mena, containing an account of manuscripts and collectors of | pleniore ex Scriptoribus veteribus, Hebræis, Græcis, et Latinis, various readings, with 43 critical canons to enable the reader to historiam et vim verborum illustrante. Opera e studio Joannis determine concerning the various lections exhibited in the work; Jacobi WETSTENII. Amstelædami, 1751, 1752, 2 vols. folio. an abstract of Dr. Whitby's Examen above noticed; and the prefaces of Henry Wetstein, Curcellæus, and Bishop Fell. These Editio altera, aucta et emendata, curante J. A. LOTZE. Vol. I. editions are ornamented with an engraved frontispiece, copied Quatuor Evangelia complectens. Roterdami, 1831. Royal 4to. from that of the splendid folio Paris edition of 1642, a plan of Of all the editions of the New Testament, this is pronounced by Jerusalem, an ichnograph of the Temple, and two maps. At the Michaelis to be the most important, and the most necessary to those end there are 38 pages of critical notes, containing an examination who are engaged in sacred criticism. Wetstein's Prolegomena, of the most important various readings which occur in the course which contain a treasure of sacred criticism, were first published of the work. Michaelis does not speak very highly of the edition in 1730. The text is copied from the Elzevir editions; the verses of 1711; but Dr. Dibdin says that, upon the whole, the edition of were numbered in the margin; and the various readings, with 1735 "may be considered as the very best critical duodecimo their authorities (containing a million of quotations), are placed (rather small octavo) edition of the Greek Testament, and the beneath the text. Wetstein's edition is divided into four parts, biblical student will do well to procure so valuable and commo- each of which is accompanied with Prolegomena, describing the dious a publication." (On the Classics, vol. i. p. 97.) 1 Greek manuscripts quoted in it. The first part contains the four Gospels; the second, the Epistles of St. Paul; the third, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Catholic Epistles; and the fourth, the Apocalypse. To the last part are annexed two Epistles in Syriac, with a Latin version; which, according to Wetstein, were written by Clement of Rome. But Dr. Lardner has shown that they are not genuine. (Works, 8vo. vol. xi. pp. 197-226. 4to. vol. v. pp. 432-446.) The critical observations on various readings, and on the interpretation of the New Testament," must be studied," says Bishop Marsh, "by every man who would fully appreciate the work in question." Michaelis has criticised the labours of Wetstein with great severity; but the latter has been vindicated by Bishop Marsh, both in his notes on Michaelis (pp. 865-877.), and in his Divinity Lectures (part ii. pp. 21-23.).

13. Acta Apostolorum Græco-Latina, Literis Majusculis. E Codice Laudiano characteribus uncialibus exarato et in Bibliotheca Bodleiana adservato, descripsit ediditque Tho. HEARNIUS, A.M. Oxoniensis, qui et Symbolum Apostolorum ex eodem codice subjunxit. Oxonii. E Theatro Sheldoniano, 1715. 8vo. The Codex Laudianus, of which this edition is a transcript, is described in Part I. Chap. III. § 4. of the first volume: a facsimile of the MS. is prefixed. This is the scarcest of all Mr. Hearne's publications: the impression was limited to one hundred and twenty copies, at ten shillings each. A copy was sold at the sale of the Rev. Dr. Heath's library, in 1810, for the sum of thirteen pounds two shillings: it now adorns the very valuable library of the Writers to his Majesty's Signet at Edinburgh. There is another copy in the Library of the British Museum.

14. The New Testament in Greek and English, containing the Original Text, corrected from the authority of the most authentic Manuscripts, and a new Version, formed agreeably to the Illustrations of the most learned Commentators and Critics. With Notes and various Readings, [By W. MACE.] London, 1729. 2 vols. 8vo.

