that Şabbath-day was an high day), besought Pilate that they seem to intimate that it ought not usually to be denied their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken when requested by any. away.

Hence it appears, that burial was ordinarily allowed to Burial was not always allowed by the Romans in these persons who were put to death in Judæa : and the subsequent cases. For we find that sometimes a soldier was appointed conduct of Pilate shows that it was seldom denied by the to guard the bodies of malefactors, that they might not be Roman governors in that country. There is, moreover, an taken away and buried. However it seems that it was not express command in the law (of which we know that the often refused unless the criminals were very mean and infa- latter Jews were religiously observant), that the bodies of mous. Cicero reckons it one of the horrid crimes of Verres's those who were hanged should not be suffered to remain all administration in Sicily, that he would take money of parents night upon the tree. °(Deut. xxi. 23.)?“ On this account it for the burial of their children whom he had put to death.2 was, that, after the crucifixion, a number of leading men Both Suetonius; and Tacitus' represent it as one of the un- among the Jews waited on Pilate in a body, to desire that he common cruelties of Tiberius, in the latter part of his reign, would hasten the death of the malefactors hanging on their that he generally denied burial to those who were put to death crosses. (John xix. 31.) Pilate, therefore, despatched his by his orders at Rome. Ulpian, in his treatise of the duty orders to the soldiers on duty, who broke the legs of the two of a proconsul, says, “ The bodies of those who are con- criminals who were crucified along with Christ; but when demned to death are not to be denied to their relations :" and they came to Jesus, finding he had already breathed his last, Augustus writes, in the tenth book of his own life," that he they thought this violence and trouble unnecessary; but one had been wont to observe this custom ;"5 that is, to grant of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, whose point the bodies to relations. Paulus says, that the bodies of appears to have penetrated into the pericardíum, or membrane those who have been punished (with death] are to be given surrounding the heart ; for St. John, who says he was an to any that desire them in order to burial.”

eye-witness of this, declares that there issued from the wound It is evident, therefore, from these two lawyers, that the a mixture of blood and water. This wound, had he not been governors of provinces had a right to grant burial to the dead, must necessarily have been fatal. This circumstance bodies of those who had been executed by their order: nay, St. John saw, and has solemnly recorded and attested."8


ON THE JEWISH AND ROMAN MODES OF COMPUTING TIME, MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES. I. Days.-II. Hours.-Watches of the Night.—III. Weeks.-IV. Months.-V. Years, civil, ecclesiastical, and naturali

Jewish Calendar.–VI. Parts of the Time taken for the Whole.—VII. Remarkable Æras of the Jews. It is well known that, in the perusal of ancient authors, , and two denominations for them. The one they called the we are liable to fall into many serious mistakes, if we con- civil, the other the natural day; the civil day was from midsider their modes of computing time to be precisely the same night to midnight; and the natural day was from the rising to as ours: and hence it becomes necessary that we observe the setting sun.10' The natural day of the Jews varied in their different notations of time, and carefully adjust them to length according to the seasons of the year: the longest day our own. This remark is particularly applicable to the sacred in the Holy Land is only fourteen hours and twelve minutes writers, whom sceptics and infidels have charged with vari- of our time; and the shortest day, nine hours and forty-eight ous contradictions and inconsistencies, which fals to the ground minutes. This portion of time was at first divided into four as soon as the various computations of time are considered parts (Neh. ix. 3.); which, though varying in length accord and adapted to our own standard. The knowledge of the ing to the seasons, could nevertheless be easily discerned different divisions of time mentioned in the Scriptures will from the position or appearance of the sun in the horizon. elucidate the meaning of a multitude of passages with regard Afterwards the natural day was divided into twelve hours, to seasons, circumstances, and ceremonies.

which were measured from dials constructed for that purpose. 1. The Hebrews computed their Days from evening to Among these contrivances for the measurement of time, the evening, according to the command of Moses. (Lev. xxiii. sun-dial of Ahaz is particularly mentioned in 2 Kings xx. 32.) It is remarkable that the evening or natural night pre- 11.11 Jahn thinks it probable that Ahaz first introduced it cedes the morning or natural day in the account of the creation from Babylon.12 (Gen. i. 5, &c.): whence the prophet Daniel employs the II. The earliest mention of Hours in the Sacred Writings compound term evening-morning (Dan. viii. 14. marginal occurs in the prophecy of Daniel (iii. 6. 15. v. 5.): and as reading) to denote a civil day in his celebrated chronological the Chaldæans, according to Herodotus, 12 were the inventors prophecy of the 2300 days; and the same portion of time is of this division of time, it is probable that the Jews derived termed in Greek νυχθημερον.

their hours from them. It is evident that the division of hours The Romans had two different computations of their days, was unknown in the time of Moses (compare Gen. xv. 12. 1 See the passage cited from Petronius Arbiter, in note 11, p. 71.

xviii. 1. xix. 1. 15. 23.); nor is any notice taken of them by 9 Rapiunt eum ad supplicium dii patrii : quod iste inventus


, qui e the most ancient of the profane poets, who mentions only complexu parentum abreptos filios ad necem duceret, et parentes pre. the morning or evening or mid-day:14 With Homer corres

Nemo punitoruin non et in Geinonias adjectus uncoque tractus. Vit. ponded the notations of time referred to by the royal Psalmist, Tiber. c. 61.

who mentions them as the times of prayer. (Psal. lv. 17.) Et quia damnati, publicatis bonis, sepulturâ prohibebantur. Ann. lib. The Jews computed their hours of the civil day from six in 6. c. 29.

the morning till six in the evening: thus their first hour corsunt : et id se observasse etiam D. Aug. lib. x. de vita suâ, scribit. Hodie responded with our seven o'clock; their second to our eight; autem eorum, in quos animadvertitur, corpora non aliter sepeliuntur, quam their third to our nine, &c. si fuerit petitum et perinissum; et nonnunquam non permittitur, maxime majestatis causâ damnatorum. 1. i. ff. de cadaver. Punit.

