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xxi. 22.); which mode of expression is adopted, or rather some Ishmaelite.'The office, therefore, of the Go ! wis imitated by the apostle John, who distinguishes between a in use before the time of Moses, and it was probably filled by sin unto death, and a sin nor unio d-ath. (1 John v. 16.) the nearest of blood to the party killed, as the right of reCriminals, or those who were deemed worthy of capital deeming a mortgaged field is given to him. To prevent the punishment, were called sons or men of death (i Sam: xx: 31. unnecessary.less of life through a sanguinary spirit of rexxvi. 16. 2 Sam. xix. 29. marginal rendering); just as he venge, the Hebrew legislator made various enactinents conwho had incurred the punishment of scourging was designated cerning the blood-avenger. In most ages and countries, a son of stripes. (Deut. xxv. 2. Heb.) Those who suffered a certain reputed sacred places enjoyed the privileges of being capital punishment, were said to be put to death for their own asylums: Moses, therefore, taking it for granted that the $.n. (Deut. xxiv. 16. 2 Kings xiv. 6.) A similar phraseo murderer would flee to the altar, commanded that when the logy was adopted by Jesus Christ, when he said to the Jews, crime was deliberate and intentional, he should be torn even Ye shall die in your sins. (John viii. 21. 24.) Eleven differ from the

altar, and put to death. (Exod. xxi. 14.) But in the edt sorts of capital punishments are mentioned in the Sacred case of unintentional murder, the man-slayer was enjoined to Writings; viz.

flee to one of the six cities of refuge which (we have already 1. SLAYING BY THE Sword is commonly confounded with seen) were appropriated for his residence. The roads to these decapitation or beheading: They were, however, two dis- cities, it was enacted, should be kept in such a state that the tinct punishments. The laws of Moses are totally silent unfortunate individual might meet with no impediment whatconcerning the latter practice, and it appears that those who ever in his way. (Deut. xix. 3.). If the Go'l overtook the were slain with the sword were put to death in any way fugitive before he reached an asylum, and pụt him to death, which the executioner thought proper. See 1 kings ii. 25. he was not considered as guilty of blood : but if the man29. 31. 34.46. This punishment was inflicted in two cases : slayer had reached a place of refuge, he was immediately -(1.) When a murderer was to be put to death; and (2.) protected, and an inquiry was instituted whether he had a “When a whole city or tribe was hostilely attacked for any right to such protection and asylum, that is, whether he had common crime, they smote all (as the Hebrew phrase is) with caused his neighbour's death undesignedly, or was a deliberate the edge of the sword. (Deut. xiii. 13-16.) Here, doubtless, murderer. In the latter case he was judicially delivered to the sword was used by every one as he found opportunity.! the Go !, who might put him to death in whatever way he

With respect to the case of murder, frequent mention is chose: but in the former case the homicide continued in the made in the Old Testament of the 583 (GOEL) or blood-avenger ; place of refuge until the high-priest's death, when he might various regulations were made by Moses concerning this per- return home in perfect security: If, however, the Goël found son.

him without the city or beyond its suburbs, he might slay The inhabitants of the East, it is well known, are now, him without being guilty of blood. (Num. xxxv. 26, 27.) what they anciently were, exceedingly revengeful. If there- Further to guard the life of man, and prevent the perpetration fore, an individual should unfortunately happen to lay violent of murder, Noses positively prohibited the receiving of a sum hands upon another person and kill him, the next of kin is of money from a murderer in the way of compensation. bound to avenge the death of the latter, and to pursue the (Num. xxxv. 31.) It should seem that if no avenger of blood murderer with unceasing vigilance until he have caught and appeared, or if he were dilatory in the pursuit of the murderer, killed him, either by force or by fraud. The same custom it became the duty of the magistrate himself to inflict the exists in Arabia and Persia, and also among the Circas- sentence of the law; and thus we find that David deemed sians,3 Ingush Tartars, Nubians, and Abyssinians, and it this to be his duty in the case of Joab, and that Solomon, in appears to have been alluded to by Rebecca : when she obedience to his father's dying entreaty, actually discharged learned that Esau was threatening to kill his brother Jacob, it by putting that murderer to death. (1 Kings ii

. 5, 6. 28she endeavoured to send the latter out of the country, saying 31.3. There is a beautiful allusion to the blood-avenger in Why should I be bėreft of you both in one day? (Gen. xxvii. Heh. vi. 17, 18, 15.) She could not be afraid of the magistrate for punishing Hewing in pieces with the sword may be referred to this the murder, for the patriarchs were subject to no superior in class of punishments. Thus Agag was executed, as a criPalestine: and Isaac was much too partial to Esau, for herminal, by the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. xv. 33.); and recent to entertain any expectation that he would condemn him to travellers inform us that criminals are literally hewed in death for it. It would, therefore, appear that she dreaded lest pieces in Abyssinia, Persia, and in Asiatic Turkey.s he should fall by the hand of the wod-avenger, perhaps of 2. Stoning was denounced against idolaters, blasphemers,

sabbath-breakers, incestuous persons, witches, wizards, and · Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 418, 419.

