. Luke xxii. 34. John xiii. 38.) But this week." (Luke xviii. 12.) may be easily reconciled. The Jewish doctors divided the cock-crowing into the first, second, and third; the heathen nations in general observed only two. As the cock crew the second time after Peter's third denial, it was this second or principal cock-crowing (for the Jews seem in many respects to have accommodated themselves to the Roman computation of time) to which the evangelists Matthew, Luke, and John refer. Or, perhaps, the second cock-crowing of the Jews might coincide with the second of the Romans. It may be proper to remark that the word hour is frequently used with great latitude in the Scriptures, and sometimes implies the space of time occupied by a whole watch. (Matt. xxv. 13. xxvi. 40. Mark xiv. 37. Luke xxii. 59. Rev. iii. 3.) Perhaps the third hour mentioned in Acts xxiii. 23. was a military watch of the night."

The Jews reckoned two evenings: the former began at the ninth hour of the natural day, or three o'clock in the afternoon; and the latter at the eleventh hour. Thus the paschal lamb was required to be sacrificed between the evenings (Exod. xii. 6. Lev. xxiii. 4.); which Josephus tells us, the Jews in his time did, from the ninth hour until the eleventh. Hence the law, requiring the paschal lamb to be sacrificed "at even, at the going down of the sun" (Deut. xvi. 6.), expressed both evenings. It is truly remarkable, that "Christ

During the siege of Jerusalem, the Jewish historian relates that the. priests were not interrupted in the discharge of their sacred functions, but continued twice a day, in the morning, and at the ninth hour (or at three o'clock in the afternoon), to offer up sacrifices at the altar. The Jews rarely, if ever, ate or drank till after the hour of prayer (Acts x. 30.), and on Sabbath-days not till the sixth hour (twelve at noon, Josephus, de vita sua, $ 54.): which circumstance well explains the apostle Peter's defence of those on whom the Holy Spirit had miraculously descended on the day

of Pentecost. (Acts ii. 15.)

2 Dr. A. Clarke on Exod. xiv. 11. Thus the 134th psalm gives an instance of the temple watch: the whole psalm is nothing more than the alternate cry of two different divisions of the watch. The first watch addresses the second (ver. 1, 2.) reminding them of their duty; and the second answers (ver. 3.) by a solemn blessing. The address and the answer seem both to be a set form, which each individual proclaimed or sung aloud, at stated intervals, to notify the time of the night. Bishop Lowth's Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 357. See Homer, Iliad, lib. x. v. 252, 253. Livy, lib. vii. c. 35. and Zenophon, Anab. lib. iv. p. 250. (edit. Hutchinson.)

Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. on John xiii. 38. (Works, vol. ii. p. 597.) Grotius and Whitby on Matt. xxvi. 34. Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 112. By which writers various passages of classical authors are cited. See also Mr. Townsend's Harmony of the New Testament, vol. i. pp.


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The Syriac name for Friday, or the sixth day of the week, is also adopted by Mark, who renders it porror, sabbatheve" (xv. 42.), corresponding to reponam," preparation-day." (Matt. xxvii. 62. Mark xv. 42. Luke xxiii. 54. John xix. 31.) And Josephus also conforms to this usage, except that he uses ra6ura in the singular sense, for the Sabbath-day, in his account of a decree of Augustus, exempting the Jews of Asia and Cyrene from secular services, abbar, Tn ταύτης παρασκευη, απο της ώρας εννατης. “ On the Sabbath-day, or on the preparation-day before it, from the ninth hour."10 The first three evangelists also use the plural bara, to denote the Sabbath-day. (Matt. xii. 5-11. Mark i. 21. and ii, 23, Luke iv. 16, &c.) Whereas John, to avoid ambiguity, appropriates the singular ror to the Sabbath-day, and the plural bar to the week. (John v. 9-16. vii. 22, &c. xx. 1.)