The knowledge of this circumstance will illustrate several Corpora animadversorum quibuslibet petentibus ad sepulturam danda passages of Scripture, particularly Matt. xx., where the third, sunt. 1. lii. eod.

* See an instance, incidentally mentioned by Josephus. De Bell. Jud. 10 Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. ii. c. 77. ; Censorinus de Die Natali, c. 23. ; Macro. lib. iv. c. 5. 52.

bius Saturnal. lib. iji. c. 3. See also Dr. Ward's Dissertations on several . And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true; and he knoweth passages of Scripture, p. 126. ; and Dr. Macknight's Harmony, vol. i. Prethat he saith true, that ye might believe. John xix. 35.

lim. Obs. v. Adam's Roman Antiquities, p. 305. 9 Tacitus, speaking of the ancient Germans, takes notice that their 12 Few topics have caused more discussion among biblical commentators account of time differs from that of the Romans; and that instead of days than the sun-dial of Ahaz. As the original word signifies, properly, steps they reckoned the number of nights. De Mor. Germ. c. ll. So also did the or stairs, many have imagined that it was a kind of ascent to ihe gate of ancient Gauls (Cæsar de Bell. Gall. lib. vi. c. 17.); and vestiges of this an- the palace, marked at proper distances with figures showing the division cient practice still remain in our own country. We say last Sunday se'n. of the day, rather than a regular piece of dial.work. On this subject the night or this day fortnight. The practice of computing time by nights, reader will find some very ingenious and probable illustrations, together instead of days, obtains

among the Mashoos, an inland nation, dwelling in wi'h a diagram, in Dr. A Clarke's Commentary, on 2 Kings xx. the interior of South Africa. Travels by the Rev. John Campbell, vol. i. 19 Jahn, Archæol. Hebr. $ 101.

13 Lib. ii. c. 109. p. 182. (London, 1822. 8vo.)

'Hws, nofran, Metov xp.-Hom. . lib. xxi. 3.

sixth, ninth, and eleventh hours (ver. 3. 5. 6. 9.) respectively our passover,” the antitype of the paschal lamb, "expired at denote nine o'clock in the morning, twelve at noon, three and the ninth hour, and was taken down from the cross at the five in the afternoon; see also Acts ii. 15. iii. 1. x. 9. 30. eleventh hour, or sunset."? The first three hours (from six to nine) were their morning: III. Seven nights and days constituted a Week; six of during the third hour, from eight to nine, their morning sacri- these were appropriated to labour and the ordinary purposes fice was prepared, offered up, and laid on the altar precisely of life, and the seventh day or Sabbath was appointed by God at nine o'clock; this interval they termed the preparation to be observed as a day of rest, because that on it he had restea (Taproxen). Josephus confirms the narrative of the evange- from all his work which God had created and made. (Gen. ii. lists. As the Israelites went out of Egypt at the vernal | 3.) This division of time was universally observed by the equinox, the morning watch would answer to our four o'clock descendants of Noah; and some eminent critics have conjecin the morning:

tured thatit was lost during the bondage of the Israelites in Before the Captivity the night was divided into three parts Egypt, but was revived and enacted by Moses agreeably to or WATCHES. (Psal. Ixiji. 6. xc. 4.) The first or beginning the divine command. This conjecture derives some weight of watches is mentioned in Lam. ii. 19.; the middle-watch from the word Sabbat or Sabbata, denoting a week among in Judg. vii. 19.; and the morning-watch, or watch of day- the Syrians, Arabians, Christian Persians, and Ethiopians, break, in Exod. xiv. 24. It is probable that these watches as in the following ancient Syriac Calendar, expressed in varied in length according to the seasons of the year : conse- Hebrew characters:9 quently those who had a long and inclement winter watch to

snav-n... One of the Sabbath, or Week... Sunday. encounter, would ardently desire the approach of morning

Nnavoin... Two of the Sabbath... ...Monday. light to terminate their watch. This circumstance would

anavonbn... Three of the Sabbath. ........Tuesday: beautifully illustrate the fervour of the Psalmist's devotion

NnJv-nyan... Four of the Sabbath..

Wednesday. (Psal. cxxx. 6.) as well as serve to explain other passages of the Old Testament. These three watches are also men

NDIV-Reon... Five of the Sabbath... ..Thursday. tioned by various profane writers.

NnIvong .. Eve of the Sabbath... ..Friday. During the time of our Saviour, the night was divided into

Nnay. The Sabbath......

