4. Heart of stone.-A hard, stubborn, and unbelieving heart.-Ezek. |
xxxii. 26. I will take away the stony heart.

5. Stone. An idol of stone. Habak. ii. 19. Woe unto him that saith
unto the wood, "Awake!" and to the dumb stone, "Arise!" and it
shall teach.

6. White stone.-A full pardon and acquittal.-Rev. ii. 17. I will give
him a white stone. See an explanation of the custom alluded to, in
Vol. II. p. 56.

7. Precious stones (1 Cor. iii. 12.), the doctrines of the Christian re-
ligion, or the mode of teaching them.


1. The Lord God.-Psal. Ixxxiv. 11. The Lord God is a Sun.
2. Sun of Righteousness.-Jesus Christ.-Mal. iv. 2. The SUN OF
RIGHTEOUSNESS shall arise with healing in his wings.
Among the various hieroglyphics discovered by Dr. Richardson in the
ruins of the ancient temple of Tentyra or Dendera, in Upper Egypt,
is one which may illustrate this expression of the prophet." Im-
mediately over the centre of the door-way," says he, "is the beau-
tiful Egyptian ornament, usually called the globe, with serpent and
wings, emblematic of the glorious sun, poised in the airy firmament
of heaven, supported and directed in his course by the eternal
wisdom of the Deity. The sublime phraseology of Scripture, The
Sun of Righteousness shall arise with healing in his wings, could not
be more accurately or more emphatically represented to the human
eye, than by this elegant device." [Dr. Richardson's Travels along
the Mediterranean, &c. vol. i. p. 187.]

3. Sun and moon.-The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon
into blood. (Joel. ii. 31. Acts ii. 20.) A figurative representation
of a total eclipse, in which the sun is entirely darkened, and the
moon assumes a bloody hue: it signifies the fall of the civil and ec-
clesiastical state in Judæa.

SWINE--Wicked and unclean people.-Matt. vii. 6. Neither cast ye
your pearls before swine.

1. Death and destruction. See Ezek. xxi.-This symbol occurs so re-
peatedly in the Scriptures, and is, besides, so well known, as to
render more examples unnecessary.

2. Sword of the Spirit.-The word of God. Eph. vi. 17. Heb. iv. 12.

Rev. i. 16.

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1. The cares, riches, and pleasures of life.-Luke viii. 14. That
which fell among thorns, are they, which, when they have heard the
word, go forth, and are choked with cares, and riches, and pleasures
of life.

2. Thorns and briers; wicked, perverse, and untractable persons.—
Ezek. ii. 6. Son of man, be not afraid of them....though briers and
thorns be with thee.

THRESHING.-Destruction.-Jer. li. 33.

Babylon is like a threshing-
floor: it is time to thresh her; that is, to subdue and destroy her
power. See Isa. xli. 15. Amos i. 3. Micah iv. 13. Hab. iii. 12.
THRONE.-Kingdom, government.-Gen. xli. 40. Only in the throne
will I be greater than thou. In 2 Sam. iii. 10. kingdom and throne are
synonymus. To translate the kingdom from the house of Saul-and
to set up the throne of David over Israel. The setting of the throne
in 2 Sam. vii. 12, 13. 16. signifies the settling or establishment of the
government in peace; and the enlargement of the throne, in 1
Kings i. 37. compared with 47., implies a great accession of power
and dominions.

THUNDER.-The voice of God.-Psal. xxix. 3. The voice of the LORD
is upon the waters; the God of glory thundereth. In Rev. x. 4. the
seven thunders may mean either a particular prophecy, or perhaps
seven distinct prophecies, uttered by seven voices, loud as thun-
TOWERS and Fortresses; defenders and protectors, whether by coun-
sel or by strength, in peace or in war.-Isa. ii. 12. 15. The day of
the Lord of Hosts shall be.....upon every high tower, and every
fenced wall (or fortress).

TRAVAILING with child.

1. A state of anguish and misery.-Jer. iv. 31. I have heard a voice
as of a woman in travail, the anguish as of her that bringeth forth
her first child, the voice of the daughter of Zion.-Jer. xiii. 21. Shall
not sorrows overtake thee as a woman in travail? See also Isa. xxvi.
17, 18. Ixvi. 7. Jer. xxx. 6. 7.

2. The sorrow of tribulation or persecution.-Mark xiii. 8. These are
the beginnings of sorrows, literally, the pains of a woman in travail.
See 1. Thess. v. 3.

TREAD under, or trample upon.-To overcome and bring under sub-
jection.-Psal. Ix. 12. Through God we shall do valiantly; for it is
he that shall tread down our enemies. See Isa. x. 6 xiv. 25.

TREE of Life.-Immortality.-Rev. ii. 7. To him that overcometh, will
I give to eat of the tree of life. See a description of it in Rev. xxii.
2-14., and an excellent sermon of Bishop Horne's Works, vol. iv.
Sermon iii. on the Tree of Life.


1. Men in general, fruitful and unfruitful.-Psal. i. 3. He (the good
man) shall be like a tree, planted by rivers of water.-Matt. iii. 10.
Every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down, and
cast into the fire.