The second Sabbath after the first (Luke vi. 1.), TRENTOV, or rather the second prime Sabbath, concerning which comthe first Sabbath after the second day of unleavened bread or mentators have been so greatly divided, appears to have been of the passover week. Besides weeks of days, the Jews had weeks of seven years (the seventh of which was called the sabbatical year); and weeks of seven times seven years, or or of forty-nine years, which were reckoned from one jubilee to another. The fiftieth or jubilee year was celebrated with singular festivity and solemnity."

IV. The Hebrews had their MONTHS, which, like those of all other ancient nations, were lunar ones, being measured by the revolutions of the moon, and consisting alternately of twenty-nine and thirty days. While the Jews continued in the land of Canaan, the commencement of their months and years was not settled by any astronomical rules or calculations, but by the phasis or actual appearance of the moon. As soon as they saw the moon, they began the month. Persons were therefore appointed to watch on the tops of the moun tains for the first appearance of the moon after the change: as soon as they saw it, they informed the Sanhedrin, and public notice was given, first, by the sounding of trumpets, to which there is an allusion in Psal. lxxxi. 3.; and after

Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 114. In the two following pages, he illustrates several apparently chronological contradictions be tween the evangelists with equal felicity and learning.

This calendar is taken from Bp. Marsh's Translation of Michaelis's In troduction to the New Testament, vol. i. p. 136. 10 Antiq. lib. xvi. c. 6. § 2.

11 Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 130.

wards lighting beacons throughout the land; though (as the mishnical rabbins tell us) after they had frequently been deceived by the Samaritans, who kindled false fires, they used to announce the appearance by sending messengers. As, however, they had no months longer than thirty days, if they did not see the new moon the night following the thirtieth day, they concluded that the appearance was obstructed by the clouds; and, without watching any longer, made the next day the first day of the following month. But, on the dispersion of the Jews throughout all nations, having no opportunities of being informed of the appearance of the new moons, they were obliged to have recourse to astronomical calculations and cycles, in order to fix the beginning of their months and years. At first, they employed a cycle of eightyfour years but this being discovered to be defective, they had recourse to the Metonic cycle of nineteen years; which was established by the authority of rabbi Hillel, prince of the Sanhedrin, about the year 360 of the Christian æra. This they still use, and say that it is to be observed until the coming of the Messiah. In the compass of this cycle there are twelve common years, consisting of twelve months, and seven intercalary years, consisting of thirteen months.1 Originally, the Jews had no particular names for their months, but called them the first, second, &c. Thus the Deluge began in the second month, and came to its height in the seventh month, at the end of 150 days (Gen. vii. 11-24. viii. 4.); and decreased until the tenth month, when the tops of the mountains were seen. (viii. 5.) Afterwards they acquired distinct names; thus Moses named the first month of the year Abib (Exod. xii. 2. xiii. 4.); signifying green, from the green ears of corn at that season; for it began about the vernal equinox. The second month was named Zif, signifying in Chaldee glory or splendour; in which the foundation of Solomon's temple was laid. (1 Kings vi. 1.) The seventh month was styled Ethanim, which is interpreted harvests by the Syriac version. (1 Kings viii. 2.) The eighth month Bul; from the fall of the leaf. (1 Kings vi. 38.) But concerning the origin of these appellations critics are by no means agreed: on their return from the Babylonish captivity, they introduced the names which they had found among the Chaldæans and Persians. Thus, the first month was also called Nisan, signifying flight; because in that month the Israelites were thrust out of Egypt (Exod. xii. 39.); the third month, Sivan, signifying a bramble (Esth. iii. 7. Neh. ii. 1.); and the sixth month Elul, signifying mourning, probably because it was the time of preparation for the great day of atonement, on the tenth day of the seventh month. (Neh. vi. 15.) The ninth month was called Chisleu, signifying chilled; when the cold weather sets in, and fires are lighted. (Zech. vii. 1. Jer. xxxvi. 22.) The tenth month was called Tebeth, signifying miry. (Esth. ii. 16.) The eleventh, Shebet, signifying a staff or a sceptre. (Zech. i. 7.) And the twelfth Adur, signifying a magnificent mantle, probably from the profusion of flowers and plants with which the earth then begins to be clothed in warm climates. (Ezra vi. 15. Esth. iii. 7.) It is said to be a Syriac term. (2 Mac. xvi. 36.)2

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May and June.