...Saturday. four watches, a fourth watch having been introduced among

The high antiquity of this calendar is evinced by the use the Jews from the Romans, who derived it from the Greeks. of the cardinal numbers, one, two, three, &c. instead of the The second and third watches are mentioned in Luke xii. 38.; ordinals, first, second, third, &c. following the Hebrew idiom; the fourth in Matt. xiv. 25.; and the four are all distinctly as in the account of the creation, where we read in the origimentioned in Mark xiii. 35. Watch, therefore, for ye know nal,“ one day--two day-three day," &c.; where the Sepnot when the master of the house cometh ; at EVEN (ofe, or the tuagint retains it in the first, calling it seepee paid. It is relate watch), or at MIDNIGHT (Scorurteu), or at the COCK-CROW- markable that all the evangelists follow the Syriac calendar, ING (REX TCP:pwvies), or in the MORNING (Frps, the early watch). both in the word 6266172, used for a week,” and also in reHere, the first watch was at even, and continued from six tili taining the cardinal number use ox66xtav,“ one of the week," nine; the second commenced at nine and ended at twelve, or to express the day of the resurrection. (Matt. xxviii. 1. Mark midnight; the third watch, called by the Romans gallicinium, xvi. 2. Luke xxiv. 1. John xx. 1.) Afterwards Mark adopts lasted from twelve to three ; and the morning watch closed at the usual phrase, Tepatu 5466278, " the first of the week” (Mark six. A double cock-crowing, indeed, is noticed by St. Mark xvi. 9.), where he uses the singular 8466476v for a week; and (xiv. 30.), where the other evangelists mention only one. so does Luke, as N95 tsuw fis 78 °o266278, " I fast twice in the (Matt. xxvi. 34. Luke xxii. 34. John xiii. 38.) But this week.” (Luke xviii. 12.). may be easily reconciled. The Jewish doctors divided the The Syriac name for Friday, or the sixth day of the week, cock-crowing into the first second, and third; the heathen is also adopted by Mark, who renders it apo:66zrev, " sabbathnations in general observed only two. As the cock crew the eve” (xv. 42.), corresponding to tapetraun," preparation-day.second time after Peter's third denial, it was this second or (Matt. xxvii. 62. Mark xv. 42. Luke xxiii. 54. John xix. principal cock-crowing (for the Jews seem in many respects 31.) And Josephus also conforms to this usage, except that to have accommodated themselves to the Roman computa- he uses 0466274 in the singular sense, for the Sabbath-day, in tion of time) to which the evangelists Matthew, Luke, and his account of a decree of Augustus, exempting the Jews of John refer. Or, perhaps, the second cock-crowing of the Asia and Cyrene from secular services, o 266201, Tu TPO Jews might coincide with the second of the Romans.s TAUTUS TRAPLOXEUN, ATO Tns upes EVVATNS. “ On the Sabbath-day, or It may be proper to remark that the word hour is frequently on the preparation-day before it, from the ninth hour."'10

"The used with great latitude in the Scriptures, and sometimes im- first three evangelists also use the plural 62662T4, to denote plies the space of time occupied by a whole watch. (Matt. the Sabbath-day: (Matt. xii. 5–11. Mark i. 21. and ü. 23. XXV. 13. xxvi. 40. Mark xiv. 37. Luke xxii. 59. Rev. iii. Luke iv. 16, &c.) Whereas John, to avoid ambiguity, ap3.). Perhaps the third hour mentioned in Acts xxiii. 23. was propriates the singular 52062tcr to the Sabbath-uay, and the a military watch of the night.

plural orbeste to the week. (John v. 9—16. v. 22, &c. xx. 1.) The Jews reckoned two evenings : the former began at the

The second Subbath after the first (Lule vi. 1.), dwTEOPATOV, ninth hour of the natural day, or three o'clock in the after- or rather the second prime Sabbath, concerning which comnoon ; and the latter at the eleventh hour. Thus the pas- the first Sabbath after the second day of unleavened bread or

mentators have been so greatly divided, appears to have been chal lamb was required to be sacrificed between the evenings (Exod. xii. 6. Lev. xxiii. 4.); which Josephus tells us, the of the passover week. Besides weeks of days, the Jews had Jews in his time did, from the ninth hour until the eleventh. weeks of seven years (the seventh of which was called the Hence the law, requiring the paschal lamb to be sacrificed salbaticul year); and weeks of seven times seven years, or "at even, at the going down of the sun” (Deut. xvi. 6.), ex- or of forty-nine years, which were reckoned from one jubilee pressed both evenings. It is truly remarkable, that “ Christ to another. The fiftieth or jubilee year was celebrated with . During the siege of Jerusalem, the Jewish historian relates that the singular

festivity and solemnity.11 priests were not interrupted in the discharge of their sacred functions, but IV. 'The Hebrews had their Months, which, like those of continued twice a day, in the morning,

and at the
ninth hour (or at three all other ancient nations,

were lunar ones, being measured by rarely, if ever, ate or drank till after the hour or prayer

(Acis x. 30.), and the revolutions of the moon, and consisting alternately of on Sabbath-days not till the sixth hour (twelve at noon, Josephus, de vita twenty-nine and thirty days. While the Jews continued in of those on whom the Holy Spirit had miraculously descended on the day years was not settled by any astronomical rules or calculasua $ 54.): which circumstance well explains the apostle Peter's defence the land of Canaan, the commencement of their months and of Pentecost. (Acts ii. 15.)

tions, but by the phasis or actual appearance of the moon. As • Thus the 131th psalm gives an instance of the temple

watch : the whole soon as they saw the moon, they began the month. Persons the watch. The first watch addresses the second (ver.1, 2.) reminding were therefore appointed to watch on the tops of the moun them of their duty; and the second answers (ver. 3.) by a solemo blessing tains for the first appearance of the moon after the change : The address and the answer seem both to be a set form, which each indi. as soon as they saw it, they informed the Sanhedrin, and vidual proclaiined or sung aloud, at stated intervals

, to notify the time of public notice was given, first, by the sounding of trumpsia, • See Homer, Iliad, lib. x. v. 252, 253. Livy, lib. vii. c. 35. and Zenophon, to which there is an allusion in Psal. Ixxxi. 3.; and after Anab. lib. iv. p. 250. (edit. Hutchinson.)

Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. on John xiii. 38. (Works, vol. ii. p. 597.) Grotius 9 Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 114. In the two following and Whitby on Matt. xxvi. 34. Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. pages, he illustrates several apparently chronological contradictions be1. p. 112. By which writers various passages of classical authors are cited. | tween the evangelists with equal felicity and

learning See also Mr. Townsend's Harmony of the New Testament, vol. i. pp. • This calendar is taken from Bp. Marsh's Translation of Michaelis's In 480-482.

troduction to the New Testament, vol. i. p. 130. • Fragments annexed to Calmet's Dictionary, No. cclxiii. p. 164.