2. A great tree. A king or monarch. See Dan. iv. 20-23.

3. The nobles of a kingdom.-Isa. x. 18, 19. It shall consume the
glory of his forest, and of his fruitful field both soul and body....
And the rest of the trees of his forest shall be few, [See CEDARS,
OAKS.] As trees denote great men and princes, so boughs, branches,
or sprouts, denote their offspring. Thus, in Isa. xi. 1., Jesus Christ,
in respect of his human nature, is styled a rod of the stem of Jesse,
and a branch out of his roots; that is, a prince arising from the
family of David.

VEIL of the Temple. The body of Christ opening the kingdom of
heaven by his death, when the veil of the temple was rent.-Matt.
xxvii. 51. The veil of the temple was rent in twain.-Heb. x. 20.
By a new and living way, which he has consecrated for us through the
veil, that is to say, his flesh.


1. The Jewish Church.-Psal. lxxx. 8. Thou broughtest a vine out of
Egypt. See also verse 14. Jer. ii. 21. Ezek. xix. 10. Hos. x. 1.
2. Christ the head of the church.-John xv. 1. I am the true vine.
VINEYARD. The church of Israel.--Isa. v. 1-7. The vineyard of
the LORD of Hosts is the house of Israel.

VIPER.-One who injures his benefactors. Matt. iii. 7. xii. 34. O
generation of vipers, that is descendants of an ungrateful race.


1. Voice of the bridegroom. The festivity of a wedding, and the ex-
pressions of joy which are uttered on such occasions.-Jer. vii. 34.
Then will I cause to cease from the cities of Judah, and from the
streets of Jerusalem, the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the
voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride. The same ex-
pression also occurs in Jer. xvi 9. xxv. 10. xxxiii. 11. and John iii.

2. Speaking with a faint voice, denotes the being in a weak and low
condition.-Isa. xxix. 4. Thou shalt be brought down, and shall speak
out of the ground; and thy speech shall be low out of the dust.
3. Voice of the Lord. See THUNDER.

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1. The purifying grace of the Holy Spirit.-John iii. 5. Except a man
be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom
of God. See also Psal. li. 2.

2. Living water. The word of the Gospel.-John iv. 10. He would
have given thee living water.

1. Troubles and afflictions.-Psal. Ixix. 1. Save me, O God: for the
waters are come in unto my soul.


A great multitude of people.-Isa. viii. 7. The LORD bringeth up
upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, i. e. army of the
king of Assyria; whose overwhelming force is compared to the
waters of the great, rapid, and impetuous river Euphrates. See
Rev. xvii. 15.

3. The Blessings of the Gospel.-Isa. lv. 1. Ho! every one that
thirsteth, come ye to the waters.

WAVES of the Sea.-Numerous armies of the heathens marching
against the people of God.-Psal. lxv. 7. Which stillest the noise of
the seas, the noise of their waves. See also Psal. lxxxix. 9. and xciii
3, 4.-Jude 13. Raging waves of the sea.

WEEK.-Seven years.-Dan. ix. 24. Seventy weeks are determined
upon thy people; that is, seventy weeks of years, or four hundred and
ninety years.

WHEAT. Good seed, the children of the kingdom. Matt. xiii. 38.

1. All manner of desolation.-Isa xxvi. 10. The defenced city shall
be desolate, and the habitation forsaken and left like a wilderness.
Jer. xxii. 6. Surely I will make thee a wilderness [and] cities [which]
are not inhabited. See also Hos. ii. 3.

2. This world, through which all real Christians pass, and undergo all
the trials of the Hebrews in their way to the heavenly Canaan.-1
Cor. x. 5. 6. They were overthrown in the wilderness. Now these
things were our examples.-Isa. xli. 18. I will make the wilderness
a pool of water.

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2. The four winds.-General destruction.--Jer. xlix. 36. Upon Elam
will I bring the four winds, from the four quarters of heaven. See
also Dan. vii. 2. viii. 8. Rev. vii. 1. See AIR.

1. Wine, when mentioned together with corn and oil (as it very fre-
quently is), denotes all kinds of temporal good things.-Hos. ii. 8.
I gave her corn, and wine, and oil. See Joel ii. 19. Psal. iv. 7.
2. As the choicest heavenly blessings are frequently represented in
the Scriptures by the salutary effects of wine: so, from the noxious
. and intoxicating qualities of that liquor,-(which anciently was
mixed with bitter and stupefying ingredients, and given to male-
factors who were about to suffer death,)-is borrowed a most tre-
mendous image of the wrath and indignation of Almighty God.--
Psal. lxxv. 8. In the hand of the LORD there is a cup, and the wine
is red; it is full of mixture, &c.-Psal. lx. 3. Thou hast made us to
drink the wine of astonishment. See Jer. xxv. 15. Rev. xiv. 10.

xvi. 19.

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1. Protection.-Psal. xvii. 8. Hide me under the shadow of thy wings.
See Psal. xxxvi. 7. and xci. 4.

2. Wings, when used to fly upwards, are emblems of exaltation.-Isa.
xl. 31. They shall mount up with wings as eagles; that is, they shall
be highly exalted.

WOLF-A thief, or religious impostor; a devourer of the church.-
Luke x. 3. I send you forth as lambs among wolves.-John x. 12.
He that is a hireling....seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep,
and fleeth: and the wolf scattereth them.