June and July.
July and August.
August and September.

Some of the preceding names are still in use in Persia. 4. The Ecclesiastical or Sacred Year began in March, or on the first day of the month Nisan, because at that time they departed out of Egypt. From that month they computed their feasts, and the prophets also occasionally dated their oracles and visions. Thus Zechariah (vii. 1.) says, that the word of the Lord came unto him in the fourth day of the ninth month, even in Chisleu; which answers to our November, whence it is evident that he adopted the ecclesiastical year, which commenced in March. The month Nisan is noted in the Old Testament for the overflowings of Jordan (Josh. iii 15. 1 Chron. xii. 15.); which were common at that season, the river being swollen by the melted snows that poured in torrents from Mount Lebanon. The following table presents the months of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, compared with our months :

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9. Kisleu or Chisleu (Zech. vii. 1. Neh. i. 1.) November and December. 10. Thebet...

11. Sebat (Zech. i. 7.)


December and January. January and February. 12. Adar (Ezra vi. 15. Esth. iii. 7.) February and March.3 The Jewish months being regulated by the phases or appearances of the moon, their years were consequently lunar years, consisting of twelve lunations, or 354 days and 8 hours; but as the Jewish festivals were held not only on certain fixed days of the month, but also at certain seasons of the year, consequently great confusion would, in process of time, arise by this method of calculating; the spring month sometimes falling in the middle of winter, it became necessary to accommodate the lunar to solar years, in order that their months, and consequently their festivals, might always fall at the same season. For this purpose, the Jews added a whole month to the year, as often as it was necessary; which occurred commonly once in three years, and sometimes once in two years. This intercalary month was added at the end of the ecclesiastical year after the month Adar, and was therefore called Ve-Adar, or the second Adar: but no vestiges of such intercalation are to be found in the Scriptures.

As agriculture constituted the principal employment of the Jews, they also divided their natural year into seasons with

V. The Jews had four sorts of YEARS,-one for plants, another for beasts, a third for sacred purposes, and the fourth was civil and common to all the inhabitants of Palestine. 1. The year of Plants was reckoned from the month corres-reference to their rural work. These, we have seen, were ponding with our January; because they paid tithe-fruits of the trees which budded at that time.

2. The second year was that of Beasts; for when they tithed their lambs, the owner drove all the flock under a rod, and they marked the tenth, which was given to the Levites. They could, however, only take those which fell in the year, and this year began at the month Elul, or the beginning of our August.

But the two years which are the most known are the Civil and Ecclesiastical Years.

3. The Civil Year commenced on the fifteenth of our September, because it was an old tradition that the world was created at that time. From this year the Jews computed their jubilees, dated all contracts, and noted the birth of children, and the reign of kings. It is said also that this month was appointed for making war; because, the great heats being passed, they then went into the fie'd. In 2 Sam. xi. 1. we read that David sent Joab and his servants with him, and all Israel, to destroy the Ammonites, at the return of the year 1 Dr. A. Clarke, at the end of his commentary on Deuteronomy, has given six elaborately constructed tables, explanatory of the Jewish calendar. Mr. Allen has also given six tables; which, though less extensive than the preceding, are well calculated to afford a clear idea of the construction and variations of the Jewish calendar. See Modern Judaism, pp. 369-377. Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 127.

six in number, each of two months' duration, including one whole month and the halves of two others. See an account of them in pp. 23-25. of this volume.

