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4. Good or evil desires ap-1 designs.—Deut. xxviii. 54. His eye shall, Field. The World.—Matt. xiii. 38.

be evil towards his brother.-ver. 56. Her eye shall be evil towards Fire.
the husband of her bosom, and towards her son, and towards her 1. With such adjuncts as denote that it is not put for light, it signifies
daughter. That is, they shall form cruel and evil designs against destruction or torment, great sickness, war, and its dismal effects.-
them to kill, and even to eat them. History confirms the predic- Isa. xlii. 25. It hath set him on fire.- Isa. Ixvi. 15. The LORD will
tion.

come with fire. See Ezek. xxii. 20—22.
2. Burning fire.-The wrath of God.—Ezek. xxii. 31. I have con-

sumed them with the fire of my wrath.
FACE

3. Afflictions, or persecution.---Isa. xxiv. 15. Glorify ye the LORD God

in the fires.
1. As applied to God, it denotes his favour.---Dan. ix. 17. Cause thy 4. Coals of fire proceeding out of the month of God, or from his
face to shine upon thy sanctuary.—See Psal. xxxi. 16.

countenance, denote his anger.—Psal. xviii. 8. 12, 13.
2. As applied to man.

FIRMAMENT. See HEAVENS.
Faces harder than a rock (Jer. v. 3.) denote unblushing, shameless Flesh (or MEAT.)

persons.
Faith (Ilustes.) In consequence of not attending to the ambiguity of 1. The riches, goods, or possessions of any person conquered, oppres-

sed, or slain, as the case may be.-Psal. lxxiv. 14. 'Thou breakes!
the word otis, which in our authorised version is usually trans-
lated faith, it has been applied by many divines, wherever it occurs,

the heads of leviathan in pieces (didst destroy the power of Pharaoh

and his princes) [and] gavest him to be) meat to the people inhabiting
exclusively to faith in the Messiah, when the context often manifestly

the wilderness that is, didst enrich the Israelites with their
requires it to be taken in a different sense. Faith or believing then

spoils.—Isa. xvii. 4. The fatness of his flesh shall be made lean. See
denotes,

also Mic. iii. 2, 3. and Zech. xi. 9. 16.; in all which places the Tar
1. Our assenting to any truth, even to such truths as are known by the
evidences of our senses : thus in John xx. 29. Thomas

, whom the 2. To devour much flesh, is to conquer and spoil many enemies of their

gum explains flesh by riches and substance.
evidence of his senses had convinced of the reality of Christ's re-

lands and possessions. In Dan. vii. 5. this expression is used to de-
surrection, is said to have believed.

note the cruelty of the Medes and Persians, many of whose sove
2. A general disposition of the mind to embrace all that we know concern-

reigns were more like ferocious bears than men. Instances of their
ing God, whether by reason or revelation : as in Heb. xi. 6. Without
faith it is impossible to please God; which expression is subsequent-

cruelty abound in almost all the historians who have written of

their affairs.
ly applied to the existence of God, his goodness and bounty towards 3. Weak, mortal man.--Isa. xl 6. AU flesh is grass.

his sincere worshippers.
3. A peculiar assent lo a cerlain revelation ; for instance, in Rom. iv. 4. The exterior of man; viz.

(1.) External actions, as circumcision, the choice of food, &c. in
throughout, and in other passages that treat of Abraham's faith, it is
manifest that this faith must be referred to the peculiar promises

which the body is the part chiefly affected.-Rom. iv. 1. What shall
made to Abraham that a son should be born unto him, though he

we say then, that Abraham our faiher hath found, as pertaining to the
himself was then about a hundred years old, and Sarah, who was

flesh i. e. so far as regards external actions.-i Cor. x. 18. Behold

Israel after the flesh; i.e. as it respects the external performance of
ninety, was barren.

their religious rites.-Gal. iji. 3.... Are ye now made perfect by the
4. An assent given to the revelation made to Moses; as when the
children of Israel are said to have believed the Lord and his servant

flesh? will ye turn again to mere external ceremonies?

(2.) External appearance, condition, circumstances, character &c.-
Moses. (Exod. xiv. 31. compared with John v. 45, 46. and ix. 28)

John vi. 63.
5. An assent given to the relation made to the prophels : as when King

The flesh profileth nothing.–2. Cor. v. 16. We know
Jehoshaphat says to the Jews (2 Chron. xx. 20.,)“ Believe in the Flood.--Extremne danger.—Psal. lxix. 15.

no man after the flesh.