In consequence of the great rarity, and very high price of Wetstein's edition, Dr. Lotze was induced to undertake a new imprescorrection of errors, and the more accurate exhibition of various sion of it; which would have been greatly improved by the readings from MSS. and particularly from those derived from ancient versions, in which Wetstein is acknowledged to have been defective. But the decease of the learned editor (whose valuable critical and theological library was dispersed by auction in the summer of 1833) has caused this projected edition to be abandoned. volume of 279 pages), are all that has been published by Dr. The Prolegomena of Wetstein, therefore (forming a royal quarto Lotze, who has edited them with great care and with considerable improvements. Dr. L. has scrupulously retained WetMi-stein's text, with the exception of those passages in which the latter had thrown out unjust observations upon other critics, espe cially the pious and erudite Bengel, and also with the omission of his literary quarrels with Frey and Iselius: and he has added from the second volume of the folío edition Wetstein's critical observations upon various readings, and his rules for judging of their value, together with most of the notes of Dr. John Solomon Semler, who republished the Prolegomena at Halle in 1764. Dr. Lotze has further subjoined, in an Appendix, Dr. Glocester Ridley's learned Dissertation on the Syriac Versions of the New Testament, in which the errors of Wetstein are corrected, and his deficiencies are supplied. This edition of Wetstein's Prolegomena is very neatly executed.

This is a beautifully printed book; whose editor has altered various passages in conformity with the Arian hypothesis. His arbitrary alterations and bold criticisms were exposed by Dr. Leonard Twells in A Critical Examination of the late New Text and Version of the Greek Testament. London, 1732, 8vo. chaelis has also very severely and justly censured the very great liberties taken by Mace. Introd. to N.T. vol. ii. pp. 463, 464. 15. H KAINH AJAOHKH. Novum Testamentum Græcum. Edente Jo. Alberto BENGELIO. Tubinga, 1734. 4to. 1763. 4to. This is an excellent edition, formed with an extraordinary degree of conscientiousness, sound judgment, and good taste. John Albert Bengel, or Bengelius, as he is generally called in this country, abbot of Alpirspach in the duchy (present kingdom) of Wirtemburg, was led to direct his attention to sacred criticism, in consequence of serious and anxious doubts arising from the deviations exhibited in preceding editions; and the result of his laborious researches was, the edition now under consideration. The text is preceded by an Introductio in Crisin Novi Testamenti, and is followed by an Epilogus and Appendix.

The text is not formed on any particular edition, but is corrected and improved according to the editor's judgment; and so scrupu lous was Bengel, that he studiously avoided inserting any reading which did not exist in some printed edition, except in the Apocalypse; in which book alone he inserted readings that had never been printed, because it had been printed from so few manuscripts, and in one passage had been printed by Erasmus from no manuscript whatever. Beneath the text he placed some select readings, reserving the evidence in their favour for his Apparatus Criticus. His opinion of these marginal readings he expressed by the Greek letters, 6, 7, 5, and, and some few other marks. Thus, a denotes that he held the reading to be genuine ;, that its genuineness was not absolutely certain, but that the reading was still preferable to that in the text; y, that the reading in the margin was of equal value with that in the text, so that he could not determine which was preferable;, that the reading in the margin was of less value; and, that it was absolutely spurious, though defended by some critics. Bengel's edition was printed, after his death, by Burke, at Tubingen, in 1763, 4to. with important corrections and additions. Several small impressions of Bengel's Greek Testament have been printed in Germany, without the Critical Apparatus; viz. at Stutgard, 1734, 1739, 1753, 8vo.; at Tubingen, 1762, 1776, 1790, 8vo. and at Leipsic, 1737, 8vo.