To this natural division of the year there are several allusions in the Sacred Writings as in Jer. xxxvi. 22. where king Jehoiakim is said to be sitting in the winter-house in the ninth sacred month Chisleu, the latter half of which fell in the winter or rainy season; so, in Ezra x. 13. it is said that the congregation of the people which had been convened on the twentieth day of the same month, were not able to stand

3 The preceding view of the sacred and civil years of the Jews is that generally adopted by the most eminent writers on Jewish antiquities, after the opinions of the Jewish rabbins, who affirm that March and September were the initial months of these two years, instead of April and October. That this was the case at a late period is admitted by Jahn and Ackermann, after J. D. Michaelis. But after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, who commenced their year with the month of March, it appears that the Jews adopted the practice of their conquerors. In confirmation not only by Josephus, but also by the genius of the Syriac and Arabic of this remark it may be observed that the rabinnical opinion is opposed languages, and by the fact that the ceremonies prescribed to be observed on the three great festival days do not agree with the months of March and September. For a further investigation of this curious question, which cannot be discussed within the limits of a note, the reader is referred to Michaelis's Commentatio de Mensibus Hebræorum, in the Commentationes Regia Societatis Goettingensi per annos 1763-68, pp. 10. et seq., or to Mr. Bowyer's translation of this disquisition in his "Select Discourses" on the Hebrew months, &c pp. 1-32.

out in the open air, because it was "a time of much rain." The knowledge of this mode of dividing the year illustrates John x. 22, 23. and accounts for our Lord's walking in the portico of the temple at the feast of dedication, which was celebrated towards the close of the same month.

Further, the Jews divided their solar year into four parts, called by them Tekuphat (that is, revolutions of time), or quarters, which they distinguished by the names of the months with which they commenced: thus, the vernal equinox is termed Tekuphať Nisan; the autumnal equinox, Tekuphat Tisri; the winter solstice, Tekuphat Tebeth; and the summer solstice, Tekuphat Thammuz. Some critics have conjectured that our Lord refers to the intervening space of four months, from the conclusion of seed-time to the commencement of the harvest, in John iv. 35.

The following CALENDAR will present to the reader a view of the entire JEWISH YEAR. It is abridged from Father Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, with additions from the Calendar printed by Calmet, at the end of his Dictionary of the Bible. In it are inserted the festivals and fasts celebrated by the Jews; including not only those enacted by the law of Moses, and which are described in a subsequent part of this work, but likewise those which were not established until after the destruction of the temple, and those which are observed by the Jews to the present time. The lessons also are introduced which they were accustomed to read in the synagogues.-Those days, on which no festival or fast was celebrated, are designedly omitted.

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5. A fast. Twenty Israelites were killed: Rabbi Akiba, the son of Joseph, was loaded with irons, and died in prison.

7. A fast, appointed on account of the golden calf. (Exod. xxxii. 6, 7, 8.) The lessons for this day were from Deut. xxvi. 1. to Deut. xxix. and the Exth chapter of Isaiah.

10. The fast of expiation. (Lev. xxiii. 27.)

11. The lessons for this day were from Deut. xxix. 10. to Deut. xxxi. 1. when the year had most Sabbaths; and when fewest, the book was finished on this day. And from Isa. Ixi. 1. to Isa. Ixiii. 10.

15. The feast of tabernacles. (Lev. xxiii. 34, 35.) It lasted seven days,

exclusive of the octave or eighth day.

21. Hosanna Rabba, the seventh day of the feast of tabernacles; or the feast of branches.

The lessons for this day were from Gen. i. 1. to Gen. vi. 9. and from Isa. xlii. 5. to Isa. xliii. 11.

22. The octave of the feast of tabernacles. Lev. xxiii..36.)

23. The solemnity of the law, in memory of the covenant and death of Moses. On this day Solomon's dedication was finished. (1 Kings viii. 65.) 28. The lessons were from Gen. vi. 9. to Gen. xii. 1. and from Isa. liv. 1. to Isa. lv. 5.