children who either cursed their parents or rebelled against 2 " The interest of the common safety has, for ages, established a law them. (Lev. xx. 2. 27. xxiv. 14. Deut. xiii. 10. xvii. 5. who is slain, must be avenged by that of his murderer. This verigeance is xxi. 21. and xxii. 21. 24.) It was the most general punishcalled tar, or retaliation; and the right of exacting it devolves on the nearest ment denounced in the law against notorious criminals; and of kin to the deceasedl. So nice are the Arabs on this point of honour, this kind of punishment is intended by the indefinite term of He therefore watches every opportunity of revenge : il his enemy perishes putting to death. (Lev. xx. 10. compared with John viii. 5.) from any other cause, still lie is not satisfied, and bis vengeance is directed Michaelis supposes that the culprit was bound, previously to against ihe nearest relation. These ani nosities are transmitted, as an the execution of his sentence. T'he witnesses threw the first of one of the families, unless they agree to sacrifice the criminal; or pur stones, and the rest of the people then followed their example. chase the blood for a stated price, in money or in focks. Without this Instances of persons being stoned in the Old Testament occur satisfaction there is neitlier peace, nor truce, nor alliance between them; in Achan (Josh. vii. 25.), Adoram (1 Kings xii. 18), Naboth say they all every occasion; and this expression is an insurmountable (1 Kings xxi. 10.), and Zechariah. (2 Chron. xxiv. 21.)! barrier." (Volney's Travels in Exypt and Syria, vol. i. p. 367. See also In the New Testament we meet with vestiges of a punishNiebalır, Description de l'Arabie, PP. 26.-30.- 1a Turkey and in Persia ment, which has frequently been confounded with lapidation : business of the next relations, and of them only, to revenge the slaughter it originated in the latter times of the Jewish commonwealth, of their kin sinea; and if they rather choose, as they generally do, to com and was termed the rebel's beating. It was often fatal, and pound the matter for uwuey, nothing more is said about it. Lady MW: was inflicted by the mob with their fists, or staves, or stones,

: Among the fircassians, all the relatives of the murderers are consi. without mercy, or the sentence of the judges. Whoever dered as guilty. This customary infatuation to avenge the blow of rela transgressed against a prohibition of the wise men, or of the tions, generates arost of the feu Is, and occasions great bloodshed anong scribes, which had its foundation in the law, was delivered by intermarriage between the two families, the principle

of revenge is over to the people to be used in this manner, and was called propagated to all succeeding generations. If the thirst of vengeance is a son of rebellion. The frequent taking up of stones by the quenched by a price paid to the family of the deceased, this tribute is Jews against our Saviour, mentioned in the New Testament, (or nobles) accept of such a compensation, as it is an established

law and also the stoning of Stephen (Acts vii. 59.), were instances among them, to demand blood for blood. -- Pallas, Voyages

dans les Gow of this kind, to which some have referred the stoning of St. vernemens Meridionaux de l'Empire de Russie, 100. i. p. 141, Paris, 1805. Paul at Lystra. (Acts xiv. 19.) But this appears to be a " blood for blood” among the Ingush Tartars, mentions the case of a young mistake. The people of Lystra were Gentiles, though they man of amiable disposition, who was worn down almost to a skeleton, by stoned Paul at the instigation of the Jews who came from the constant dread in which he lived, of having avenged upon him a mur. Antioch and Iconium: and it appears from various passages more than a hundred persons who consider theinselves bound to take away his life, whenever a favourable opportunity shall present itself.” Biblical * Michaelis'a Commentaries, vol. ii. pp. 221-225. Researches and Travels in Russia. p. 485.

* Bruce's Travels, vol. iv. p. 81. llarıner's Observations, vol. iv. pp. 229 Lichta Travels in Egypt, Nubia, &c. p. 95. Burckhardt's Travels in 230. Capt. Light's Travels in Egypt, Nubia, &c. p. 194. Nubia, p. 1:38

• Michaelis's Cominentaries, vol. iii. p. 121. • Salix Voyage to Abyssinia, pp. 315, 316.

10 Ibid. pp. 122-423.

of Greek authors, that stoning was a Grecian punishment. factors from the Tarpeian rock. The same practice obtains The inconstancy of a populace, easily persuaded by any among the Moors at Constantine, a town in Barbary;8 plausible demagogues, will sufficiently account for the sudden 6. Drowning was a punishment in use among the Syrians, change in the mind of the Lystrians towards the apostle.' and was well known to the Jews in the time of our Saviour,

Although the law of Moses punished no one with infamy, though we have no evidence that it was practised by them. during life, yet three marks of infamy are denounced against It was also in use among the Greeks and Romans. The those who were punished capitally ; viz.—(1.) Burning the Emperor Augustus, we are told, punished certain persons, criminal who had been stoned, agreeably to the ancient con- who had been guilty of rapacity in the province (of Syria or suetudinary law. (Gen. xxxviii

. 24. Lev. xx. 14. xxi. 9.)—of Lycia), by causing them to be thrown into a river, with a (2.) Hanging, either on a tree or on a gibbet (for the Hebrew heavy weight about their necks. Josephus also tells us word signifies both); which was practised in Egypt (Gen. that the Galileans revolting, drowned the partisans of Herod xl. 17–19.), and also enjoined by Moses. (Num. xxv. 4, 5. in the sea of Gennesareth. To this mode of capital punishDeut. xxi. 22.). The five Canaanitish kings were first slain ment Jesus Christ alludes in Matt. xviii. 6.11 and then hanged. (Josh. x. 26.). Persons who were hanged 7. BRUISING, OR POUNDING IN A Mortar, is a punishment still were considered as accursed of God, that is, punished by him in use among the Turks. The ulema or body of lawyers and abominable; on which account they were to be taken are in Turkey exempted from confiscation of their property, down and buried the same day. (Deut. xxi. 23.) The hang- and from being put to death, except by the pestle and mortar. ing of Saul's sons, recorded in 2 Sam. xxi. 6., was done, not Some of the Turkish guards, who had permitted the escape by the Israelites, but by the Gibeonites, who were of Canaan- of the Polish prince Coreski in 1618, were pounded to death itish origin, and probably retained their old laws. The hang- in great mortars of iron.2 This horrid punishment was not ing mentioned by Moses was widely different from crucifixion, unknown in the time of Solomon, who expressly alludes to which was a Roman punishment; on account of its ignominy, it in Prov. xxvii. 22. however, the Jews subsequently extended the declaration of 8. DICHOTOMY, or CUTTING ASUNDER, was a capital punishMoses to it, and accounted the crucified person as accursed. ment anciently in use in the countries contiguous to Judæa. (John xix. 31–34. Gal. iii. 13.)—(3.), The Heaping of The rabbinical writers report that Isaiah was thus put to Stones on the bodies of criminals, who had been already death by the profligate Manasseh; and to this Saint Paul is stoned to death, or slain by the sword, or upon their remains, supposed to allude. (Heb. xi. 37.) Nebuchadnezzar threatwhen consumed by fire. Such a heap was accumulated over ened it to the Chaldee magi, if they did not interpret his Achan (Josh. vii. 25, 26.), and also over Absalom. (2 Sam. dream (Dan. ii. 5.), and also to the blasphemers of the true xviii. 17.) The Arabs, long after the time of David, ex- God. (Dan. iii. 29.) Herodotus says, that Sabacho had a pressed their detestation of deceased enemies in the same vision, in which he was commanded to cut in two all the manner. Similar heaps were raised over persons murdered Egyptian priests : and that Xerxes ordered one of the sons in the highways in the time of the prophet Ezekiel (xxxix. of Pythias to be cut in two, and one half placed on each 15.); as they also are to this day, in Palestine, and other side of the way, that his army might pass between them.13 parts of the East."