16. 'H KAINH AIAOHKH. Novum Testamentum Græcum editionis receptæ, cum Lectionibus Variantibus Codicum MSS., Editionum aliarum, Versionum et Patrum, necnon Commentario

In 1720, the celebrated critic, Dr. Richard Bentley, circulated proposals for a new edition of the Greek Testament, with various lections, which was never executed. The proposals themselves are printed in the Biographia Britannica, (article Bentley, note K.); and the illustrative specimen, Rev. xxii. is given in Pritius's Introd. ad Lect. Nov. Test. pp 415-419. A detailed account of Bentley's proposed work is given in Bishop Monk's Life of Dr. B. whose critical materials for his intended edition of the Greek Testament, amounting to 19 volumes, are preserved in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge; but Bentley left nothing in a state of preparation for the press. (Bishop' Burgess's Anniversary Discourse, delivered to the Royal Society of Literature, in 1830. Appendix, p. 62.)

17. 'H KAINH AIAOHKH, sive Novum D. N. J. C. Testamentum Græcum cum Variantibus Lectionibus, quæ demonstrant Vulgatam Latinam ipsis è Græcis Codicibus hodienum extantibus Authenticam. Accedit Index Epistolarum et Evangeliorum, Spicilegium Apologeticum, et Lexidion Græco-Latinum. Cura et Opera P. Hermanni GOLDHAGEN. Editio Catholica et Novissima. Moguntiæ, 1753. 8vo.

Michaelis states that he has never been able to discover from what edition Goldhagen took his text: he has given fifty-two readings from the Codex Molshemiensis, a manuscript containing the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles, and which formerly belonged to the college of Jesuits at Molsheim in Alsace. (Introd. to New Test. vol. ii. part i. pp. 283. 490.) The book is not common: a copy is in the British Museum.

18. Ἡ ΚΑΙΝΗ ΔΙΑΘΗΚΗ. Νovum Testamentum Græcum, In Sectiones divisit, Interpunctiones accuratè posuit, et Dispositionem Logicam adjecit Christianus SCHOETTGENIUS. Lipsia, 1744; 1749, 8vo. Wratislaviæ, 1765, 8vo.

The divisions into sections and the punctuation are reputed to be judiciously executed. The ordinary divisions of chapters and verses are retained in the margin. An account of the principal alterations is given in the appendix.

19. Novum Testamentum Græcum ad fidem Græcorum solum MSS. nunc primum expressum, adstipulante Jo. Jac. Wetstenio, juxta Sectiones Alberti Bengelii divisum; et novà interpunctione sæpius illustratum. Accessere in altero volumine emendationes conjecturales virorum doctorum undecunque collectæ. Londini, cura, typis et sumptibus G.[ulielmi] B.[owYER.] 1763. 2 vols. 12mo.

A very valuable edition, and now scarce; it was reprinted in 1772, but not with the same accuracy as the first edition. The conjectures were published in a separate form in 1772, and again in 4to. in 1782, to accompany a handsome quarto edition of the Greek Testament, which was published by Mr. Nichols in 1783, with the assistance of the Rev. Dr. Owen. It is now extremely rare and dear. The conjectures were reprinted in 1812 with


numerous corrections and additions. In his edition of the New | rejected a variety of readings, according as they favour or oppose Testament, Mr. Boyer adopted the emendations proposed by Wet- the Socinian doctrine. stein.1

20. Novum Testamentum, Græce et Latine, Textum denuo recensuit, Varias Lectiones numquam antea vulgatas collegit Scholia Græca addidit-Animadversiones Criticas adjecit, et edidit Christ. Frid. MATTHÆI. Riga, 1782-1788. 12vols. 8vo. Of Professor Matthæi's recension of manuscripts some account has already been given in Part I. p. 206. of the first volume. "The scurrility which the professor mingled in his opposition to Griesbach's system of classification, tended greatly to injure the work at the time of its appearance, and to lower the author in the esteem of the candid and moderate; but now that the heat of controversy has cooled down, the value of his labours begins to be more highly appreciated, and more impartially appealed to, on the subject of the various readings of the Greek text." (Dr. Henderson's Biblical Researches, p. 53.) The late Bishop Middleton considered it as by far the best edition of the Greek Testament extant; and though Michaelis has criticised it with considerable severity, he nevertheless pronounces it to be absolutely necessary for every man who is engaged in the criticism of the Greek Testament. As, however, Matthæi undertook a revision of the Greek text on the authority of one set of manuscripts of the Byzantine family, Bishop Marsh regrets that he made so partial an application of his critical materials. "And since no impartial judge can admit that the genuine text of the Greek Testament may be established as well, by applying only a part of our materials, as by a judicious employment of the whole, the edition of Matthæi is only so far of importance, as it furnishes new materials for future uses; materials, indeed, which are accompanied with much useful information and many learned remarks." (Bishop Marsh's Lectures, part ii. p. 31.)