30. On this day the lessons were from Gen. xii. 1. to Gen. xviii. 1. and from Isa. xl. 27. to Isa. xli. 17. (This day is the fast held in commemoration of the murder of Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar made governor of Judæa, after he had destroyed Jerusalem, according to Dr. Prideaux. 2


The SECOND month of the civil year, the EIGHTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our October and November.

1. The new moon. (Calmet observes, in the Jewish Calendar, at the end of his Dictionary of the Bible, that the Jews always made two new moons for every month; the first of which was the last day of the preceding month; and the first day of the month was the second new moon of that month.)

3. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xviii. 1. to Gen. xxiii. 1. and from 2 Sam. iv. 1. to 2 Sam. iv. 38.

6. A fast, appointed on account of Zedekiah's having his eyes put out by the command of Nebuchadnezzar, after he had seen his children slain before his face. (2 Kings xxv. 7. Jer. lii. 10.)

8. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxiii. 1. to Gen. xxv. 19. and from I Sam. i. 1. to 1 Sam. i. 32.

15. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxv. 19. to Gen. xxviii. 10. and from Mal. i. 1. to Mal. ii. 8.

19. Fast to expiate the crimes committed on account of the feast of tabernacles.

23. A fast in memory of the stones of the altar which the Gentiles profaned, 1 Mac. iv. 46.

The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxviii. 10. to Gen. xxxii. 3. and from Hos. xi. 7. to Hos. xiv. 3.

25. A fast in memory of some places which the Cuthaans seized, and were recovered by the Israelites after the captivity.

Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. i. p. 155. et seq.

2 Prideaux's Connection, part i. book i. under the year 588.

In this month the Jews prayed for the rain, which they call Jore, or the autumnal rain, which was very seasonable for their seed. Genebrard pretends that they did not ask for this rain til! the next month. Perhaps there might be no stated time for asking for it; that might depend upon their want of it. The Jews say it was in October; and it was called in general the autumnal rain, which season lasted three months.


The THIRD month of the civil year, the NINTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our November and December.

1. The new moon.

2. Prayers for rain.

3. A feast in memory of the idols which the Asmonæans threw out of the temple.

6. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxxii. 3. to Gen. xxxvii. 1. and the whole book of Obadiah, or from Hos. xii. 12. to the end of the book. Jeremiah, which Baruch had written. (Jer. xxxvi. 23.) This fast Dr. Pri7. A fast, instituted because king Jehoiakim burned the prophecy_of deaux places on the 29th of this month. But Calmet places it on the sixth of this month, and makes the seventh of this month a festival, in memory of the death of Herod the Great, the son of Antipater. Scaliger will have it that it was instituted on account of Zedekiah's having his eyes put out, after his children had been slain in his sight.

10. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxxvii. 1. to Gen. xli. 1. and

from Amos ii. 6. to Amos iii. 9.

17. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xli. 1. to Gen. xliv. 18. and from 1 Sam. iii. 15, to the end of the chapter.

25. The dedication of the temple. This feast lasted eight days. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xliv. 18. to Gen. xlvii. 27. and from Ezek. xxxvii. 15. to the end of the chapter.


The FOURTH month of the civil year, the TENTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has but twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our December and January.

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9. A fast, the reason of which is not mentioned by the Rabbins. 10. A fast on account of the siege which the king of Babylon laid to Jeru. salem. (2 Kings xxv.)

11. The lessons were the first five chapters of Exodus, and with them from Isa. xxvii. 6. to Isa. xxvii. 14. or else from Jer, i. 1. to Jer. ii. 4. 17. The lessons for this day were from Exod. vi. 1. to Exod. x. 1. and from Ezek. xxviii. 25. to Ezek. xxx. 1.