1. A city, a state, or body politic, or the inhabitants thereof.-The
daughter of Tyre in Psal. xlv. 12., of Babylon in Psal. cxxxvii. 8.,
and of Jerusalem in 2 Kings xix. 21., signifies the inhabitants of
those cities, respectively. The daughter of Jerusalem, when


the sun.

virtuous, is honoured with the high appellation of the espoused of
God in Isa. liv. 1. 5., and Jer. xxxi. 4. When wicked and idolatrous
she is styled the harlot, the adulteress. See ADULTERESS.
The true church of Christ.-Rev. xii. 1. A woman clothed with
WRITE.—To publish or notify. This was the first intention of writing;
and, in the earliest ages, no writings were made but upon pillars or
monuments, merely to notify things.-Jer. xxii. 30. Write this man
childless; that is, publish it, and let all men know that he shall
have no child to succeed him upon the throne. For it appears from
1 Chron. iii. 17, 18. and Matt. i. 12., that Jeconiah (of whom the
prophet is speaking) had children; but being born probably after
he was carried to Babylon, where he lived many years a captive,
none of them ever succeeded to the royal authority. See 2 Kings
xxv. 27.


1. Oppressive bondage.-Deut. xxviii. 48. He shall put a yoke of iron
upon thy neck, until he shall have destroyed thee. See Jer. xxviii.
14. In Gal. v. 1. the yoke of bondage means the burdensome cere-
monies of the Mosaic law, from which the Christian law of liberty
has delivered us.

2. Punishment for sin.-Lam. i. 14. The yoke of my transgressions
is bound by his hand.



3. Those useful restraints, which arise from a sense of the duty which
we owe to God, and the obedience we ought to pay to his laws.-
Lam. iii. 27. It is good for a man to bear the yoke in his youth.
The doctrines and precepts of Jesus Christ, and the temper, dispo-
sitions, and duties which flow from them.-Matt. xi. 29, 30.
my yoke upon you, and learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in
heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and
my burden is light-Quesnel's remark upon the last sentence is not
more beautiful than devout. "How easy and sweet is it, to serve
Christ even in bearing his cross! How hard and painful is the slavery
of the world, of sin and of our own passions, even with all their
false pleasures! That satisfaction, peace, and comfort, which grace
gives here below, and that which hope encourages us to expect in
heaven, make a Christian full amends for all his pains in subduing
his passions, and in opposing the world.... A yoke, which Christ
takes together with us,-can that be uneasy? A burden, which He
bears in us by His Spirit,-can that be heavy? Come, then, taste
and know by experience how sweet the Lord is, and how worthy
His yoke is to be chosen and loved!"

No. III.




ABBREVIATIONS in manuscripts, account of, I. 221.

Abraham, predictions concerning, and their fulfilment, I. 122, 123.
His posterity, in what sense as numerous as the stars of heaven
for multitude, 421.

Abyssinian (Ancient) version of the Old and New Testaments, I.
273, 274.

Accents (Hebrew), uses of, I. 192.

Accommodation, theory of, shown to be unfounded, I. 324.
Acœmets, notice of, I. 223. note.

Acrostic poetry of the Hebrews, I. 381.

Acts of the Apostles-Title, II. 318. By whom written, ibid. Genu-
ineness and authenticity, ibid. Scope, ibid. Chronology, 319.
Analysis of this book, 320. Observations on its style, ibid. Im-
portance of this book, as an evidence for the truth of Christianity,
320, 321. Confirmation of its veracity by Josephus, I. 80. Coin-
cidence between it and the apostolic epistles, 50, 51.

Acts of the Senate, what, I. 81. Appeals made to them by the first
Christians, as evidence, 82.

Adjunct, metonymy of, what, I. 360, 361.

Advantages, peculiar to the Christian revelation, a proof of its supe-
riority over all other religions, and that it is from God, I. 177–180.
Adverbs (emphatic), instances of, I. 328.

Affections, the moral government of, enforced in the Gospel, I. 153,

Age of Hebrew manuscripts, how ascertained, I. 217.
Agreement of ancient manuscripts and versions, a proof of the un-
corrupted preservation of the Scriptures, I. 54, 55. Of quotations
by Christian writers, a like proof, 55.

Alexander of Pontus, fabulous miracles recorded of, exposed, I. 117.
Alexandrian Manuscript, account of, I. 222-224. Fac-simile of it,


Alexandrian Version. See Septuagint.

Alexandrine Recension of the New Testament, account of, I. 205.
Allegorical Sense, I. 323.

Allegory defined, I. 364. Different species of, ibid. Rules for the
interpretation of allegories, 364, 365.

Allusions to the Old Testament in the New, I. 312. 318.
Alphabetical Poems of the Hebrews, account of, I. 381.
America, observations on the peopling of, I. 76.
Ammonian Sections, what, I. 214. Ammonian dialect, 273.
Amos (the prophet), account of, II. 259, 260. Occasion of his pro-
phecy, 260. Its scope, ibid. Synopsis of its contents, ibid.
servations on his style, ibid.


Avay vσμaтα, or Church-Lessons, I. 214.
Analogy of languages, defined, I. 340, 341. Use of grammatical
analogy for interpreting Scripture, 341. Of kindred languages,
341, 342. Foundation of analogy in all languages, 342. Analogy
of Scripture, 330-333. Analogy of faith defined, 342. Its im-
portance in studying the sacred writings, 342, 343. Rules for
investigating the analogy of faith, 343, 344.