21. Novum Testamentum Græce. Ad Codices Mosquenses utriusque Bibliothecæ S.S. Synodi et Tabularii, Imperialis, item Augustanos, Dresdenses, Goettingenses, Gothanos, Guelpherbytanos, Langeri, Monachienses, Lipsienses, Nicephori et Zittaviensem, adhibitis Patrum Græcorum Lectionibus, Editionibus N. Testamenti principibus et Doctorum Virorum Libellis criticis, iterum recensuit, Sectiones majores et minores Eusebii, Euthalii, et Andreæ Cæsariensis notavit, primum quoque nunc Lectiones Ecclesiasticas, ex usu Græcæ Ecclesiæ designavit, ac Synaxaria Evangeliarii et Praxapostoli addidit, et Criticis interpositis Animadversionibus edidit Christianus Fridericus MATTHEI. Vol. I. Wittebergæ, 1803; Vol. II. Curiæ Variscorum, 1806; Vol. III. Ronneburgi, 1807. 8vo.

This second edition of Matthæi's Greek Testament is seldom to be met with. A copy of the first volume is in the library of the British Museum. The critical annotations of the editor are placed at the end of the volume; the various readings are at the foot of each page. Matthæi is very severe on the editorial labours of Dr. Griesbach.

23. Novum Testamentum Græcum, è Codice MS. Alexandrino, qui Londini in Bibliotheca Musei Britannici asservatur, descriptum à Carolo Godofredo WOIDE. Londini, ex prelo Joannis Nichols, typis Jacksonianis, 1786. folio.

This is an elegant fac-simile edition of the Alexandrian Manuscript which is preserved in the British Museum, and is described in Part I. pp. 222-224. of Vol. I. Twelve copies were printed on vellum. The fac-simile itself fills two hundred and sixty pages: and the preface, comprising twenty-two pages, contains an accurate description of the Manuscript, illustrated by an engraving representing the style of writing in various manuscripts. To this is subjoined an exact list of all its various readings, in eighty-nine pages; each reading is accompanied with a remark, giving an account of what his predecessors Junius (i. e. Patrick Young), Bishop Walton, Drs. Mill and Grabe, and Wetstein, had performed or neglected. The preface of Woide, and his collection of various readings, were reprinted, with notes, by Professor Spohn, at Leipsic, in 1790, in 8vo. To complete this publication, there should be added the following: Appendix ad Editionem Novi Testamenti Græci è Codice Alexandrino descripti à C. G. Woide. Oxonii: è Typographeo Clarendoniano. 1799. folio. This splendid work was edited by the Rev. Dr. Ford, who added many useful notes. Long before Dr. Woide executed his fac-simile edition of the New Tes tament from the Alexandrian Manuscript, it had been suggested to King Charles I. to cause a fac-simile of the entire MS. to be engraved. But the importance and value of such an undertaking do not appear to have been understood-at least they were not duly appreciatedby that monarch: he therefore refused to have it done. The circumstance is thus related by the industrious antiquary Aubrey, in his inedited" Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme," preserved among the Lansdowne MSS. in the British Museum, No. 231. folio 169. Writing on the disputed clause in 1 John v. 7. Aubrey says:— "The last clause of this verse is not found in the antient MSS. copies, c. g. that in the Vatican Library, and ye Tecla MS. in St. James's Library and others: as it is not in an old MS. in Magdalen Coll: Library in Oxford. That at St. James's was sent as a Presen to King Charles the First, from Cyrillus Patriark of Constantinople: as a jewel of that antiquity not fitt to be kept amongst Infidels. Mr.. Rosse (translator of Statius) was Tutor to ye D. of Monmouth who made him Library Keeper at St. James's: he desired K. Cha. I. to be at ye chardge to have it engraven in copper plates: and told him it would cost but £200, but his Maty would not yield to it. Mr. Ross sayd that it would appeare glorious in History, after his Matys death.' 'Pish,' sayd he, I care not what they say of me in History when I am dead.' H. Grotius, J. G. Vossius, Heinsius, &c. have made Journeys into England, purposely to correct their Greeke Testaments by this Copy in St. James. Sr. Chr. Wren sayd that he would rather have it engraved by an Engraver that could not understand or read Greek, than by one that did." In the reign of Charles II. the design of printing this manuscript was resumed; and the editing of the fac-simile was to have been confided to the Rev. Dr. Smith, to whom the king promised a canonry of Windsor, or of Westminster, for his labour. But, from some circumstance or other which cannot now be ascertained, this design was abandoned. (Wood's Athens Oxoniensis, vol. ii col 1020)