25. The lessons for this day were from Exod. x. 1. to Exod xiii. 17. and

from Jer. xlvi. 13. to the end of the chapter.

28. A fast in memory of Rabbi Simeon's having driven the Sadducees out of the Sanhedrin, where they had the upper hand in the time of Alexander Jannæus; and his having introduced the Pharisees in their room.


The FIFTH month of the civil year, the ELEVENTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our January and February.

of the trees which they planted, whose fruit was not to be eaten till after 1. The new moon. In this month the Jews began to reckon the years they had been planted three years. Calmet fixes the beginning of this year of trees to the 15th day of this month.

2. A rejoicing for the death of Alexander Jannæus.

3. Now is read from Exod. xiii. 17. to Exod. xviii. 1. and from Judg. iv. 4. to Judg. vi. 1.

A fast in memory of the death of the elders who succeeded Joshua. (Judg. ii. 10.)

8. A fast, because on this day died the just men who lived in the days of Joshua. (Judg. ii. 10.)

10. The lessons were from Exod. xviii. 1. to Exod. xxi. 1. and the whole sixth chapter of Isaiah.

17. The lessons for this day were from Exod. xxi. 1. to Exod. xxv. 1. and Jer. xxxiv. from ver. 8. to the end of the chapter.

23. A fast in memory of the insurrection of the other tribes against that of Benjamin, on account of the death of the Levite's wife. (Judg. xx.) 26. Now is read, from Exod. xxv. 1. to Exod. xxvii. 20. and from 1 Sam. v 12. to 1 Sam. vi. 14.

29. Now is read, from Exod. xxvil. 20. to Exod. xxx. 11. and Ezek. xliii. from the 10th verse to the end of the chapter.

6. ADAR.

The SIXTH month of the civil year, the TWELFTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and cor responds with part of our February and March.

1. The new moon. Genebrard places the first-fruits on this day.

3. The lessons for this day were from Exod. xxx. 11. to Exod. xxxv. 1. and.

from 1 Sam. xviii. 1. to 1 Sam. xviii. 39.

7. A fast on account of the death of Moses, the lawgiver of the Jews. (Deut. xxxiv. 5, 6.)

* Connection, part i. book i. under the year 685.

9. A fast. The schools of Schaminai and Hillel began to be divided on this day.

12. The lessons are from Exod. xxxv. 1. to Exod. xxxviii. 21. and from 1 Sam. xvii. 13. to 1 Sam. xvii. 26. (This day is also a feast in memory of the death of Hollianus and Pipus, two proselytes and brothers, who chose rather to die than violate the law.)

13. A festival on account of the death of Nicanor. (2 Macc. xv. 37.) Genebrard places the fast of Esther (Esth. iv. 16.) on this day.

14. Purim the first, or the Little Feast of Lots.

15. Purim the second, or the Great Feast of Lots. (Esth. ix. 18.) An account of these festivals is given in a subsequent part of this volume. The dedication of the temple of Zorobabel (Ezra vi. 16.) was made in this month, but the day is not known.

18. Now is read from Exod. xxxviii. 21. to the end of the book; and from 1 Sam. vii. 50. to 1 Sam. viii. 21.

20. A fast in memory of the rain obtained of God, by one Onias Hammagel, in a time of great dearth.

25. The lessons were the first five chapters of Leviticus, and from Isa. xliii. 21. to Isa. xliv. 24.

28. A feast. The Grecian ediet, which forbade the Jews the use of circumcision, recalled.

The intercalary month was inserted here, when the year was to consist of thirteen lunar months; and the month so added was called Ve-Adar, that is, the second Adar.


The SEVENTH month of the civil year, the FIRST month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our March and April.

1. The new moon. A fast on account of the death of the children of Aaron. (Lev. x. 1.)

3. The lessons were from Lev. vi. 1. to Lev. ix. 1. and from Jer. vii. 21. to Jer. viii. 4.

10. A fast on account of the death of Miriam. (Num. xx. 1.) On this day every one provided himself with a lamb against the 14th.