Trajan is said to have inflicted this punishment on some re3. BURNING Offenders Alive is a punishment which bellious Jews. It is still practised by the Moors of Western Moses commanded to be inflicted on the daughters of priests, Barbary, and also in Persia.14 who should be guilty of fornication (Lev. xxi. 9.), and upon 9. BEATING TO DEATH (Tuusravio u Os) was practised by a man who should marry both the mother and the daughter. Antiochus towards the Jews (2 Macc. vi. 19. 28. 30.), and (Lev. xx. 14.) This punishment seems to have been in use is referred to by Saint Paul. (Heb. xi. 35. Gr.) This was in the East, from a very early period. When Judah was in- a punishment in use among the Greeks, and was usually formed that his daughter-in-law Tamar was pregnant, he con- inflicted upon slaves. The real or supposed culprit was demned her to be burnt. (Gen. xxxviii. 24.) Many ages after- fastened to a stake, and beaten to death with sticks. The wards we find the Babylonians or Chaldæans burning certain same punishment is still in use among the 'Turks, under the offenders alive (Jer. xxix. 22. Dan. iii

. 6.); and this mode appellation of the bastinado : with them, however, it is selof punishment was not uncommon in the East so lately as the dom mortal. seventeenth century.5

10. EXPOSING TO WILD BEAsts appears to have been a The preceding are the only capital punishments denounced punishment among the Medes and Persians. It was inflicted in the Mosaic law: in subsequent times others were intro- first on the exemplary prophet Daniel, who was miraculously duced among the Jews, as their intercourse increased with preserved, and afterwards on his accusers, who miserably foreign nations.

perished. (Dan. vi. 7. 12. 16–24.) From them it appears 4. DECAPITATION, or beheading, though not a mode of to have passed to the Romans.15 In their theatres they had punishment enjoined by Moses, was certainly in use before two sorts of amusements, each sufficiently barbarous. Somehis time. It existed in Egypt (Gen. xl. 19.), and it is well times they cast men naked to the wild beasts, to be devoured known to have been inflicted under the princes of the Hero- by them : this punishment was inflicted on slaves and vile dian family. Thus John the Baptist was beheaded (Matt. persons. Sometimes persons were sent into the theatre, xiv. 8–12.) by one of Herod's life-guards, who was de-armed, to fight with wild beasts: if they conquered, they spatched to his prison for that purpose. (Mark vi. 27.) had their lives and liberty : but if not, they fell a prey to the

5. PRECIPITATION, or casting headlong from a window, or beasts. To this latter usage (concerning which some further from a precipice, was a punishment rarely used; though we particulars are given in a subsequent page) Saint Paul refers meet with it in the history of the kings, and in subsequent in 2 Tim. iv. 17. and 1 Cor. xv. 32. times. Thus, the profligate Jezebel was precipitated out of In the case of certain extraordinary criminals, besides ina window (2 Kings ix. 30. 33.), and the same mode of punish- flicting upon them the sentence to which they had been conment still obtains in Persia. Amaziah, king of Judah, bar demned, it was not unusual to demolish their houses, and barously forced ten thousand Idumean prisoners of war to reduce them to a common place for filth and dung. Among leap from the top of a high rock. (2 Chron. xxv. 12.) The other things, Nebuchadnezzar denounced this disgrace to the Jews attempted to precipitate Jesus Christ from the brow of diviners of Chaldæa, if they did not declare his dream to a mountain. (Luke iv. 29.) James, surnamed the Just, was him (Dan. ii. 5.); and afterwards to all such as should not thrown from the highest part of the temple into the subjacent worship. the God of Shadrach, Meshech, and Abednego. valley. The same mode of punishment, it is well known, (Dan. ii. 29.) And Darius threatened the same punishobtained among the Romans, who used to throw certain male- ment to those who should molest the Jews. (Ezra vi. 11.)

In this way the Romans destroyed the house of Spurius 1 Biscoe on the Acts, vol. i. pp. 315, 316.

Cassius, after they had precipitated him from the Tarpeian 2 Michaelis has given some instances of this

practice. See his Commentaries, vol. iii. p. 430. : Dr. Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. pp. 901, 902.

Livy, Hist. lib. vi. c. 20. • Dr. Shaw's Travels in Barbary, vol. I. Pref. p. xviii

. 8vo. edit.

8 Pitt's Religion and Manners of the Mahometans, pp. 311, 312. London Chardin, in his Travels (vol. vi. p. 118. of Langlés' edition), after edit. 1810. speaking of the most cominon modes of punishing with death, says, “But o Seutonius, in Augusto, c. 67.