Let not the water-flood
Lord your God, so shall ye be established; believe his prophets, 'so

overflow me. See RIVER.
shall ye prosper." Compare also Isa. vii. 9.
6. A cordial assent to the Christian revelation or to some of its leading forEved.-A public profession or appearance before men.-An

Food. See BREAD.
and fundamental points; as in those passages where we are com-

tiently, slaves were stigmatised in their forehead with their master's
manded to believe in Christ, or that he is the Son of God, or that he

mark; hence to be sealed in the forehead (Rev. vii. 3.,) and to have
rose from the dead.

a mark in the forehead (Rev. xiii. 16. &c.,) is to make a public pro-
7. An assent to future and invisible things revealed by God, as in
Heb. xi. 1. where it is defined to be the substance of things hoped

fession of belonging to the person whose mark is said to be re-

ceived.
for, and the evidence of things not seen, that is, the giving of a present Four. See NUMBERS.
subsistence to things future, which are fully expected, and the Forest of the South-field. See SOUTH-FIELD.
proving and demonstrating of things which are not seen.

FORNICATION.- All those carnal impurities, which were common
8. The Gospel, as in Gal. iii. 2. where Saint Paul demands of the

among the heathens, and even formed a part of their sacred rites,
Galatians, whether they received the Spirit by the works of the law, Rev. ii. 20. Thou sufferest that woman Jezebel.... to seduce my ser
or by the hearing of faith: in which passage it is evident that the vants to commit fornification.
hearing of faith denotes the hearing of the preached Gospel ; and in FORTRESS.—Sce Towers.
this sense the word faith appears to be used in all those parts of the Fox.-A cunning, deceitful person.-Luke xiii. 32 Go, tell that fox.

Epistle to the Romans, where it is opposed to the works of the law. Ezek. xiii. 4. Thy prophets are like the foxes in the deserls.
9. A persuasion that what we do is well pleasing to God : thus the Fruit.

meaning of Rom. xiv. 23, Whatsoever is not of faith is sin, is, that 1. The consequences of an action. Prov. i. 31. They shall eat the fruit
it is sinful in us to do any thing, which we are not fully persuaded af their own ways.
is well pleasing to God, or at least permitted by him.

2. Good works--Psal. i. 3, He (the pious man) ....

...bringeth forth
10. Faith in miracles, that is, a firm confidence in Christ, to which, at his fruit in his season.—Matt. iii. 8. Bring forth fruits meel for re-
the first propagation of the

Gospel, was annexed the performance pentance.
of miracles : such was the faith which Jesus Christ frequently re- FURNACE.
quired of his disciples and others, that he might work certain 1. A place of great affliction-Deut. iv. 20. The Lord hath ... brought
miracles by them (compare Matt. xvii. 20. Mark xi. 22. xvi. 17. and you forlh out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt.
Luke xvii. 6.;) and to which Saint Paul refers in 1 Cor. xiii. 2. 2. Such afflictions as God sends for the amendment and correction of
Lastly, faith sometimes signifies,

men. -Jer. ix. 7. I will melt them, and try them, that is, in the
11.

Fidelity, or faithfulness in the discharge of duties or promises, and furnace of affliction.
so the Greek word votiç is properly rendered in Tit. ii. 10.; as it
also should have been in 1 Tim. v. 12., the faith, there said to have

been cast off by the younger widows, being their fidelity to Christ.
FALLING down, or prostrate, before another.-Submission and ho- GARMENTS.

mage.—Isa. xlv. 14. They shall fall down unto thee, and make sup-1. White garments were not only the emblem of purity and being in
plication unto thee. See also Gen. xxvii

. 29. xxxvii. 7, 8.

the favour of God (Psal. li. 7. Isa. i. 18..) but also, as being worn
FAMILY.–The Church of God.—Eph. iii. 15. Of whom the whole on festival days, were tokens of joy and pleasure. (Isa. lii. I\/xi.
family in heaven and earth is named.

10.) Kings and princes likewise were arrayed in white garments
FAT.

of fine linen. (Gen. xli. 42. 1 Chron. xv. 27. Luke xvi. 19.) Hence,
1. The most excellent of every thing:-Psal. Ixxxi. 16. He should have to walk or be clothed in while, signifies to be prosperous, successful,

fed them with the finest (Heb. fat) of the wheal.-Psal. cxlvii. 14. He and victorious, to be holy, happy, honoured, and rewarded.-Rev.
filleth thee with the finest (Heb. fat) of the wheat.

iii. 4, 5. They shall walk in white...... The same shall be clothed
2. Riches.—Psal. xxii. 29. All ihe fat upon earth.—Jer. v. 28. They in white raiment.
are waren fat.

2. Souls.-Rev. iii. 4. Thou hast a few names in Sardis which have
FATHER.

not defiled their garments. The Hebrews considered holiness as the
1. God, whose children we all are by creation and redemption.—Mal. garb of the soul, and evil actions as stains or spots upon this garb.

i. 6. If I be a father, where is mine honour ?-Mal. ii. 10. Have we GATES.
not all one Father? Hath not one God created us? See Jer. xxxi. 1. Gates of the daughter of Sion. The ordinances of Jehovah, by
9.

which the soul is helped forward in the way of salvation.—Psal. ix.
2. Father of any thing; that is, the author, cause, or source of it.- 14. That I may show forth all thy praise in the gates of the daughter

John viii. 44. When he (Satan) speaketh a lie ... he is the father of, of Sion.
it.-James i. 17. The Father of lights; the source of spiritual and 2. Gates of Death.
coporeal light.