gott him the place [of]

The value of such an undertaking has been better understood in our times: and the British Parliament nobly guaranteed the expense of the Fac-simile Edition, which was executed under the editorship of the Rev. H. H. Baber. See an account of it in No. 17. p. 24. infra.

24. Novum Testamentum Græcum, ad Codicem Vindobonensem Græcè expressum: Varietatem Lectionis addidit Franciscus Carolus ALTER. 1786, 1787. 2 vols. 8vo.

22. 'H KAINH AIAOHKH. The New Testament collated with the most approved manuscripts; with select notes in English, critical and explanatory, and references to those authors who have best illustrated the sacred writings. By Edward HARwoon, D.D. London, 1776, 2 vols. 12mo.; 1784, 2 vols. 12mo. "This edition," says the learned annotator of Michaelis, "is certainly entitled to a place among the critical editions of the Greek Testament, though it is not accompanied with various readings; for, though Dr. Harwood has adopted the common text as the basis of his own, he has made critical corrections wherever the received reading appeared to him to be erroneous. The manuscripts which he has generally followed when he departs from the common text, are the Cantabrigiensis in the Gospels and Acts, and the Claromontanus in the Epistles of St. Paul." These Dr. Harwood considered as approaching the nearest of any manuscripts now known in the This edition differs entirely from those of Mill, Wetstein, and world to the original text of the sacred records. "It is not impro- Griesbach. "The text of this edition is neither the common text nor bable that this edition contains more of the ancient and genuine a revision of it, but a mere copy from a single manuscript, and that text of the Greek Testament than those which are in common use: not a very ancient one (the Codex Lambecii I.), in the imperial but as no single manuscript, however ancient and venerable, is library at Vienna. The various readings, which are not arranged entitled to such a preference as to exclude the rest, and no critic as in other editions, but printed in separate parcels as made by the of the present age can adopt a new reading, unless the general collator, are likewise described from Greek manuscripts in the evidence be produced, and the preponderancy in its favour dis- imperial library: and the whole collection was augmented by tinctly shown, the learned and ingenious editor has in some mea- extracts from the Coptic, Sclavonian, and Latin versions, which sure defeated his own object, and rendered his labours less applica- are also printed in the same indigested manner as the Greek readble to the purposes of sacred criticism." (Bishop Marsh's Michae-ings. Alter's edition therefore contains mere materials for future lis, vol. ii. part ii. pp. 884, 885.) At the end of the second volume uses." (Bp. Marsh's Lectures, part ii. p. 32.) Where the editor has there is a catalogue of the principal editions of the Greek Testa- discovered manifest errata in the Vienna manuscript, he has ment, and a list of the most esteemed commentators and critics. recourse to the text of Stephens's edition of 1546.-See a more The work is very neatly printed; and under the Greek text are copious account of this edition in Michaelis, vol. ii. pp. 880-882, short critical notes in English, chiefly relating to classical illustra- where it is said that Alter's edition is a work with which no one tions of Scripture. In the list of commentators and critics, those are engaged in sacred criticism can dispense. most commended by Dr. Harwood who favour the Socinian scheme, to which he was strongly attached, and he therefore admitted or