10 Ant. Jud. lib. xiv. c. 15. & 10 there is still a particular way of putting to death such as have transgressed 11 Grotius in loc. in civil affairs, either by causing a dearth, or by selling above the tax by 12 Knolles's History of the Turks, vol. ii. p. 947. London, 1687. & false weight, or who have committed themselves in any other manner. 13 Raphelii Annotationes in Nov. Test. ex Herodoto, tom. i. p. 376. Other The cooks are put upon a spit, and roasted over a slow fire (see Jeremiah instances from ancient writers are given by Dr. Whitby, on Matt. xxiv.51. xxix. 22.), bakers are thrown into a hot oven. During the dearth in 1688, and Kuinoël, Comment. in Hist. Lib. Nov. Test. vol. i. p. 633. I saw such ovens heated on the royal square at Ispahan, to terrify the 14 Shaw's Travels, vol. i. p. 457. Morier's Second Journey, p. 96. bakers, and deter them from deriving advantage from the general distress." 15 This barbarous mode of punishment still exists in Morocco. See an -Burder's Oriental Literature, vol. ji. p. 204.

interesting extract from Höst's Account of Morocco and Fez, in Burder's • Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Persia, vol. ii. pp. 28-30.

Oriental Literature, vol. ii. p. 207

rock, for having (as they said) aimed at tyranny. Further, the happy instances of this. They crucified Bomilcar, whom heads, hands, and feet of state criminals, were also frequently Justin calls their king, when they detected his intended decut off, and fixed up in the most public places, as a warning to sign of joining Agathocles. They erected a cross in the others. This punishment obtains among the Turks, and was midst of the forum, on which they suspended him, and from inflicted on the sons of Rimmon (who had treacherously which, with a great and unconquered spirit, amidst all his murdered Ishbosheth), by command of David : who com- sufferings, he bitterly inveighed against them, and upbraided manded that the assassins' hands and feet should be hung up them with all the black and atrocious crimes they had lately over the pool of Hebron, which was probably a place of perpetrated. But this manner of executing criminals pregreat resort.2 Among the ancient Chaldæans, cutting off the vailed most among the Romans. It was generally a servile nose and ears was a common punishment of adulterers. To punishment, and chiefly inflicted on vile, worthless, and inthis the prophet Ezekiel alludes. (xxiii. 25.)

corrigible slaves.9 In reference to this, the apostle, describ11. CRUCIFIXION was a punishment which the ancients ing the condescension of Jesus, and his submission to this inflicted only on the most notorious criminals and malefac- most opprobrious death, represents him as taking upon him tors. The cross was made of two beams, either crossing at the form of a servant (Phil

. ii

. 7, 8.), and becoming obedient the top at right angles, or in the middle of their length like to death, even the death of the cross. an X. There was, besides, a piece on the centre of the (2.).“It was universally and deservedly reputed the most transverse beam, to which was attached the accusation, or shameful and ignominious death to which a wretch could be statement of the culprit's crime; together with a piece of exposed. In such an exit were comprised every idea and wood that projected from the middle, on which the person circumstance of odium, disgrace, and public scandal.” Hence sat as on a kind of saddle, and by which the whole body the apostle magnifies and extols the great love of our Rewas supported. Justin Martyr, in his dialogue with Trypho deemer, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us, the Jew, gives this description; and it is worthy of note, and for the joy set before him, endured the cross, despising the that he lived in the former part of the second century of the shame (Rom. v. 8. Heb. xii. 2.); disregarding, every cirChristian æra, before the punishment of the cross was abo- cumstance of public indignity and infamy with which such a Jished. The cross on which our Lord suffered was of the death was loaded. “It was from the idea they connected former kind, being thus represented on all ancient monu- with such a death, that the Greeks treated the apostles with ments, coins, and crosses.

the last contempt. and pity for publicly embarking in the Crucifixion is one of the most cruel and excruciating cause of a person who had been brought to this reproachful deaths, which the art of ingeniously tormenting and extin- and dishonourable death by his own countrymen. The guishing life ever devised. The naked body of the criminal preaching of the cross was to them foolishness (1 Cor. i. 23.); was fastened to the upright beam by nailing or tying the feet the promulgation of a system of religion that had been taught to it, and on the transverse beam by nailing and sometimes by a person who, by a national act, had publicly suffered the tying the hands to it. Those members, being the grand in- punishment and death of the most useless and abandoned struments of motion, are provided with a greater quantity of slave, was, in their ideas, the last infatuation; and the preachnerves, which (especially those of the hands) are peculiarly ing of Christ crucified, publishing in the world a religion sensible. As the nerves are the instruments of all sensation whose founder suffered on a cross, appeared the last absuror feeling, wounds in the parts where they abound must be dity and madness. The heathens looked upon the attachpeculiarly painful ; especially when inflicted with such rude ment of the primitive Christians to a religion, whose pubinstruments as large nails, forcibly driven through the ex- lisher had come to such an end, as an undoubted proof of quisitely delicate tendons, nerves, and bones of those parts. their utter ruin, that they were destroying their interest, comThe horror of this punishment will appear, when it is con- fort, and happiness, by adopting such a system founded on sidered that the person was permitted to hang (the whole such a dishonourable circumstance.!! The same inherent weight of his body being borne up by his nailed hands and scandal and ignominy had crucifixion in the estimation of the feet, and by the projecting piece in the middle of the cross), Jews. They indeed annexed more complicated wretcheduntil he perished through agony and want of food. There ness to it, for they esteemed the miscreant who was adjudged are instances of crucified persons living in this exquisite to such an end not only to be abandoned of men, but forsaken torture several days. “ The wise and adorable Author of of God. He that is hanged, says the law, is accursed of our being has formed and constituted the fabric of our bodies God. (Deut. xxi. 23.) Hence St. Paul, representing to the in such a merciful manner, that nothing violent is lasting. Galatians the grace of Jesus, who released us from that Friendly death sealed the eyes of those wretches generally in curse to which the law of Moses devoted us, by being three days. Hunger, thirst, and acute pain dismissed them made a curse for us, by submitting to be treated for our sakes from their intolerable sufferings. The rites of sepulture as an execrable malefactor, to show the horror of such a death were denied them. Their dead bodies were generally left as Christ voluntarily, endured, adds, It is written in the lau, on the crosses on which they were first suspended, and be- Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree! (Gal. iii. 13.) came a prey to every ravenous beast and carnivorous bird. And from this express declaration of the law of Moses con