Ananias, why not acknowledged as high-priest by St. Paul, I. 50.
Ancestors put for posterity, I. 359.

Anglo-Saxon version of the New Testament, account of, I. 280.
Antediluvians, longevity of, confirmed by heathen writers, 1. 71.
Ante-Hieronymian Version of the Bible, I. 275.
Anthropopathy, nature of, I. 362.

Arturos, propriety of the title of, given by St. Paul to Sergius
Paulus, I. 90.

Antiquities (Biblical), importance of, to the study of the Sacred
Writings, 1. 350. Cautions in applying them, 350, 351.

Antitype, what, I. 385. Rules for the application of types to anti-
types, 386, 387.

Apamean Medal confirms the Mosaic account of the Deluge, I. 88.
Apocalypse. See Revelation of St. John.
Apocrypha, derivation of the term, I. 435.

1. The Apocryphal Books of the Old Testament, why rejected from
the canon of Scripture, I. 435, 436. Their uses, 344. 436. Ana-
lysis of these books, II. 289-293. Supposed quotations from them
in the New Testament, I. 318. Actual value of these produc-
tions, 436.

2. Apocryphal Books of the New Testament, I. 437. Enumeration
of these writings, ibid. EXTERNAL EVIDENCE to show that they
were never considered as inspired or canonical, 437, 438. IN-
TERNAL EVIDENCE, 438-442. These apocryphal books are so
far from affecting the credibility of the genuine books of the
New Testament, that the latter are confirmed by them, 47,
Apollonius, of Tyana, fabulous miracles ascribed to, exposed, I. 118.
Apostles and evangelists, credibility of. See Credibility and Inspi-

48. 442.

ration. On the descent of the Holy Spirit upon them, I. 447, 448.
Apostolic Fathers, testimonies of, to the authenticity of the New
Testament, I. 44, 45. In what manner they quoted the Scrip-
tures, 41. Force of their testimony, 45.

Aquila's version of the Old Testament, I. 268, 269.
Arabic language, notice of, I. 199.

Arabic versions of the Old and New Testament, I. 274, 275. Of the
Samaritan Pentateuch, 204.

Aramaan Language, and its dialects, I. 199.
Aramaisms of the New Testament, I. 198.
Aretas, a king of Arabia Petræa, why at war with Herod the Great,
I. 50.

Aristeas's fabulous account of the Septuagint version exposed, I.
264, 265. Fabulous miracles related of Aristeas the Proconnesian
exposed, 117.

Ark of Noah, dimensions of, I. 75.
Armenian version of Scriptures, I. 275.
Arnobius, testimony of, to the genuineness of the New Testament
Article (Greek), elucidations of, 1. 327, 328.

I. 42.

Articles of faith, not to be established from single, obscure, or figu-
rative texts, I. 395.

Arts, the late invention and progress of, a confirmation of the cre-
dibility of the Mosaic History of the Deluge, I. 73, 74.
Asaph, Psalms ascribed to, II. 239.

Ascension, Odes of, II. 243.

Ascension of Jesus Christ, circumstances of, considered, I. 446.
Asher (Rabbi Aaron Ben), Codex of, I. 203.

Atheists, principles of, contrasted with those of the Gospel. I. 176,
177. Effects of, in republican France, 25, 26.
Athenagoras, testimony of, to the genuineness of the New Testa
ment, I. 43.

Athens, miserable condition of the women at, I. 19. note 7. Origin
of the altar erected at, to "The unknown God," 90. St. Luke's
and St. Paul's account of the Athenians confirmed by Demos-
thenes, 80. and by ancient inscriptions, 91. Remarks on Paul's
admirable address to them, II. 326, 327.

Atonement, true notion of, unknown to the heathen, I. 17. Though
they felt the necessity of an atonement for sin, 70, 71. The doc-
trine of, as set forth in the New Testament, 150.
Authenticity defined, I. 28. Of the Old and New Testaments proved,
28-52. Recapitulation of this argument, 184. Especially of
Matt. i. and ii. and Luke i. and ii., II. 299-302. 309. Of Luke
viii. 27-39., 310.; and xxii. 44., 310. Of John vii. 53. and viii. 1—
11., 315. Examination of the authenticity of 1 John v. 7., 366-

Author, put for his book or writings, I. 359. Importance of know-
ing, 348.

BABEL, erection of the tower of, confirmed by heathen testimony,
I. 77.

Babylon, prophecies concerning, and their fulfilment, I. 126.
Balaam's ass speaking, remarks on, I. 421.

Baptism, observance of, a proof of the credibility of the New Tes-
tament, I. 67.

Barnabas, testimony of, to the genuineness and authenticity of the
New Testament, I. 44.
Baruch, apocryphal book of, II. 391, 392.
Bath-Kol, notice of, II. 256.

Bel and the Dragon, apocryphal history of, II. 292.
Benefits conferred by Christianity, a proof that it is from God, I. 169

Bethlehem, massacre of the infants at, I. 419.
Bible, a perfect rule of faith and practice, I. 186.