Dr. Griesbach's first edition of the New Testament should, in strict ness, be noticed here; but as it is superseded by his second and greatly improved edition, described in the next two pages, it is here designedly omitted. The edition of Koppe, being accompanied with a commentary, is noticed infra, among the commentators on the New

25. Quatuor Evangelia, Græcè, cum Variantibus a textu Lectionibus Codd. Manuscriptorum Bibliotheca Vaticana; Barberinæ, Laurentianæ, Vindobonensis, Escurialensis, Havniensis, Regiæ; quibus accedunt Lectiones Versionum Syrarum Veteris, Philoxenianæ, et Hierosolymitanæ, jussu et sumptibus regiis edidit Andreas BIRCH. Havniæ, 1788. folio et 4to.

Londini et Halæ Saxonum, 1796, Editio secunda.

Notwithstanding the different opinions entertained by some learned men relative to the correctness of Dr. Griesbach's system of recensions or editions of manuscripts, all parties have united in commendation of the learning, diligence, and labour which he bestowed upon his arduous undertaking.

This splendid and valuable work, containing only the four Gos- | D. Jo. Jac. GRIESBACH. pels, is the result of the united labours of Professors Birch, Adler, 1806. 2 vols. large 8vo. and Moldenhawer, who for several years travelled into Germany, Italy, France, and Spain, at the expense of the king of Denmark, in order to examine and collate the precious remains of sacred antiquity. Birch collated all the Greek manuscripts quoted, except those in the library of the Escurial, which were collated by Moldenhawer. The Syriac collations were made by Adler. A detailed account of these manuscripts is given in the Prolegomena; from which we learn that the manuscripts which passed under his inspection were very numerous. In the Vatican, forty were collated; in the Barberini library, ten; in other Roman libraries, seventeen; in the libraries at Florence, and in other parts of Italy, thirtyeight; in the imperial library at Vienna, twelve; and in the royal library at Copenhagen, three. The text is from Robert Stephens's edition of 1550; but the great value of this splendid work, and in which it surpasses all former editions, consists, first, in the very complete extracts which are given from the celebrated Codex Vaticanus, described in pp. 224-226. of the first volume; and, secondly, in the extracts from the Versio Syra Hyerosolymitana, which is remarkable for its agreement with the Codex Beza, where it is wholly unsupported by any other authority; a circumstance which shows the value and antiquity, not so much of the manuscripts themselves, as of the text which they contain. In 1798, Professor Birch published, at Copenhagen, a collection of various readings to the Acts and Epistles, drawn from the same sources; intituled Varia Lectiones ad textum Actorum Apostolorum, Epistolarum Catholicarum et Pauli, e Codd. Græcis MSS. Bibliotheca Vaticana, Barberine, Augustinianorum Eremitarum Rome, Borgiana Velitris, Neapolitane Regiæ, Laurentiniane, S. Marci Venetorum Vindobonensis Cæsarea, et Hafniensis Regio, collecte et edita ab Andrea Birch, Theol. D. et Prof.; in 1800, he published Varia Lectiones ad Apocalypsin: and in 1801, Varia Lectionis ad Textum IV. Evangeliorum e Codd. MSS. iterum recognitæ et quamplurimis accessionibus aucte: all in 8vo. to the four gospels. The completion of the magnificent edition of the Greek Testament, begun in 1788, was prevented by a calamitous fire at Copenhagen, which consumed the royal printing office, together with the beautiful types and paper, which had been procured from Italy, for that purpose.