(1.) “Crucifixion obtained among several ancient nations, cerning persons thus executed, we may account for that averthe Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, and Carthaginians. The sion the Jews discovered against Christianity, and perceive Carthaginians generally adjudged to this death their unfortu- the reason of what St. Paul asserts, that their preaching of nate and unsuccessful commanders. There are many un- Christ crucified was to the Jews a stumbling-block. (1 Cor.

i. 23.) The circumstance of the cross caused them to stum· Dionys. Halicarnass. lib. viii. cc. 78, 79

ble at the very gate of Christianity. 12 * Harmer's Observations, vol. i. pp. 501, 502. This kind of punishment was in use in the time of Mohammed, who introduces Pharaoh as saying, I will surely cut off your hands and your feet on the opposite sides; that 8 Bomilcar rex Panorum in inedio foro a Punis patibulo suffixus est is, first the right hand, and then the left foot; next the left hand, and then De summa cruce, veluti de tribunali, Pænorum scelera concionaretur. the right foot. Koran, ch. xx. 74. and xxvi. 49. (Sale's translation, pp. 259. Justin, lib. xxii. cap. 7. p. 505. ed. Gronovii. 304. 4to. edit.) See additional examples of such mutilations in Burder's Oriental Literature, vol. ii. p. 186. 'Wilson's Travels in Egypt and the 10 "From this circumstance," says Justin Martyr, " the heathens are Holy Land, pp. 375-377. 3 Dr. Adam Clarke on Matt. xxvii. 35. For the remainder of this account mutable and eternal God, and Father of all, to a person who was crucified!”

fully convinced of our madness for giving the second place after the im, of the crucifixion the author is indebted to Dr. Lardner's Credibility of the Justin Martyr, A pol. 2. pp. 60, 61. edit. Paris, 1636. Et qui hominem summo Gospel History, part i. book i. c. 7. $$ ix.-xvii., and Dr. Harwood's Intro supplicio pro facinore punitum, et crucis ligna feralia ceremonias fabulatur, duction to the New Testament, vol. ii. pp. 336-353.

congruentia perditis sceleratisque tribuit altaria : ut id colant quod me. • Pasces in cruce corvos. Horat. Epist. lib. i. epist. 16. ver. 48.

Minucius Felix, p. 57. edit. Davis. Cantab. 1712. Nam quod re. Vultur, jumento et canibus, crucibusque relictis

ligioni nostræ hominem noxium et crucem ejus adscrib longe de Ad fætus properat, partemque cadaveris affert.

vicinia veritatis erratis. Min. Felix, p. 147.

Juvenal, Satyr. 14. ver. 77, 78. 11 That this was the sentiment of the heathens concerning the Christians, Thucydides, lib. i. sect. 110. p. 71. edit. Duker. Justin, treating of the St. Paul informs us, and he exhorts the Philippians not to be discouraged affairs of Egypt, says : Concursu multitudinis et Agathocles occiditur, et by it. Philip. i. 28. Not intimidated in any thing by your adversaries; for Qulieres in ultionem Eurydices patibulis suffiguntur. Justin, lib. xxx. cap. though they looked upon your attachment to the gospel as an undoubted 2. p. 578. edit. Gronovii. Herodoti Erato. p. 511. edit. Wesseling. 1763. See proof of your utter ruin, yet to you it is a demonstration of your salvation also Thalia, p. 260. and Polyhyinnia, p. 617

-a salvation which hath God for its author. & Alexander crucified two thousand Tyrians. Triste deinde spectacu. 13 Trypho the Jew every where affects to treat the Christian religion lum victoribus ira præbuit regis; duo millia, in quibus occidendi defecerat with contempt, on account of the crucifixion of its author. He ridicules rabies, crucibus adfixi per ingens litoris spatium, dependerunt. Q. Curtii

, its professors for centering all their hopes in a man who was crucified ! lib. iv. cap. 4. p. 187. edit . Snakenburgh, 1724. See also Plutarch in vita Dialog. cum Tryphone, p. 33. The person whom

you call your Messiah, Alex, and Justin, lib. xviii. cap. 3.

says he, incurred the last disgrace and ignominy,

for he fell under the • Duces bella pravo consilio gerentes, etiamsi prospera fortuna subse greatest curse in the law of God, he was crucified! p. 90. Again, we cuta esset, crucí tamen suffigebantur. 'Valerius Maximus, lib. ii. cap. 7. I must hesitate, says Trypho, with regard to our believing a person, who p. 191. edit. Torren. Leidæ, 1726.

was so ignominously crucified, being the Messiah ; for it is written in the

9 Fone crucem servo.

Jurenal, Sat. 6. ver. 218.

rentur.

(3.) “ The several circumstances related by the four evan- show: Agrippa being a Syrian, and king of a large country gelists as accompanying the crucifixion of Jesus were con- in Syria.' formable to the Roman custom in such executions; and, When Pilate had pronounced the sentence of condemnafrequently occurring in ancient authors, do not only reflect tion on our Lord, and publicly adjudged him to be crucified, beauty and lustre upon these passages, but happily corrobo- he gave orders that he should be scourged. Then Pilate took rate and confirm the narrative of the sacred penmen.” We Jesus and scourged him. And when he had scourged Jesus, says will exhibit before our readers a detail of these as they are another of the evangelists, he delivered him to be crucified. specified by the evangelists.