Moral qualifica-
tions for studying it advantageously, 186, 187. In what order it
should be read, 187. Refutation of the assertion that the Bible
is the most immoral book in the world, 166. Does not inculcate
a spirit of intolerance and persecution, 166, 167. Harmony be-
tween all its parts, a proof of its divine origin and authority, 167,
168. As also its preservation, 168. See Scriptures, Versions,
Testament (Old), and Testament (New).

Blind man restored to sight, remarks on the miracle of, I. 104, 105.
Blount (Mr.), absurd and contradictory notions of, on religion and
morals, I. 23. His profligacy, 26.

Boils, on the plague of, in Egypt, II. 207.

Bolingbroke (Lord), absurd and contradictory tenets of, on religion
and morals, I. 24, 25. His hypocrisy exposed, 26. His involun-
tary testimony in favour of the evangelist, 68.

Book, every writing so termed by the ancients, however small, 1. 56.
Book of the Covenant, I. 57.

Book of Jasher, remarks on, I. 57. II. 216.

Book of the Wars of the Lord, observations on, I. 57. II. 210.
Byzantine Recension of the New Testament, I. 205.

CAIUS ROMANUS, testimony of, to the genuineness of the New Tes-
tament, I. 42.

Cana, observation on the miracle wrought at, I. 103, 104.
Canaanites, extirpation of, considered, I. 409, 410.

Canon of the Old Testament, account of, I. 28-30. Canon of the
New Testament, 39. General divisions of the canonical books
of the Old Testament, II. 212, 213.

Catalogues of the books of the Old Testament, I. 29, 30.; and of
the New Testament, 41.

Catholic Epistles, origin of the appellation of, II. 358. Its antiquity,
ibid. The authenticity of the Catholic Epistles, and in what
order usually placed, ibid. Their dates, 330.

Cause, metonymy of, I. 359, 360.

Celsus, testimony of, to the genuineness and authenticity of the
New Testament, I. 46, 47.; and to the character of Christ, 82.;
and of the first Christians, 85.

Census, alluded to by St. Luke, explained, I. 419, 420.
Cerinthus, account of the tenets of, II. 316, 317. His testimony to
the genuineness and authenticity of the New Testament, I. 46.
Cetubim, an ancient division of the Old Testament, account of, I.

Chaldeans, pretence of, to antiquity, disproved, I. 73.
Chaldaisms of the New Testament, I. 198.

Chaldee Language, notice of, I. 199.

Chaldee Paraphrases on the Scriptures, account of, I. 262-264.
Chapters and verses, origin of, in the Old Testament, I. 213. And
in the New Testament, 214.

Characters (Hebrew), antiquity of, I. 190.

Children, the visiting of the fathers' sins on, explained, I. 409.
Chinese, pretences of, to antiquity, disproved, I. 74. Degraded state
of religion and morals among the Chinese, I. 21.
CHRIST (Jesus). Duration of his ministry, I. 321. The Lord's sup-
per a perpetual memorial of the truth of the Gospel, 67. Testi-
mony of Josephus to the character of Jesus Christ, 81. 463, 464.
Of the Talmuds, 81. Of Pontius Pilate, 81, 82. Of Suetonius,
Tacitus, Pliny, Elius, Lampridius, Celsus, and Porphyry, 82.
Of Julian and Mohammed, 83. Jesus Christ put for his doctrine,
359. Parables, why used by him, 368, 369. Superiority of his
parables, 369, 370. Difficulties in his genealogy solved, 400, 401.
417, 418. Why he used external means in performing some of
his miracles, 99, 100.; and gave different degrees of notoriety to
them, 98, 99. Their number, 101. Variety, ibid. Design, 101,
102. Greatness, 102. Before whom wrought, 103. In what man-
ner wrought, ibid. Their effects, ibid. Were never denied, ibid.
A critical examination of some of Christ's miracles, particularly
the conversion of water into wine, ibid. The feeding of five
thousand men, 104. The healing of the paralytic, ibid. The
giving of sight to the man who had been born blind, 104, 105.
The raising of Jairus's daughter to life, 105. Of the widow's son
at Nain, ibid. And of Lazarus, 105, 106. The circumstances of
his Resurrection stated and scrutinized, 106-115. And of his As-
cension, 446. The miracles of Christ compared with pretended
pagan and popish miracles, 115-119. Character of Christ, 149.
Testimonies of heathen adversaries to his life and character, 81
-83. Involuntary testimonies of the infidels, Chubb and Rous-
seau, to his character, 156. and note. Christ a greater prophet
than Moses, 453, 454. Salvation only through him, 462. Neces-
sity of believing in him, and danger of rejecting him, ibid. Christ
put for his doctrine, 359. See MESSIAH.
Christianity, propagation of, a proof of the credibility of the New
Testament, I. 67. And that the Gospel is from God, 130-132.
Gibbon's five secondary causes of its success refuted, 133. Its
rejection by unbelieving Jews and Gentiles, and non-universality,
no argument against its divine original, but rather a confirmation,
134-140. The Mosaic dispensation introductory to it, 147, 148.
Excellence of its doctrines, 149-151. And morality, 152-156.
Superiority of its motives to duty, 156-158. Its doctrines not