26. XIII. Epistolarum Pauli Codex Græcus, cum Versione Latina vetere, vulgo Ante-Hieronymianâ, olim Boernerianus, nunc Bibliotheca Electoralis Dresdensis, summâ fide et diligentiâ transcriptus et editus á C. F. MATTHÆI. Meissæ, 1791 (reprinted in 1818); 4to.

Of the Codex Boernerianus, of which manuscript this publication is a copy, an account has been given in the first volume of this work. The transcript is said to be executed with great accuracy, and is illustrated with two plates.

27. Codex Theodori Beze Cantabrigiensis, Evangelia et Acta Apostolorum complectens, quadratis literis, Græco-Latinus. Academia auspicante venerandæ has vetustatis reliquias, summâ qua fide potuit, adumbravit, expressit, edidit, codicis historiam præfixit, notasque adjecit, Thomas KIPLING, S.T.P. Coll. Div. Joan. nuper socius. Cantabrigiæ, e Prelo Academico, impensis

Academiæ. 1793. 2 vols. folio.

This fac-simile of the Codex Bez (which manuscript has already been described) is executed with the utmost typographical splendour. In a preface of twenty-eight pages, the learned editor discusses the high antiquity of the manuscript; its nature and excellence; its migrations; the various collations of it which have been made at different times; and concludes with a very brief description of the manuscript itself, and an Index Capitum. To this succeeds the text of the manuscript, which is divided into two parts or volumes; the first ending with page 412., and the second containing pages 413. to 828. Opposite to the modern supplement, which concludes the Gospels, on page 657., is the end of the Latin version of Saint John's third Epistle. Pages 829. to 854. contain Dr. Kipling's notes. The impression of this fac-simile was limited to two hundred and fifty copies; and it usually sells for six or eight guineas, according to the condition and binding of the copies. Dr. Kipling's fac-simile was criticised, with great severity, in the Monthly Review (N. S.), vol. xii. pp. 241-246. And his preface was attacked, in no very courteous manner, in a pamphlet entitled Remarks on Dr. Kipling's Preface to Beza. Part the First. By Thomas Edwards, LL.D.' 8vo. 1793. No second part ever appeared.

Although the execution of this noble undertaking did not answer the expectations of some learned men, in consequence of which it was held in comparatively little estimation for many years, yet its value is now more justly appreciated. "A critic of the first celebrity, who would have gladly seized an opportunity of exposing Dr. Kipling, was unable to detect the smallest error in the text. Porson himself collated the printed copy with the original manuscript, and the only fault he could detect was in a single letter of the margin. This fact must surely place the value of Dr. Kipling's publication far beyond the reach of controversy." (Brit. Crit. vol. xi. p. 619.)