10 Antiq. lib. xvi. c. 6. & 2.

1: Dr. Hales's Analysis or Chronology, vol. i. p. 130. Vol. II.


Dr. A. Clarke on Exod. xiv. 11.

De Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 9. $ 3.

4. Thebet
5. Sebat
6. Atlar......

9. Sivan

11. Ab

5. Ab

7. Tisri..
8. Marchesvan..

wards lighting beacons throughout the land; though (as the, (marginal rendering), at the time when kings go forth to battle, mishnical rabbins tell us) after they had frequently been de- that is, in the month of September. The annexed table exceived by the Samaritans, who kindled false fires, they used hibits the months of the Jewish civil year, with the corresto announce the appearance by sending messengers. As, ponding months of our computation :however, they had no months longer than thirty days, if they 1. Tisri.... corresponds with part of .... September and October. did not see the new moon the night following the thirtieth 2. Marchesvan..

October and November.

3. Chisleu or Kisleu. day, they concluded that the appearance was obstructed by

November and December

December and January. the clouds; and, without watching any longer, made the next

January and February day the first day of the following month. But, on the dis

February and March 7. Nisan or Abib.....

March and April. persion of the Jews throughout all nations, having no oppor

8. Jyar or Zir

April and May. tunities of being informed of the appearance of the new

May and June. moons, they were obliged to have recourse to astronomical

10. Thammuz ........

June and July.

July and August. calculations and cycles, in order to fix the beginning of their

12. Elul ....

August and September. months and years. At first, they employed a cycle of eighty- Some of the preceding names are still in use in Persia. four years : but this being discovered to be defective, they 4. The Ecclesiastical or Sacred Year began in March, or on had recourse to the Metonic cycle of nineteen years; which the first day of the month Nisan, because at that time they was established by the authority of rabbi Hillel, prince of the departed out of Egypt. From that month they computed Sanhedrin, about the year 360 of the Christian æra. This their feasts, and the prophets also occasionally dated their they still use, and say that it is to be observed until the oracles and visions. Thus Zechariah (vii. 1.) says, that the coming of the Messiah. In the compass of this cycle there word of the Lord came unto him in the fourth day of the ninth are twelve common years, consisting of twelve months, and month, even in Chisleu ; which answers to our November, seven intercalary years, consisting of thirteen months.

whence it is evident that he adopted the ecclesiastical year, Originally, the Jews had no particular names for their which commenced in March. The month Nisan is noted in months, but called them the first, second, &c. Thus the De- the Old Testament for the overflowings of Jordan (Josh. iii luge began in the second month, and came to its height in the 15. 1 Chron. xii. 15.); which were common at that season, seventh month, at the end of 150 days (Gen. vii. 11—24. viii. the river being swollen by the melted snows that poured in 4.); and decreased until the tenth month, when the tops of torrents from Mount Lebanon. The following table presents the mountains were seen. (viii. 5.) Afterwards they acquired the months of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, compared with distinct names; thus Moses named the first month of the year our months :Abib (Exod. xii. 2. xiii. 4.); signifying green, from the green

1. Nisan or Abib ears of corn at that season; for it began about the vernal equi

answers to part of March and April.

(Neh. ii. 1. Esth. iji. 7.) nox. The second month was named Zif, signifying in Chal- 2. Jyar or Zif..

April and May.

3. Sivan (Esth. viii. 9.).. dee glory or splendour ; in which the foundation of Solomon's

May and June. 4. Thainmuz......

June and July temple was laid. (1 Kings vi. 1.) The seventh month was

July and August styled Ethanim, which is interpreted harvests by the Syriac 6. Elul (Neh. vi. 15.).

Aurust and September. version. (1 Kings viii. 2.) The eighth month Bul; from

September and October.

Ociober and November. the fall of the seaf. (1 Kings vi. 38.). But concerning the

9. Kisleu or Coisleu (Zech. vii. 1. Neh. i. 1.) November and December. origin of these appellations critics aré by no means agreed : 10. Thebet.....

December and January. on their return from the Babylonish captivity, they introduced

11. Sebat (Zech. i. 7.).

January and February. 12. Adar (Ezra vi. 15. Esth. iii. 7.)

February and March.3 the names which they had found among the Chaldæans and Persians. Thus, the first month was also called Nisan, signi- The Jewish months being regulated by the phases or apfying flight ; because in that month the Israelites were thrust pearances of the moon, their years were consequently lunar out of Egypt (Exod. xii. 39.); the third month, Sivan, signi- years, consisting of twelve lunations, or 354 days and 8 fying a bramble (Esth. iii. 4. Neh. ii

. 1.); and the sixth hours; but as the Jewish festivals were held not only on cermonth Elul, signifying mourning, probably because it was tain fixed days of the month, but also at certain seasons of the time of preparation for the great day of atonement, on the the year, consequently great confusion would, in process of tenth day of the seventh month. (Neh. vi. 15.). The ninth time, arise by this method of calculating ; the spring month month was called Chisleu, signifying chilled; when the cold sometimes falling in the middle of winter, it became necesweather sets in, and fires are lighted. (Zech. vii. 1. Jer. xxxvi. sary to accommodate the lunar to solar years, in order that 22.), The tenth: month was called Tebeth, signifying miry. their months, and consequently their festivals, might always (Esth. ii. 16.) The eleventh, Shebet, signifying á stoff or a fall at the same season. For this purpose, the Jews added a sceptre. (Zech. i. 7.) And the twelfth Adar, signifying a whole month to the year, as often as it was necessary; which magnificent mantle, probably from the profusion of Howers occurred commonly once in three years, and sometimes once and plants with which the earth then begins to be clothed in in two years. This intercalary month was added at the end warm climates. (Ezra vi. 15. Esth. iii. 7.) It is said to be of the ecclesiastical year after the month Adar, and was therea Syriac term. (2 Mac. xvi. 36.)?.