contrary to reason, 158-160. Its doctrine of a future judgment
not improbable, 160, 161. Does not establish a system of priest-
craft, 161, 162. Or prohibit free inquiry, but on the contrary in-
vites it, 162. Its morality not too strict, 162, 163. Nor any of its
moral precepts unreasonable and impracticable, 163, 164. Does
not produce a timid spirit, 164. Nor overlook the generous sen-
timents of friendship, 164, 165.; and of patriotism, 165, 166. Nor
inculcate either intolerance or persecution, 166, 167. The ten-
dency of Christianity (evinced by facts) to promote the present
and eternal happiness of mankind, 169-175. Comparison of the
actual effects of the Gospel, with those produced by the atheisti-
cal philosophy, 175-177. A further proof that it is from God, is
afforded by its superiority over all other religions, 177. Particu-
larly in its perfection, ibid. Its openness, ibid. Its adaptation to
the capacities of all men, 178. The spirituality of its worship,
ibid. Its opposition to the spirit of the world, 179. Its humilia-
tion of man and exalting the Deity, ibid. Its restoration of order
to the world, ibid. Its tendency to eradicate all eyil passions
from the heart, ibid. Its contrariety to the covetousness and am-
bition of mankind, ibid. Its restoring the divine image to man,
ibid. Its mighty effects, ibid. Examination of the difficulties
attendant on the propagation of Christianity, 448-450.
Christians, exemplary character and conduct of, I. 169, 170. At-
tested by their heathen adversaries, 83-85. 170. The crimes of
nominal Christians not chargeable on the Gospel, 173.
Chronicles (two books of), II. 222. Their title, ibid. Author and
date, ibid. Scope and analysis of these books, 223. Observations
on these books, 224. Account of the Targums or Chaldee para
phrases on, I. 263.

Chronology, alleged contradictions in, considered, and shown to be
unfounded, I. 404, 405. Importance of, to biblical students, 349.
Chubb (Mr.), absurd and contradictory tenets of, concerning religion,
I. 23, 24. His hypocrisy, 26. Involuntary testimony of, to the
divine mission of Jesus Christ, 68.; and to his character, 155.
Churches (Christian), state of, necessary to be known in studying
the Epistles, I. 393.

Cilicisms of the New Testament, I. 199.

Circumcision, the observance of, a proof of the credibility of the
Old Testament, I. 66.

Circumstantiality of the Old Testament narratives a proof of their
authenticity, I. 31, 32.; as also of the Pentateuch, 35, 36.; and
of the New Testament narratives, 49, 50.

Clarius's (Isidore) revision of the Vulgate version, notice of, I. 277
Classification of the books of the New Testament, II. 293, 294.
Clement of Alexandria, testimony of, to the genuineness of the New
Testament, I. 43.

Clement of Rome, testimony of, to the genuineness of the New
Testament, I. 45.

Cognate, or kindred languages, what so termed, I. 199. Account
of them, ibid. The use of the cognate languages for illustrating
the Scriptures elucidated, 199. 341, 342.

Coincidence of the Old and New Testament narratives with the
relations of profane authors a proof of their credibility, I. 49-52.

Coins (ancient), collateral testimony of, to the credibility of the
New Testament, I. 88-91. Importance of, as an hermeneutical
aid, 350.

Collins (Mr.), absurd and contradictory tenets of, on religion, I. 23.
His hypocrisy, 26.

Colossians, Saint Paul's Epistle to, II. 340. Account of the church
at Colossæ, 341. Date of this Epistle, ibid. Its occasion, ibid.
Scope and analysis of its contents, ibid.

Commentaries, different classes of, I. 352. Of commentaries, strictly
so called, ibid. Their utility, 353. Design to be kept in view in
consulting them, ibid. Rules for consulting them to the best
advantage, 353, 354.

Comparison not to be extended to all the circumstances of an alle
gory, I. 365..
Complexion, varieties of, in different nations, not contrary to the
Mosaic account of the origin of mankind, I. 76.
Conjecture (critical), a source of various readings, I. 284. Rules
for applying it to the determination of various readings, 289, 290.
Constantinopolitan Recension of the New Testament, I. 205. 209.
Contemporary Writers, testimony of, a source for ascertaining the
meaning of Scripture, I. 329-333

Context, definition of, I. 336. Rules for investigating it, 337, 338
Importance of attending to the context, in the interpretation of
allegories, 365.

Contradictions, alleged to exist in the Scriptures, considered, and
shown to have no foundation, I. 399, 400. In historical passages,
400-404. In chronology, 404, 405. Between prophecies and
their fulfilment, 406. In doctrine, 406-408. Apparent contra-
dictions to morality, 408-414. Between the sacred writers, 414
-418. Between sacred and profane writers, 418-420. Seeming
contradictions to philosophy and the nature of things, 420-422
Conversation with the Deity, the most eminent degree of prophetic
inspiration, II. 256.

Conversion of Paul, remarks on, II. 322, 323.,
Coptic version of the Old and New Testament, I. 272.
Corinthians (Saint Paul's First Epistle to), II. 334. Paul's character
of the Gentile Corinthians confirmed by profane historians, I. 80.
State of the Corinthian church, II. 334. Occasion and scope of
this Epistle, ibid. Analysis of its contents, 335. Date and genu-
ineness, ibid. Examination of the question, how many epistles
Paul wrote to the Corinthians, ibid.