28. Novum Testamentum Græcè Textum ad fidem Codicum Versionum et Patrum recensuit et Lectionis Varietatem adjecit

Dr. Griesbach commenced his critical labours, first, by publishing at Halle, in 1774, the historical books of the New Testament, under the following title: Libri Historici Novi Testamenti, Græce, Pars i. sistens Synopsin Evangeliorum Matthæi, Marci, et Luce. Textum ad fidem Codd. Versionum et Patrum emendavit et lectionis varietatem adjeci Jo. Jac. Griesbach. (2d edit. Hala, 1797, 3d edit. Hala, 1809,) 8vo. pars ii. sistens Evangelium Johannis et Acta Apostolorum, Halae, 1775, 8vo. This edition was published as a manual or text-book for a course of lectures which Professor Griesbach was at that time delivering at Jena, and in which he explained the first three evangelists synoptically, that is to say, by uniting together the three narrations of the same event. The received text, which is adopted, is divided into one hundred and thirty-four sections, and is printed in three columns; and Griesbach indicated by various marks the alterations which he judged necessary to be made. The various readings, taken from the edition of Mill, Bengel, and Wetstein, were not chosen until they had undergone a very severe revision; but this edition also contained other lections, which the learned editor found in manuscripts preserved in the British Museum at London, and also in the Royal Library at Paris. In 1775, Dr. Griesbach published the Apostolical Epistles and the Apocalypse, in a similar manner; but as many persons had expressed themselves dissatisfied with his synoptical arrangement of the historical books, he printed another edition of them in 1777, in the usual order. This volume forms the first part of his first edition, of which the Epistles and Revelation, printed in 1775, are considered as the second part. A few copies were struck off in 4to., which are both scarce and dear. This edition is of a very convenient and portable size, and was that principally used in the Universities of Germany. Dr. Hales prefers it to the second edition, because he thinks that Griesbach was at that time more scrupulous of innovating upon the text than he afterwards was. octavo, with the imprint of Londini et Hale Saxonum in the titleThe first volume of the second edition appeared in 1796, in large page; and the second with that of Hale Saxonum et Londini, on account of the expense of the paper of the fine copies having been munificently defrayed by his Grace the late Duke of Grafton, at that time Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. These are most beautiful books, and are now only procurable at a very high price, though, through his Grace's liberality, they were originally sold, we believe, at twelve or fourteen shillings per volume. Fifty copies are said to have been struck off on large paper in quarto. But the whole of these two volumes was printed at Jena, under bited in Griesbach's first edition, he collated all the Latin Versions Griesbach's own eye. In addition to the various readings exhipublished by Sabatier and Blanchini; and corrected the mistake made by Mill, Bengel, and Wetstein, in their quotations from the oriental versions. He also inserted the principal readings collected by Matthæi, Birch, and Alter; together with extracts from the two Wolfenbuttel manuscripts collated by Knittel, and the readings of the Sahidic version, furnished by Woide, Georgi and Münter. Of the Armenian version a collation was made for him by M. Bredenkampf of Bremen: and the Sclavonic version was collated for him by M. Dobrowsky at Prague.

The first volume contains the four Gospels. To these are prefixed copious prolegomena, exhibiting a critical history of the printed text, a catalogue of all the manuscripts from which various readings are quoted, and an account of the method pursued by Griesbach in executing this second edition, together with the principal rules for judging of various readings. The text is printed in two columns, the numbers of the verses being placed in the margin, below which are the various lections.

The second volume contains the remaining books of the New Testament, which is preceded by an introduction or preface, accounting for the delay of its appearance, and an account of the manuscripts consulted for that volume. At the end are forty pages, separately numbered, consisting of a Diatribe on the disputed clause relative to the three witnesses in 1 John v. 7, 8., and of additional various readings to the Acts of the Apostles, and Saint Paul's Epistles, with two pages of corrections. Griesbach's second edition was reprinted at London in 1809, in two elegant 8vo. volumes; one by Mr. Collingwood of Oxford, and the other by Mr. R. Taylor; the text is printed in long lines, and the notes in columns, and Griesbach's addenda of various readings are inserted in their proper places. A very few inaccuracies have been discovered in these insertions, which perhaps could hardly be avoided in a work of such minuteness. This edition, which consisted of one thousand copies, having been exhausted, a second London edition issued from the press of Messrs. R. & A. Taylor, in two volumes, 8vo. 1818. It is executed in the same handsome form as before, and possesses some advantages even over Griesbach's own second edition. In the first place, the addenda of various lections above noticed have been newly collated, and inserted in their various places with great accuracy. Secondly, the reading of Acts xx. 28. in the Vatican manuscript (which Griesbach could not give, in consequence of Professor Birch, who collated it, having lost or mislaid his memorandum of that particular text) is here

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