fore called Ve-Adar, or the second Adar: but no vestiges of V. The Jews had four sorts of Years,—one for plants, an- such intercalation are to be found in the Scriptures. other for beasts, a third for sacred purposes, and the fourth As agriculture constituted the principal employment of the was civil and common to all the inhabitants of Palestine. Jews, they also divided their natural year into seasons with

1. The year of Plants was reckoned from the month corres- reference to their rural work. These, we have seen, were ponding with our January, because they paid tithe-fruits of six in number, each of two months' duration, including one the trees which budded at that time.

whole month and the halves of two others. See an account 2. The second year was that of Beasts ; for when they of them in pp. 23–25. of this volume. tithed their lambs, the owner drove all the flock under a rod, To this natural division of the year there are several alluand they marked the tenth, which was given to the Levites. sions in the Sacred Writings : as in Jer. xxxvi. 22. where They could, however, only take those which fell in the year, king Jehoiakim is said to be sitting in the winter-house in the and this year began at the month Elul, or the beginning of ninth sacred month Chisleu, the latter half of which fell in our August.

the winter or rainy season; so, in Ezra x. 13. it is said that But the two years which are the most known are the Civil the congregation of the people which had been convened on and Ecclesiastical Years,

the twentieth day of the same month, were not able to stand 3. The Civil Year commenced on the fifteenth of our September, because it was an old tradition that the world was generally adopted by the most eminent writers on Jewishi antiquities, after

3 The preceding view of the sacred and civil years of the Jews is that created at that time. From this year the Jews computed the opinions of the Jewish rabbins, who affirm that March and September their jubilees, dated all contracts, and noted the birth of chil- were the initial months of these two years, instead of April and October. dren, and the reign of kings. It is said also that this month after J. D. Michaelis. But after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Rowas appointed for making war; because, the great heats be- mans, who commenced their year with the month of March, it appears ing passed, they then went into the fie'd. In 2 Sam. xi. 1. that the Jews adopted the practice of their conquerors. we read that David sent Joab and his servants with him, and not only by Josephus, but also by the genius of the Syriac and Arabic

of this remark it may be observed that the rabinnical opinion is opposed all Israel, to destroy the Ammonites, at the return of the year languages, and by the fact that the ceremonies prescribed to be observed

on the three great festival days do not agree with the months of March and 1 Dr. A. Clarke, at the end of his commentary on Deuteronomy, has given September. For a further investigation of this curious question, which six elaborately constructed tables, explanatory of the Jewish calendar. cannot be discussed within the linits of a note, the reailer is referred to Mr. Allen has also given six tables, which, though less extensive than the Michaelis's Cominentatio de Mensibus Hebræorum, in the Commentationes preceding, are well calculated to afford a clear idea of the construction and Regiæ Societatis Goettingensi per annos 1763-68, pp. 10. et seq., or to Mr. variations of the Jewish calendar. See Modern Judaism, pp. 369-377. Bowyer's translation of this disquisition in his "Select Discourses” on , Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 127.

the IIebrew months, &c pp. 1–32.

In confirmation

out in the open air, because it was a time of much rain.” In this month the Jews prayed for the rain, which they call The knowledge of this mode of dividing the year illustrates Jore, or the autumnal rain, which was very seasonable for their John x. 22, 23. and accounts for our Lord's walking in the seed. Genebrard pretends that they did not ask for this rain till portico of the temple at the feast of dedication, which was the next month. "Perhaps there might be no stated time for celebrated towards the close of the same month.

asking for it; that might depend upon their want of it. The Further, the Jews divided their solar year into four parts, Jews say it was in October; and it was called in general the called by them Tekuphat (that is, revolutions of time), or autumnal rain, which season lasted three months. q'uarters, which they distinguished by the names of the months with which they commenced : thus, the vernal equi

3. CHISLEU, OR CASLEU. nox is termed Tekuphat Nisan ; the autumnal equinox, Tekuphat Tisri; the winter solstice, Tekuphat Tebeth; and the The Third month of the civil year, the ninth month of the summer solstice, Tekuphat Thammuz. Some critics have ecclesiastical year ; it has thirty days, and corresponds with conjectured that our Lord refers to the intervening space of part of our November and December. four months, from the conclusion of seed-time to the com

1. The new moon. mencement of the harvest, in John iv. 35.

2 Prayers for rain. The following CALENDAR will present to the reader a view 3. A feast in memory of the idols which the Asmonæans threw out of of the entire Jewish Year. It is abridged from Father

the temple.

6. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxxii. 3. to Gen. xxxvii. I. Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, with additions from the Calen- and the whole book of Obadiah, or from Hos. xii. 12. to the end of the dar printed by Calmet, at the end of his Dictionary of the book. Bible. In it are inserted the festivals and fasts celebrated Jeremiah, which Baruch had written. (Jer. xxxvi. 23.) This fast Dr. Pri:

7. A fast, instituted because king Jehoiakim burned the prophecy of by the Jews; including not only those enacted by the law of deaux places on the 29th of this month. But Calmet places it on the sixth Noses, and which are described in a subsequent part of this of this inonth, and makes the seventh of this month a festival, in memory work, but likewise those which were not established until of the death of Herod the Great, the son of Antipater. Scaliger will have

it that it was instituted on account of Zedekiah's having his eyes put out, after the destruction of the temple, and those which are ob- after his children had been slain in his sight. served by the Jews to the present time. The lessons also

10. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxxvii. 1. to Gen. xli. 1. and are introduced which they were accustomed to read in the from Amos ii. 6. to Amos iii. 9.

17. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xli. 1. to Gen. xliv. 18. and synagogues.—Those days, on which no festival or fast was from 1 Sam. iii. 15, to the end of the chapter. celebrated, are designedly omitted.