Corinthians (Saint Paul's Second Epistle to), II. 335. Date and
where written, 336. Occasion of this Epistle, ibid. Its scope,
ibid. Synopsis of its contents, ibid. Observations on it, ibid. A
supposed chronological difficulty in this Epistle elucidated, 336,
337. No other epistles written to the Corinthians but the two
which are now extant, I. 57, 58. II. 335.

Corruption of the Scriptures, impossibility of, proved, I. 52-58.
Wilful corruption, how far a cause of various readings, 285.
Counsels of perfection, nature and fallacy of, I. 396. nole.
Covenant, book of the, I. 57.

Creation of the world, true account of, unknown to the ancient
philosophers. I. 17. Mosaic narrative of, confirmed by profane
history, 69. And by the modern discoveries in philosophy, I.
420, 421.
Credibility of the Old and New Testaments, I. 59. Proofs that the
writers of them had a perfect knowledge of the subjects which
they relate; and their moral character, though rigidly tried, was
never impeached by their keenest opponents, ibid. This test ap-
plied to the Old Testament, ibid And also to the New Testa-
ment, 60. These writings never charged with containing false-
hoods, ibid. This proved at large concerning the Old Testament,
60-62. And the New Testament, 62. The writers of which
were contemporary with, and competent witnesses of, the events
related, 62, 63. And could not have recorded the actions ascrib-
ed to Christ, if they had not been true, 62. Were neither enthu-
siasts nor fanatics, 63. Were neither deceived themselves, nor
did nor could deceive others, 63, 64. But on the contrary they
were men of the strictest integrity and sincerity, 64, 65. Ap-
pealed to notorious proofs, 66. And suffered every thing for the
truth of their narration, ibid. The credibility of the Scriptures fur-
ther confirmed by the subsistence, to this very day, of monuments
instituted to perpetuate the memory of the principal facts and
events therein recorded, 66, 67. And by the wonderful establish-
ment and propagation of Christianity, 67, 68. Testimonies from
natural and civil history to the credibility of the Old Testament,
69-78. And also of the New Testament, 78-83. The silence
of profane authors concerning facts recorded by the sacred histo-
rians no argument against their credibility. 85-87. Which is
further confirmed by coins and medals, 88-91. Recapitulation
of this argument, 185. Credibility of miracles, proved, 95-97.
Creed of unbelievers, I. 159. note.

Cretans, St. Paul's character of, confirmed by profane writers, I. 81.
Christianity, when planted in Crete, II. 347.
Criticism of the Scriptures, objects of, I. 188.

Cyprian, testimony of, to the genuineness of the New Testament,
Ï. 42.

Cyprian Recension of the New Testament, I. 209. note.
Cyrenius, census of, explained, I. 419, 420.

D'ALEMBERT, miserable death of, I. 176.

Daniel (the prophet), account of, II. 277. His predictions relative
to the four great monarchies, I. 129. Analysis of his prophecies,
II. 277-279. Observations on their canonical authority and style,
with a refutation of neologian objections, 279-282. Account of
the spurious additions made to the book of Daniel, 282.
Darkness, on the plague of, in Egypt, II. 207.

Dates of the books of Scripture, importance of knowing, I. 348.
David, in what sense the "man after God's own heart," I. 411, 412.
List of Psalms ascribed to, II. 239. 241.

Deborah, remarks on the ode of, II. 217. note.
Deists, or enemies of divine revelation, origin of, I. 22. note. Are
indebted to the Scriptures for all that they have written, which
is either wise or good, ibid. Their boast, that unassisted reason
is a sufficient guide to man, disproved, ibid. A summary of their
absurd and contradictory tenets concerning religion, the worship
of God, and a future state, 23-25. And concerning morals, 25.
Deadly effects of deism on nations, 25, 26. And on individuals,
26. Effects of their principles contrasted with those of the Gos-
pel, 176, 177.

Deities (heathen), immense number of, I. 16. and note 8., 21. Hor-
rid rites of, and their effects, 16, 17. See Idolatry.
Deluge, Mosaic account of, not contrary to philosophy, but confirm-
ed by indubitable testimonies from natural and civil history, I.
72-75. And by the Apamean medal, 88. Infidel objections to
it refuted, 75, 76.

De Rossi, notice of the principal Hebrew MSS. collected by, I. 219.
Design of the sacred writers in composing their narratives, a source
of apparent contradictions in historical passages, I. 400-402.
And also in points of doctrine, 408.

Deuteronomy (book of), date and chronology of, II. 210, 211. Its
scope, 211. Prediction relative to the Messiah contained in it
illustrated, ibid. I. 453, 454. Synopsis of its contents, II. 211, 212.
Observations on this book, 212.

Dialects of the Greek Testament, I. 196-199.

An import of, I. 28. 39.

Aλ, import of, II. 243.

Didactic poetry of the Hebrews, I. 381.

Difficulties attendant on the propagation of Christianity, examined,
I. 448-450.

Dissection, curious, of the Old and New Testaments, I. 202. note.
Divisions (ancient and modern) of the Scriptures, I. 212-215.
Doctrines delivered in the Bible a proof that it must be from God,
1. 142. Doctrines of the patriarchal age, 142, 143. II. 236, 237.

Doctrines delivered by Moses, and by the prophets, I. 143-148.
Summary of the doctrines of the Gospel, 149.; particularly the
vicarious atonement of Christ, and the blessings thereby procured
for man, 150-152. Alleged contradictions in doctrines proved
to have no foundation, 406-408. On the doctrinal interpretation
of the Scriptures, 393-395.