Among the Romans, scourging was always inflicted previEvery mark of infamy that malice could suggest was ac- ously to crucifixion. Many examples might be produced of cumulated on the head of our Redeemer. While he was in this custom. Let the following suffice. Livy, speaking of the high-priest's house, they did spit in his face and buffeted the fate of those slaves who had confederated and taken up him, and others smote him with the palms of their hands, say- arms against the state, says, that many of them were slain, ing, Prophecy unto us, thou Christ, who is he that smote thee? many taken prisoners, and others, after they had been whip(Matt. xxvi. 67, 68. Mark xiv. 65.) Pilate, hearing that ped or scourged, were suspended on crosses. Philo, relating our Lord was of Galilee, sent him to Herod; and before he the cruelties which Flaccus the Roman prefect exercised upon was dismissed by him, Herod, with his men of war, set him at the Jews of Alexandria, says, that after they were mangled nought ; and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe. and torn with scourgest in the theatres, they were fastened (Luke xxiii. 11.) He was insulted and mocked by the sol- to crosses. Josephus also informs us, that at the siege of diers, when Pilate ordered him to be scourged the first time; Jerusalem great numbers of the Jews were crucified, after that by that lesser punishment he might satisfy the Jews and they had been previously whipped, and had suffered every save his life, as is related by St. John. After Pilate had wanton cruelty. condemned him to be crucified, the like indignities were re- " After they had inflicted this customary flagellation, the peated by the soldiers, as we are assured by two evangelists. evangelist informs us that they obliged our Lord to carry to Matt. xxvii. 27–31. Mark xv. 16–20.). And they stripped the place of execution the cross, or, at least, the transverse him, and put on him a scarlet robe, and when they had platted beam of it, on which he was to be suspended. Lacerated, a crown of thorns, they put it on his head, and a reed in his therefore, with the stripes and bruises he had received, faint right hand : and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked with the loss of blood, his spirits exhausted by the cruel inhim, saying, Hail! king of the Jews. And they spit upon sults and blows that were given him when they invested him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head.

him with robes of mock royalty, and oppressed with the inThese are tokens of contempt and ridicule which were in cumbent weight of his cross; in these circumstances our use at that time. Dio, among the other indignities offered Saviour was urged along the road. We doubt not but in to Sejanus the favourite of Tiberius (in whose reign our this passage to Calvary every indignity was offered him. Saviour was crucified), as they were carrying him from the This was usual,6 Our Lord, fatigued and spent with the senate-house to prison, particularly mentioned this,—“That treatment he had received, could not support his cross. The they struck him on the head.” But there is one instance of soldiers, therefore, who attended him, compelled one Simon, ridícule which happened so soon after this time, and has so a Cyrenean, who was coming from the country to Jerusagreat a resemblance to that to which our Saviour was ex- lem, and then happened to be passing by them, to carry it for posed, that it deserves to be stated at length. Caligula, the him. The circumstance here mentioned of our Lord bearing successor of 'Tiberius, had, in the very beginning of his reign, his cross was agreeable to the Roman custom. Slaves and given Agrippa the tetrarchy of his uncle Philip, being about malefactors, who were condemned to this death, were comthe fourth part of his grandfather Herod's dominions, with pelled to carry the whole or part of the fatal gibbet on which the right of wearing a diadem or crown. When he was they were destined to die. This constituted a principal part setting out from Rome to make a visit to his people, the em- of the shame and ignominy of such a death. *Cross-bearer peror advised him to go by Alexandria as the best way. was a term of the last reproach among the Romans. The When he came thither he kept himself very private: but the miserable wretch, covered with blood, from the scourges that Alexandrians having got intelligence of his arrival there, and had been inflicted upon him, and groaning under the weight of of the design of his journey, were filled with envy, as Philo his cross, was, all along the road to the place of execution, says, at the thoughts of a Jew having the title of king. loaded with every wanton cruelty, So extreme were the They had recourse to various expedients, in order to mani- misery and sufferings of the hapless criminals who were fest their indignation: one was the following :—“There condemned to this punishment, that Plutarch makes use of it was,” says Philo,2“ one Carabas, a sort of distracted fellow, as an illustration of the misery of sin, that every kind of that in all seasons of the year went naked about the streets. wickedness produces its own particular torment; just as He was somewhat between a madman and a fool, the com- every malefactor, when he is brought forth to execution, carmon jest of boys and other idle people. This wretch they ries his own cross. He was pushed, thrown down, stimubrought into the theatre, and placed him on a lofty seat, that lated with goads, and impelled forward by every act of insohe might be conspicuous to all; then they put a thing made lence and inhumanity that could be inflicted. There is of paper on his head for a crown, the rest of his body they great reason to think that our blessed Redeemer in his way covered with a mat instead of a robe, and for a sceptre one to Calvary experienced every abuse of this nature, especially put into his hand a little piece of reed which he had just when he proceeded slowly along, through languor, lassitude, taken up from the ground. Having thus given him a mimic and faintness, and the soldiers and rabble found his strength royal dress, several young fellows with poles on their shoul- incapable of sustaining and dragging his cross any farther. ders came and stood on each side of him as his guards. Then On this occasion we imagine that our Lord suffered very there came people toward him, some to pay their homage to cruel treatment from those who attended him. Might not the him, others to ask justice of him, and some to know his will scourging that was inflicted, the blows he had received from and pleasure concerning affairs of state: and in the crowd the soldiers when in derision they paid him homage, and the were loud and confused acclamations of Maris, Maris; that abuse he suffered on his way to Calvary, greatly contribute being, as they say, the Syriac word for Lord, thereby inti- to accelerate his death, and occasion that speedy dissolution mating whom they intended to ridicule by all this mock at which one of the evangelists tells us Pilate marvelled ?

· When the malefactor had carried his cross to the place
law, Cursed is every one who is hanged on a cross. Justin Martyr, Dialog.
cum Tryphone, p. 21. edit. Jebb. London, 1719. see also pages 272. 283. : Multi occisi, multi capti, alii verberati crucibus affixi. Livii, lib.
378. 392. See also Eusebii Ilist. Ercl. pp. 171. 744. Cantab.