12. The lessons were from Lev. ix. L. to Lev. xii. 1. and from 2 Sam. vi. 1. to 2 Sam. vii. 17.

14. The passover. The Jews now burn all the leavened bread they have in their houses.

15. The feast of unleavened bread.

16. The morrow after the feast of the passover. On this second day the Jews offered up to God the Omer, that is, the sheaf of the new barley harvest, which was cut and carried into the temple with much ceremony. The fifty days of pentecost were reckoned from this day.

19. The lessons were from Lev. xii. 1. to Lev. xiv. 1. and from 2 Sam. iv. 42. to 2 Sam. v. 20.

21. The last day of the feast of unleavened bread. 26. A fast for the death of Joshua. (Josh. xxiv. 29.)

27. The lessons were from Lev. xiv. 1. to Lev. xvi. 1. and 2 Sam. vii. 3. to the end of the chapter.

29. Genebrard observes, that the Jews in this month prayed for the spring rain, or the latter rain, which was seasonable for their harvest. (Deut. xi. 14. Zech. x. 1.) This is that rain which the Hebrews call Malkosh, that is, the rain which prepares for the harvest, and makes the grain swell.


The EIGHTH month of the civil year, the SECOND month of the ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our April and May.

1. The new moon.

3. The lessons were from Lev. xvi. 1. to Lev. xix. 1. and 17 verses of Ezek. xxii.

10. A fast for the death of Eli, and the taking of the ark. (1 Sam. iv. 18.) 11. The lessons were from Lev. xix. 1. to Lev. xx. 1. and from Amos ix. 7. to the end; or else from Ezek. xx. 2. to Ezek. xxi. 21.

14. The second passover (Num. ix. 10, 11.) in favour of those who could not, or were not suffered to celebrate the passover the last month. 19. The lessons were from Lev. xxi. 1. to Lev. xxv. 1. and from Ezek. iv. 15. to the end of the chapter.

23. A feast. Simon takes Gaza, according to Scaliger.

26. The lessons were from Lev. xxv. 1. to Lev. xxvi. 3. and from Jer. xxxii. 6. to Jer. xxxii. 28.

28. A fast for the death of Samuel, who was lamented by all the people. (1 Sam. xxv. 1.)

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17. A feast for the taking of Cæsarea by the Asmonæans.

19. The lessons were from Num. iv. 21. to Num. viii. 1. and from Judg. ii. 2. to the end of the chapter. 23. A fast, because Jeroboam forbad the ten tribes, which obeyed him,

to carry up their first-fruits to Jerusalem. (1 Kings xii. 27.)

25. A fast, on account of the murder of the rabbins, Simon the son of Gamaliel, Ishmael the son of Elisha, and Ananias the Sagan, that is, the 26. The lessons were from Num. viii. to Num. xiii. 1. and from Zech. ii.

high-priest's vicar.

10. to Zech. iv. 8.

27. A fast, because Rabbi Hanina, the son of Tardion, was burnt, and

with him the book of the law.

Belden. 1. iii. c. 13. de Syned. ex Megill. Taanith. Calmet's Calend


The TENTH month of the civil year, the FOURTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our June and July.

1. The new moon.

3. The lessons were from Num. xiii. 1. to Num. xvi. 1. and the 2d chap. ter of Joshua.

10. The lessons were from Num. xvi. 1. to Num. xix. i. and from 1 Sam. xi. 14. to 1 Sam. xii. 23.

14. A feast for the abolition of a pernicious book of the Sadducees against the oral law and tradition.

17. The fast of the fourth month, because the tables of the law were broken, the perpetual sacrifice ceased, Epistemon burned the law, and set up an idol in the temple.2 (Exod. xxxii. 19.)