Double Sense of prophecy, I. 390, 391.
Dramatic Poems of the Hebrews, I. 381.
Dreams, prophetic, II. 255.

Duelling not sanctioned by the Gospel, I. 171. note.

EBER'S (Paul) revision of the Latin Vulgate, notice of, I. 277.
Ebionites, testimony of, to the genuineness and authenticity of the
New Testament, I. 46.
Ecclesiastes (book of), II. 247. Its title, author, and canonical au-
thority, ibid. Its scope and synopsis, 247, 248. Observations on
this book, 249.

Ecclesiasticus (apocryphal book of), account of, II. 291.
Edessene Recension of the New Testament, account of, I. 206.
Editions (ancient) of the Scripture, considered as a source of the
sacred text, I. 280.
Effect, metonymy of, I. 360.

Egypt, prophecies concerning, and their fulfilment, I. 125. The
borrowing from the Egyptians by the Israelites explained, 409.
Remarks on the plagues inflicted upon the Egyptians, II. 206,
207. Pretensions of the Egyptians to remote antiquity disproved,
I. 73. Confirmations of Scripture from Egyptian hieroglyphics,
88, 89.
Egyptian versions of the Scriptures, I. 272, 273. Egyptian Recen-
sion of the New Testament, 205.
Eichhorn's theory of recensions, account of, I. 209.
Elegiac Poetry of the Hebrews, I. 380.
Elijah fed by ravens, remarks on the narrative of, I. 422.
Emphases, definition of, I. 326, 327. Different kinds of, 327. Em-
phasis of the Greek article, 327, 328. Emphases of other words,
328. Emphatic adverbs, ibid. Real emphases, ibid. Rules for
the investigation of emphatic words, 328, 329.
England, beneficial effects of Christianity in, I. 174.
Enoch, translation of, confirmed by heathen traditions, I. 71. Re-
marks on the apocryphal book of, supposed to be quoted by the
Apostle Jude, 318. II. 377.

Enthusiasm, characteristics of, I. 63. Proof that Moses was not an
enthusiast, 60. Nor the apostles and evangelists, 63. Especially
Saint Paul, II. 322, 323.

Ephesus, temple of Diana at, I. 90. That city, why termed NEO.
KOPOE, 90, 91. Account of the church at, II. 338. Genuineness
and authenticity of the Epistle to the Ephesians, 338, 339. Its
date, 339. Occasion and scope, ibid. Analysis of its contents,
ibid. Observations on its style, ibid.

Epistles of the apostles, importance of, II. 329, 330. Their number
and order, particularly those of St. Paul, 330. Of the Catholic
epistles, ibid. General plan of the apostolic epistles, ibid. Causes
of their obscurity explained, 331. Remarks on the phraseology
of St. Paul's Epistles in particular, ibid. Rules for studying the
apostolic epistles most beneficially, 1. 393-395. Subscriptions
attached to them, 215. See Catholic Epistles.

Epithets of Scripture, different kinds of, Í. 325.

Esdras, account of the two apocryphal books of, II. 289, 290.
Esther (book of), II. 225. Its title and author, 225, 226. Argument,
266. Synopsis of its contents, ibid. Account of the Targums or
Chaldee paraphrases on this book, I. 263. Apocryphal additions
to the book of Esther, II. 290.
Ethan, psalm ascribed to, II. 240.
Ethiopia, prophecies concerning, and their fulfilment, I. 125, 126.
Ethiopic language, notice of, I. 199. Ethiopie version of the Scrip-
tures, 273, 274.
Eusebius's account of the classification and genuineness of the
books of the New Testament, I. 42. Notice of his Harmony of
the four Gospels, 319, 320.; and of his recension of the Septuagint
version, 268. Eusebian Sections, 214.
Euthalius, Sections of, 1. 214.
Evangelists, were contemporary with, and competent witnesses of,
the facts recorded by them, I. 62, 63. Were not enthusiasts nor
fanatics, 63. Neither did nor could deceive or impose upon
others, 63, 64. Were men of the strictest integrity and sincerity,
64, 65. Appealed to notorious proofs, 66. Suffered every thing
for the truth of their narrative, ibid. On the credibility and in-
spiration of the evangelists.-See Credibility, Inspiration.
Evidence. See Historical Testimony.

Evil (moral and physical), the true cause of, unknown to the an-
cients, I. 17. The Bible account of it confirmed by heathen
writers, 70.

Exodus (book of), Title, II. 206. Author and date, ibid. Occasion
and subject-matter, ibid. Scope, ibid. Types of the Messiah,
ibid. Synopsis, ibid. Illustration of Exodus, ch. vii.-xi. 206, 207.
Expositors. See Commentators.

Ezekiel (the prophet), account of, II. 283. Canonical authority of
his prophecies, ibid. Their scope, 284. Analysis of them, 284-
286. Observations on the style of Ezekiel, 286. Supposed dif-
ference between him and Jeremiah reconciled, I. 124.

Ezra (book of), II. 224. Its title and author, ibid. Argument,
scope, and synopsis of its contents, 224, 225. Observations on
a spurious passage ascribed to Ezra, 225.

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