· Various opinions have been offered concerning the species of thorn, • Philo in Flac. p. 529. edit. Mangey. See also pages 527, 528. ejusdem
intended by the sacred writers. Bartholin wrote an elaborate dissertation editionis. The Roman custom was to scourge before all executions. The
De Spinea Corona, and Lydius has collected the opinions of several magistrates bringing them out into the forum, after they had scourged them
writers in his Florin Sparsio ai flistoriam Passionis Jesu Christi. (Ana- according to custom, they struck off their heads. Polybii Hist. lib. i. p. 10.
lect. pp. 13–17.) The intelligent traveller Ilasselquist says, that the naba tom. i. edit. Gronovii. 1670.
or nahka of the Arabians “is in all probability the tree which afforded
the crown of thorns put on the head of Christ : it grows very commonly lib. ii. cap. 14. $9. p. 182. Haverc.

Josephus de Bello Jud. lib. v. c. 2. p. 353. Havercamp. Bell. Judiac.
in the East. This plant was very fit for the purpose; for it has many • Vid. Justi Lipsii de Cruce, lib. ii. cap.6. p. 1180. Vesaliæ.
SMALL AND SHARP SPINES which are icell adapted to gire pain. The crown * Plutarch de tardâ Dei vindictà, p. 982. edit. Gr. 8vo. Steph. Dionysii
might easily be made of these soft, round, and pliant branches; and what Ilalicar. lib. vii. tom. i. p. 456. Oxon. 1704.
in my opinion seems to be the greatest proof is, that the leaves very much
resemble those of ivy, as they are of a very deep green. Perhaps the

3 O carnificium cribrum, quod credo fore:
enemies of Christ would have a plant soinewhat reseinbling that with

Ita te forabunt patibulatum per vias
which emperors and generals were used to be crowned, that there might Stiinulis, si huc reveniat senex.
be calmnny even in the punishment.” Hasselquist's Voyages and Travels

Plautus Mostel. Act. i. sc. 1. ver. 53. edit. var. 1684.
In the Levant, pp. 288, 289.

Nec dubium est quin impulerint, dejecerint, erexerint, per sævitiam - In Flacc. p. 970

ant per lusum. Lipsius de Cruce, tom. vi. p. 1180. Vesali.

|

xxxiii. 36.

of execution, a hole was dug in the earth, in which it was whoms Petronius Arbiter. mentions, were crucified by order to be fixed; the criminal was stripped, a stupefying potion of the governor of the province without the city. This was was given him, the cross was laid on the ground, the wretch the custom, likewise, in Sicily, as appears from Cicero. distended upon it, and four soldiers, two on each side, at the “ It was customary for the Romans, on any extraordinary same time were employed in driving four large nails through execution, to put over the head of the malefactor an inscriphis hands and feet

. After they had deeply fixed and riveted tion denoting the crime for which he suffered. Several examthese nails in the wood, they elevated the cross with the ples of this occur in the Roman history.” It was also usual agonizing wretch upon it; and in order to fix it more firmly at this time, at Jerusalem, to post up advertisements, which and securely in the earth, they let it violently fall into the were designed to be read by all classes of persons, in several cavity they had dug to receive it. This vehement precipita- languages. Titus, in a message which he sent to the Jews tion of the cross must give the person that was nailed to it a when the city was on the point of falling into his hands, and most dreadful convulsive shock, and agitate his whole frame by which he endeavoured to persuade them to surrender, in a dire and most excruciating manner. These several par- says: Did you not erect pillars, with inscriptions on them in ticulars the Romans observed in the crucifixion of our Lord. the Greek and in our (the Latin) language, “Let no one Upon his arrival at Calvary he was stripped : a stupefying pass beyond these bounds ?"8" In conformity to this usage, draught was offered him, which he refused to drink.' This, an inscription by Pilate's order was fixed above the head of St. Mark says, was a composition of myrrh and wine. The Jesus, written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, specifying what design of this potion was, by its inebriating and intoxicating it was that had brought him to this end. This writing was quality, to blunt the edge of pain, and stun the quickness of by the Romans called titulus, a title, and it is the very exsensibility. Our Lord rejected this medicated cup, offered pression made use of by the evangelist John, Pilate wrote a him perhaps by the kindness of some of his friends, it being |TITLE (sypete TITAON), and put it on the cross. (John xix his fixed resolution to meet death in all its horrors; not to 19.) After the cross was erected, a party of soldiers was alleviate and suspend its pains by any such preparation, but appointed to keep guard," and to attend at the place of exeto submit to the death, even this death of crucifixion, with cution till the criminal breathed his last; thus also we read all its attendant circumstances." He had the joy that was that a body of Roman soldiers, with a centurion, were deset before him, in procuring the salvation of men, in full and puted to guard our Lord and the two malefactors that were immediate view. "He wanted not, therefore, on this great crucified with him. (Matt. xxvii. 54.) occasion, any thing to produce an unnatural stupor, and throw “While they were thus attending them, it is said, our oblivion and stupefaction over his senses. He cheerfully Saviour complained of thirst. This is a natural circumstance. and voluntarily drank the cup with all its bitter ingredients, The exquisitely sensible and tender extremities of the body which his heavenly Father had put into his hands. Our being thus perforated, the person languishing and faint with Lord was fastened to his cross, as was usual, by four soldiers, 3 loss of blood, and lingering under such acute and excrucitwo on each side, according to the respective limbs they ating torture,—these causes must necessarily produce a veheseverally nailed. While they were employed in piercing his ment and excessive thirst. One of the guards, hearing this hands and feet, it is probable that he offered to Heaven that request, hastened and took a sponge, and filled it from a most compassionate and affecting prayer for his murderers, vessel that stood by, that was full of vinegar. The usual in which he pleaded the only circumstance that could possi- drink of the Roman soldiers was vinegar and water. The bly extenuate their guilt: Father, forgive them, for they know knowledge of this custom illustrates this passage of sacred not what they do... It appears from the evangelist that our history, as it has sometimes been inquired, for what purpose Lord was crucified without the city. And he bearing his cross was this vessel of vinegar? Considering, however, the dewent forth to a place called the place of a skull, which is called rision and cruel treatment which Jesus Christ had already in the Hebrew Golgotha. (John xix. 17.) For the place where received from the soldiers, it is by no means improbable that Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city.' (ver. 20.). And the one of them gave him the vinegar with the design of augapostle to the Hebrews has likewise mentioned this circum- menting his unparalleled sufferings. After receiving this, stance: Wherefore Jesus also suffered without the gate. (Heb. Jesus cried with a loud voice, and uttered with all the vehexiii. 12.) This is conformable to the Jewish law, and to ex- mence he could exert, that comprehensive word on which a amples mentioned in the Old Testament. (Num. xv. 35.) volume might be written, It is finished! the important work And the Lord said unto Moses, The man shall surely be put to of human redemption is finished ; after which he reclined death : all the congregation shall stone him with stones without his head upon his bosom, and dismissed his spirit.” (John the camp. (1 Kings xxi. 13.), Then they carried him (Na- xix. 30. Matt. xxvii. 50.) both] forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones that he The last circumstance to be mentioned relative to the died. This was done at Jezreel, in the territories of the king crucifixion of our Saviour, is the petition of the Jews to of Israel, not far from Samaria. And if this custom was Pilate, that the death of the sufferers might be accelerated, practised there, we may be certain the Jews did not choose with a view to the interment of Jesus. All the four evange that criminals should be executed within Jerusalem, of the lists have particularly mentioned this circumstance. Joseph sanctity of which they had so high an opinion, and which of Arimathea went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus ; they were very zealous to preserve free from all ceremonial then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. And when impurity, though they defiled it with the practice of the most Joseph had taken the body, he laid it in his own new tomb. horrid immoralities. It is possible, indeed, that they might, (Matt. xxvii. 58–60. Mark xv. 45, 46. Luke xxiii. 50—53. in their sudden and ungoverned rage (to which they were John xix. 38–40.). And it may be fairly concluded, the subject in the extreme at this time), upon any affront offered rulers of the Jews did not disapprove of it: since they were to their laws or customs, put persons who thus provoked solicitous that the bodies might be taken down, and not hang them to death, upon the spot, in the city, or the temple,