19. The lessons were from Num. xix. 1. to Num. xxii. 2. and the 11th chapter of Judges to the 34th verse.

26. The lessons were from Num. xxii. 2. to Num. xxv. 10. and from Mic. v. 7. to Mic. vi. 9. 29. The lessons were from Num. xxxv. 10. to Num. xx. 2. and from 1 Sam. xviii. 46. to the end of the chapter.

11. AB.

The ELEVENTH month of the civil year, the FIFTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our July and August.

1. The new moon. A fast on account of the death of Aaron the highpriest. (Num. xxxiii. 38.) 3. The lessons were from Num. xxx. 2. to Num. xxxiii. 1. and from Jer. i. 1. to Jer. ii. 4.

9. The fast of the fifth month, because the temple was first burnt by the Chaldees, and afterwards by the Romans, on this day; and because God on this day declared in the time of Moses that none of those who came out of Egypt should enter into the land of promise. (Num. xiv. 29. 31.) 12. The book of Numbers is now finished; and from Jer. ii. 4. to Jer. ii. 29. is also read.

18. A fast, because in the time of Ahaz the evening lamp went out. Genebrand calls this lamp the Western Lamp.

20. Deuteronomy is begun, and read from i. 1. to iii. 23. and the 1st chapter of Isaiah to verse 28.

21. Selden asserts that this was the day that all the wood which was wanted in the temple was brought into it; but others think that this was done in the next month.

24. A feast for the Maccabees having abolished that law of the Sadducees whereby sons and daughters inherited alike.

28. The lessons were from Deut. iii. 23. to Deut. vii. 12. and Isa. xl. to verse 27.

12. ELUL.

The TWELFTH month of the civil year, the SIXTH month of the ecclesiastical year; it has but twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our August and September.

1. The new moon.

3. The lessons were from Deut. vii. 12. to Deut. xi. 26. and from Isa. xlix. 14. to Isa. li. 4.

7. The dedication of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah.

12. The lessons were from Deut. xi. 27. to Deut. xvi. 18. and from Isa. liv. 11. to Isa. lv. 4.

17. A fast, because of the death of the spies who brought up the evil report of the land of promise. (Num. xiv. 36, 37.)

20. The lessons were from Deut. xvi. 18. to Deut. xxi. 10. and from Isa. li. 12. to Isa. lii. 18.

21. The festival of wood offering (xylophoria).

22. A fast in memory of the punishment of the wicked and incorrigible Israelites.

28. The lessons were from Deut. xxi. 10. to Deut. xxvi. 1. and Isa. liv. to verse 11.

29. This is the last day of the month, on which the Jews reckoned up the beasts that had been born, the tenth of which belonged to God. They chose this day on which to do it, because the first day of the month Tisri was a festival, and therefore they could not tithe a flock on that day.

VI. In common with other nations, the Jews reckoned any part of a period of time for the whole, as in Exod. xvi. 35. An attention to this circumstance will explain several apparent contradictions in the Sacred Writings: thus, a part of the day is used for the whole, and part of the year for an entire year.

In Gen. xvii. 12. circumsion is enjoined to be performed when a child is eight days old, but in Lev. xii. 3. on the eighth day; accordingly, when Jesus Christ is said to have been circumcised when eight days were accomplished (Luke ii. 21.) and John the Baptist on the eighth day (Luke i. 59.), the last, which was the constant usage, explains the former passage. Abenezra, an eminent Jewish commentator (on Lev. xii. 3.), says, that if an infant were born in the last hour of the day, such hour was counted for one whole day. This observation critically reconciles the account of our Lord's resurrection in Matt. xxvii. 63. and Mark viii. 31.,

three days after," with that of his resurrection "on the third day," according to Matt. xvi. 21. Luke ix. 22., and according to fact; for, as our Lord was crucified on Good Friday, about the sixth hour, or noon, the remainder of that day to

2 See Prideaux's Con. p. I. b. 1. under the year 588.

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