25. The dedication of the temple. This seast lasted eight days.

The lessons for this day were from Gen. xliv, 18. to Gen. xlvii. 27. and

from Ezek. xxxvii. 15. to the end of the chapter. 1. TISRI, FORMERLY CALLED ETHANIM.

4. THEBETH, OR TEBETH. The first month of the civil year, the seventh month of the The FOURTH month of the civil year, the Tenth month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with

ecclesiastical year; it has but twenty-nine days, and corpart of our September and October.

responds with part of our December and January.

1. The new moon. 1. Rosch Ilaschana, the beginning of the civil year. The feast of trumpets commanded in Leviticus. (Lev. xxiii. 24, 25. Nun. xxix. 1. Jer. book, and the thirteen first verses of the second chapter of the first book

3. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xlvii. 27. to the end of the xli. 1.)

of Samuel. 3. The fast of Gedaliah; because Gedaliah, the son of Ahikam, and ali the Jews that were with him, were slain at Mizpah. (2 Kings xxv, 25.) his life of Moses, says, that the Jews of Alexandria celebrated a feast on

8. A fast on account of the translation of the Bible into Greek. Philo, in This

is the fast that Zechariah calls the last of the seventh month. (Zech. this day, in meinory of the 72 Interpreters. But the Jews at present abovili. 19.)

minate that version. 5. A fast. Twenty Israelites were killed: Rabbi Akiba, the son of Jo

9. A fast, the reason of which is not mentioned by the Rabbins. seph, was loaded with irons, and died in prison. 7. A fast, appointed on account of the golden call. (Exod. xxxii. 6, 7, 8.) salem. (2 Kings xxv.)

10. A fast on account of the siege which the king of Babylon laid to Jeru. The lessons for this day were froin Deut. xxvi. 1. to Deut. xxix. and the 11. The lessons were the first five chapters of Exodus, and with them Ixth chapter of Isaiah.

froin Isa. xxvii. 6. to Isa. xxvii. 14. or else from Jer, i. 1. to Jer. ii. 4. 10. Tlie fast of expiation. (Lev. xxiii. 27.) 11. The lessons for this day were from Deut. xxix. 10. to Deut. xxxi. 1. from Ezek. xxviii. 25. to Ezek. xxx. 1.

17. The lessons for this day were from Exod. vi. 1. to Exod. x. 1. and when the year had inost Sabbaths; and when fewest, the book was finished 25. The lessons for this day were from Exod. x. 1. to Exod xiii. 17. and on this day. And from Isa. Ixi. 1. to Isa. Ixiii. 10.

from Jer. xlvi. 13. to the end of the chapter. 15. The feast of tabernacles. (Lev. xxiii. 34, 35.) It lasted seven days, 28. A fast in memory of Rabbi Simeon's having driven the Sadducees exclusive of the octave or eighth day. 21. Hosanna Rabba, the seventh day of the feast of tabernacles; or the ander Jannæus; and his having introduced the Pharisees in their room.

out of the Sanhedrin, where they had the upper hand in the time of Alex. feast of branches.

The lessons for this day were from Gen. i. 1. to Gen. vi. 9. and from Isa. xlii. 5. to Isa. xliii. 11.

5. SEBAT, SHEVET, OR SHEBAT. 22. The octave of the feast of tabernacles. Lev. xxii. 36.) 23. The solemnity of the law, in memory of the covenant and death of The FIFTH month of the civil year, the ELEVENTH month of the Moses. On this day Solomon's dedication was finished. (1 Kings viii. 65.) ecclesiastical year ; it has thirty days, and corresponds with 28. The lessons were from Gen. vi. 9. to Gen. xii. 1. and from

Isa. liv. 1. to Isa. lv. 5.

part of our January and February. 30. On this day the lessons were from Gen. xii. 1. to Gen. xviii. 1. and from Isa. xl. 27. to Isa. xli. 17. (This day is the fast held in commemoration of the trees which they planted, whose

fruit was not to be eaten till after

1. The new moon. In this month the Jews began to reckon the years of the

murder of Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar made governor of they had been planted three years. Calmet fixes the beginning of this Judæa, after he had destroyed Jerusalern, according to Dr. Prideaux. 9

year of trees to the 15th day of this month.

2. A rejoicing for the death of Alexander Jannæus. 2. MARCHESVAN

3. Now is read from Exod. xiii. 17. to Exod. xviii. 1. and from Judg. iv. 4.

to Judg. vi. 1. The second month of the civil year, the EIGHTH month of the A fast in memory of the death of the elders who succeeded Joshua. ecclesiastical year ; it has only twenty-nine days, and cor- (Judg. ii. 10.)

8. À fast, because on this day died the just men who lived in the days of responds with part of our October and November.

Joshua. (Judg. ii. 10.) 1. The new moon. (Calmet observes, in the Jewish Calendar, at the end sixth chapter of Isaiah.

10. The lessons were from Exod. xviii. 1. to Exod. xxi. 1. and the whole. of his Dictionary of the Bible, that the Jews always made two new moons for every month; the first of which was the last day of the preceding Jer. xxxiv. from ver. 8. to the end of the chapter.

17. The lessons for this day were from Exod. xxi. 1. to Exod. xxv. 1. anit month; and the first day of the month was the second new moon of that

23. A fast in memory of the insurrection of the other tribes against that month.) 3. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xviii. I. to Gen. xxiii. 1. and of Benjamin, on account of the death of the Levite's wife. (Judg. xx.)

26. Now is read, from Exod. xxv. 1. to Exod. xxvii. 20. and from 1 Sam. v from 2 Sam. iv. 1. to 2 Sam. iv. 38.

12. to 1 Sam, vi. 14. fast, appointed on account of Zedekiah's having his eyes put out by the command of Nebuchadnezzar, after he had seen his children slain be from the 10th verse to the end of the chapter.