or on the cross the next day. (John xix. 31.) The Jews there wherever they found them; but whenever they were calm fore, says St. John, because it was the preparation, that the enough to admit the form of a legal process, we may be bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath-day (for assured that they did not approve of an execution within the

s Quum interim imperator provinciæ latrones jussit crucibus adfigi, se. city. And among the Romans this custom was very com- cundum illam eandem casulam, in qua recens cadaver matrona de flebat mon, at least in the provinces. The robbers of Ephesus, Satyr. c. 71.

.'Quid enim attinuit, cum Mamertini more atque instituto suo crucem · Sese multimodis conculcat ictibus, myrrhæ contra presumptione mn. fixisset post urbem in via Pompeia; te jubere in ea parte figere, quæ ad nitus. Apuleii Metamorph. lib. viii. Again : Obfirmatus myrrhæ pre. fretum spectaret? In Verr. lib. v. c. 66. n. 169. sumptione nullis verberibus, ac ne ipsi quidem succubuit igni. Lib. x. * Dion Cassius, lib. liv. p. 732. edit. Reinar, 1750. See also Suetonius in Apuleii Met. Usque hodie, says St. Jerome, Judæi omnes increduli Do. Caligula, c. 32. Éusebius, Hist. Eccl. lib. v. p. 206. Cantab. 1720. minicæ resurrectionis aceto et felle potant Jesum, et dant ei vinum myr: • Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 2. $ 4. rhatum, ut dum consopiant, et mala eorum non videat. Hieronymus ad 9 See instances in Suetonius, in Caligula, c. 34. ; and in Domitian, c. 10. Matt. xxvii.

10 " It is with much propriety that Matthew calls this sites accusation: - See Dr. Benson's Life of Christ, p. 508.

for it was false, that ever Christ pretended to be king of the Jews, in the 3 Monet nos quoque non parurn evangelista, qui quatuor numerat milites sense the inscription held forth: he was accused of this, but there was no crucifigentes, scilicet juxta quatuor membra figenda. Quod clarum etiam proof of the accusation; however, it was affixed to the cross." Dr. A. est ex tunicæ partitione, quæ quatuor militibus facienda erat. Cornelii Clarke on Matt. xxvii. 37. Curtii de Clavis Dominicis, p. 35. edit. Antwerpiæ, 1670. The four soldiers 11 Miles cruces asservabat, ne quis corpora ad sepulturam detraheret. who parted his garnients, and cast lots for his vesture, were the four who Petronius, Arbiter, cap. 111. p. 513. edit. Burman. Traject. ad Rhen. 1700. raised him to the cross, each of them fixing a limb, and who, it seems, for Vid. not. ad loc. this service had a right to the crucified person's clothes. Dr. Macknight, 19 The Roman soldiers, says Dr. Huxhain, drank posca (viz. water and p. 604. second edition, 4to.

vinegar) for their coinmon drink, and found it very healthy and useful. * Credo ego istoc examplo tibi esse eundum actutum extra portam, dis. Dr. Huxham's Method for preserving the Health of Seamen, in his Essay pessis inanibus patibuluin quem habebis. Plautus in Mil. Glor. act. ii. on Fevers, p. 263. 3d edition. See also Lamy's Apparatus Billicus, vol. ii.

p. 278. See also Macknight in loc.

scen. 4.

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