29. Now is read, from Exod. xxvii. 20. to Exod. xxx. 11. and Ezek. xliii. fore his face. (2 Kings xxv. 7. Jer. lii. 10.) 8. The lessons for ibis day were from Gen. xxiii. 1. to Gen. xxv. 19. and

6. ADAR. 15. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxv. 19. to Gen. xxviii. 10. The sixth month of the civil year, the TWELFTH month of the and from Mal. i. I. to Mal. ii. 8. 19. Fast to expiate the criines committed on account of the feast of

ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and cor tabernacles.

23. A fast in memory of the stones of the altar which the Gentiles pro- responds with part of our February and March.
faned, 1 Mac. iv. 46.
The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxviii. 10. to Gen. xxxij. 3. and

1. The new moon. Genebrard places the first-fruits on this day. from Hos. xi. 7. to Hos. xiv. 3.

3. The lessons for this day were from Exod. xxx. 11. to Exod. xxxv. I. and. 25. A fast in memory of some places which the Cathæans seized, and from 1 Sam. xviii. 1. to 1 Sam. xviii.

39. were recovered by the Israelites after the captivity.

7. A fasc on account of the death of Moses, the lawgiver of the Jews.

(Deut. xxxiv. 5, 6.) Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. I. p. 155. et seq. 9 Prideaux's Connection, part i. book i. under the year 588.

• Connection, part i. book i. under the year 685.


9. A fast. The schools of Schamınai and Hillel began to be divided on

10. THAMMUZ, OR TAMMUZ. this day.

12. The lessons are from Exod. xxxv. 1. to Exod. xxxviii: 21. and from The TENTH month of the civil year, the FOURTH month of the | Sam. xvii. 13. to 1 Sam. xvii. 26. (This day is also a feast in memory of the death of Hollianus and Pipus, two proselytes and brothers, who chose

ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and corrather to die than violate the law.).

responds with part of our June and July. 13. A festival on account of the death of Nicanor. (2 Macc. xv. 37.) Genebrard places the fast of Esther (Esth. iv. 16.) on this day.

1. The new moon. 14. Purim the first, or the Little Feast of Lots.

3. The lessons were from Num. xiii. 1. to Num. xvi. 1. and the 20 chap. 15. Puriin the second, or the Great Feast of Lots. (Esth. ix. 18.) An ac- ter of Joshua. count of these festivals is given in a subsequent part of this volume. 10. The lessons were from Num. xvi. 1. to Num. xix. i. and from 1 Sam.

The dedication of the temple of Zorobabel (Ezra vi. 16.) was made in this xi. 14. to 1 Sam. xii. 23. inonth, but the day is not known.

14. A feast for the abolition of a pernicious book of the Sadducees against 18. Now is read from Exod. xxxviii. 21. to the end of the book; and from the oral law and tradition. 1 Sam. vii. 50. to 1 Sam. viii. 21.

17. The fast of the fourth month, because the tables of the law were 20. A fast in memory of the rain obtained of God, by one Onias Ham. broken, the perpetual sacrifice ceased, Epistemon burned the law, and set magel, in a time of great dearth.

up an idol in the temple.? (Exod. xxxii. 19.) 23. The lessons were the first five chapters of Leviticus, and from Isa. 19. The lessons were from Num. xix. 1. to Num. xxii. 2. and the 11th xliii. 21. to Isa. xliv. 24.

chapter of Judges to the 34th verse. 28. A feast. The Grecian ediet, which forbade the Jews the use of cir- 26. The lessons were from Num. xxii. 2. to Num. xxv. 10. and from Mic. cumcision, recalled.

v. 7. to Mic. vi. 9. The intercalary month was inserted here, when the year was to consist 29. The lessons were from Num. XXXV. 10. to Num. xx. 2. and from 1 Sam. of thirteen lunar months; and the month so added was called Ve-Adar, that xviii. 46. to the end of the chapter. is, the second Adar.

11. AB. 7. ABIB, OR NISAN.

The ELEVENTH month of the civil year, the Fifth month of the The SEVENTH month of the civil year, the FIRST month of the ecclesiastical

year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with ecclesiastical year ; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our July and August. part of our March and April.

1. The new moon. A fast on account of the death of Aaron the high1. The new moon. A fast on account of the death of the children of priest. (Num. xxxiii. 38.) Aaron. (Lev. x. 1.)

3. The lessons were from Num. XXX. 2. to Num. xxxiii. 1. and from 3. The

lessons were from Lev. vi. 1. to Lev. ix. 1. and from Jer. vii. 21. Jer. i. 1. to Jer. ii. 4. to Jer. viii. 4.

9. The fast of the fifth month, because the temple was first burnt by the 10. A fast on account of the death of Miriam. (Num. xx. 1.) On this day Chaldees, and afterwards by the Romans, on this day; and because God every one provided himself with a lamb against the 14th.

12. The lessons were from Lev. ix L. to Lev. xii. 1. and from 2 Sam. vi. 1. out of Egypt should enter into the land of promise. (Num. xiv. 29.31.) to 2 Sam. vii. 17.

12. The book of Numbers is now finished; and from Jer. ii. 4. to Jer. 14. The passover. The Jews now burn all the leavened bread they have ii. 29. is also read. in their houses.

18. A fast, because in the time of Ahaz the evening lamp went out. Ge15. The feast of unleavened bread.

nebrand calls this lamp the Western Lamp. 16. The morrow after the feast of the passover. On this second day the 20. Deuteronomy is begun, and read from i. 1. to iii. 23. and the 1st chap. Jews offered

up to God the Omer, that is, the shear of the new barley ter of Isaiah to verse 28. harvest, which was cut and carried into the temple with much ceremony wanted in the temple

was brought into it; but others

think that this was

21. Selden asserts that this was the day that all the wood which was The fifty days of pentecost were reckoned from this day.

19. The lessons were from Lev. xii. 1. to Lev. xiv. 1. and from 2 Sam. iv. done in the next month. 12. to 2 Sam. v. 20.

24. A feast for the Maccabees having abolished that law of the Sadducees 21. The last day of the feast of unleavened bread.

whereby sons and daughters inherited alike. 26. A fast for the death of Joshua. (Josh. xxiv. 29.)

28. The lessons were from Deut. iii. 23. to Deut. vii. 12. and Isa. xl. to 27. The lessons were from Lev. xiv. 1. to Lev. xvi. 1. and 2 Sam. vii. 3. verse 27. to the end of the chapter. 29. Genebrard observes, that the Jews in this month prayed for the

12. ELUL. spring rain, or the latter rain, which was seasonable for their harvest. (Deut. xi. 14. Zech. x. 1.) This is that rain which the Hebrews cali The TWELFTH month of the civil year, the sixth month of Malkosh, that is, the rain which prepares for the harvest, and makes the the ecclesiastical year; it has but twenty-nine days, and grain swell.

corresponds with part of our August and September. 8. JYAR, OR ZIF. The EIGHTH month of the civil year, the SECOND month of the

3. The lessons were from Deut. vii. 12. to Deut. xi. 26. and from Isa. xlix.

14. to Isa. li. 4. ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and cor

7. The dedication of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, responds with part of our April and May.

12. The lessons were from Deut. xi. 27. to Deut. xvi. 18. and from Isa.

liv, 11. to Isa. lv. 4. 1. The new moon.

17. A fast, because of the death of the spies

who brought up the evil 3. The lessons were from Lev. xvi. 1. to Lev. xix. 1. and 17 verses of report of the land of promise. (Num. xiv. 36, 37.) Ezek. xxii.

20. The lessons were from Deut. xvi. 18. to Deut. xxi, 10. and from Isa. 10. A fast for the death of Eli, and the taking of the ark. (1 Sam. iv. 18.) li. 12. to Isa. lii. 18.

II. The lessons were from Lev. xix. 1. to Lev. xx. 1, and from Amos ix. 7. 21. The festival of wood offering (wylophoria).
to the end; or else from Ezek. XX. 2. to Ezek. xxi. 21.
14. The second passover (Num. ix. 10, 11.) in favour of those who could Israelites.

22. A fast in memory of the punishment of the wicked and incorrigiblo ROL, or were not suffered to celebrate the passover the last month.

28. The lessons were from Deut. xxi. 10. to Deut. xxvi. 1. and Isa. liv. to 19. The lessons

were from Lev. xxi. 1. to Lev. xxv. 1. and from Ezek. iv. Verse 11. 16. to the end of the chapter.

29. This is the last day of the month, on which the Jews reckoned up 23. A feast. Simon takes Gaza, according to Scaliger.

the beasts that had been born, the tenth of which belonged to God. 26. The lessons were from Lev. xxv. 1. to Lev. xxvi. 3. and from Jer. They chose this day on which to do it, because the first day of the

month xxxii. 6. to Jer. xxxii. 28.

Tisri was a festival, and therefore they could not tithe a flock on that day. 28. A fast for the death of Samuel, who was lamented by all the people. (1 Sam. xxv. 1.) 9. SIVAN, OR SIUVAN.

VI. In common with other nations, the Jews reckoned any The Ninth month of the civil year, the THIRD month of the part of a period of time for the whole, as in Exod. xvi. 35.

ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with An attention to this circumstance will explain several appapart of our May and June.

rent contradictions in the Sacred Writings: thus, a part of 1. The new moon.

the day is used for the whole, and part of the year for an a. The lessons were from Lev. xxvi. 3. to the end of the book, and from entire year. Jer. xvi. 19. to Jer. xvii. 15.

In Gen. xvii. 12. circumsion is enjoined to be performed 6. The feast of pentecost, which is also called the feast of weeks, be when a child is eight days old, but in Lev. xii. 3. on the cause it fell just seven weeks after the morrow after the feast of the eighth day; accordingly, when Jesus Christ is said to have

10. Numbers is begun and read to ch. iv. ver. 21. and from Hosea ii. 10. been circumcised when eight days were accomplished (Luke ii. to Hosea ii. 21. 13. A feast in memory of the victories of the Maccabees over the Bath the last, which was the constant usage, explains the former

21.) and John the Baptist on the eighth day (Luke i. 59.), surites, 1 Macc. v. 52. 17. A feast for the taking of Cæsarea by the Asmonæang.

passage. Abenezra, an eminent Jewish commentator (on 19. The lessons were from Num. iv. 21. to Num. viii. 1. and from Judg. ii. Lev. xii. 3.), says, that if an infant were born in the last 23. A fast, because Jeroboam forbad the ten tribes,

which obeyed him, This observation critically reconciles the account of our

hour of the day, such hour was counted for one whole day. 25. A fast, on account of the murder of the rabbins, Simon the son of Lord's resurrection in Matt. xxvii. 63. and Mark viii. 31., Gamaliel, Ishmael the son of Elisha, and Ananias the Sagan, that is, the three days after," with that of his resurrection on the third

25. The lessons were from Num. viii. to Num. xiii. 1. and from Zech. ii. day,” according to Matt. xvi. 21. Luke ix. 22., and accord10. to Zech. iv. 8. 2. A fast, because Rabbi Hanina, the son of Tardion, was burnt, and about the sixth hour, or noon, the remainder of that day to

ing to fact; for, as our Lord was crucified on Good Friday, with him the book of the law. Belden. I. iii. c. 13. de Syned. ex Megill. Taanith. Calmet's Calend

» See Prideaux's Con. p. I. b. 1. under the year 588.

1. The new moon.

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