Imminent danger of death.—Psal. ix. 13. Have mercy upon me, O
3. Example, pattern, or prototype.—John viii. 44. Ye are of your LORD ...

.... thou that deliverest me from the gates of death. “The
father, the devil ; ye follow the example of Satan, so that he may be Hebrew poets supposed the lower world, or region of death, to have
properly called your father, and ye his children.

gates. Thus it is said in Job xxxviii. 17. Have the gates of death
been opened unto thee? or hast thou seen the doors of the shadow of cus....... And the head of Ephraim (that is, of the kingdom of
death --King Hezekiah, in his hymn of thanksgiving for his re- Israel,) is Samaria.
covery, (Isa. xxxviii. 10.) sings: I shall go to the gates of the grave.” HEAT. (Scorching.)— Trouble and persecution.—Matt. xiii. 6. 21
[Burder's Oriental Literature, vol. ii. p. 11. The same image is When the sun was up, they were scorched, and because they had not
found among the Greek and Roman poets. Ibid. p. 12. Dr. Good's root, they withered away...... When tribulation or persecution
Translation of Job, p. 452.]

ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended.
3. Security. =(Because gates are a security to a fortress or city.)—Psal. HEAVENS.

cxlvii. 13. He hath strengthened the bars of thy gates. That is, God 1. The Divine Power ruling over the world.--Dan. iy. 26 .... After
has given Jerusalem security, and put it out of danger. So, in Job that thou shall know that the heavens do rule.
xxxviii. 10., the setting of bars and gates against the sea, means the 2. God.—Matt. xxi. 25. The baptism of John, whence was it? From
securing of the earth against its inroads. The decree, there alluded heaven or of men ? &c.-Luke xv. 18. I have sinned against hea
to, as imposed by the Almighty upon the ocean, is that wonderful ven, and before thee. See also verse 21.
law of gravation in fluids, by which, all the parts of them exerting 3. Heaven and earth.—A political universe.---Isa. li. 16. That I may
an equal pressure upon one another, the equilibrium of the whole plant the heavens, and lay the foundations of the earth, and say unto
is maintained.

Sion, Thou art my people.That is, that I might make those who
GIRDLE.—The eastern people, wearing long and loose garments, were were but scattered persons and slaves in Egypt before, a kingdom

unfit for action or business of any kind, without girding their clothes and polity, to be governed by their own laws and magistrates. See
about them. A girdle therefore denotes strength and activity; and Door, 1.
to unloose it is to deprive a person of strength, to render him unfit HELL.
for action.- Isa. v. 27. Nor shall the girdle of their loins be loosed.-1. Utter destruction, a total overthrow.-Isa. xiv. 15. Matt. xi. 23.
Isa. xlv. 1. I will loose the loins of kings to open before him (Cyrus) Thou shalt be brought down to hell.
the two-leaved gates.

2. The general receptacle of the dead, the place of departed souls.
GOLD.

Rev. i. 18.- I have the keys of hell and of death.
1. Good men bearing trouble, as gold bears the fire.—Job xxiii. 10. HELMET.-Salvation.—Eph. vi. 17. 1. Thess. y. 8.
When he hath tried me, I shall come forth as gold.

HILLS. See MOUNTAINS.
2. Such faith and virtue as will enable its possessor to stand a fiery HIRELING. A false minister who careth not for the sheep.- John x,

trial.-Rev. iii. 18. I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the 12, 13. He that is an hireling, whose own the sheep are not ....fleeth,
fire.-See IMAGE.

because he is an hireling, and careth not for the sheep.
GRAPES.-Fruits of righteousness.- Isa. v. 2. He looked that it should Hope.
bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes.

1. The object of hope ; i. e. future felicity. Rom. viii. 24. Gal. v. 5
Grass. The common people, or mankind in general.—Isa. xl. 6, 7. Col. i. 5. 2. Thess. ii. 16.
All flesh is grass ; that is, weak and impotent as grass.

2. The author or source of hope.—1 Tim. i. 1.-Jesus Christ, our
GROUND.-The heart of man.—Luke viii. 15. Tha! on the good hope.-Col. i. 27. Christ in you, the hope of glory.

ground, are they which, in an honest and good heart, having heard 3. Confidence, security.--Acts ii. 26. My flesh shall rest in hope.
the word, keep it.

HORN.
GROWTH of plants.

1. Regal power, or monarchy.-Jer. xlviii. 25. The horn of Moab is
1. Resurrection and glorification.-Hos. xiv. 7. They that dwell under cut off

. In Zech. i. 18. 21. and Dan. viii. 20—22. the four horns are
his shadow shall return ; they shall revive as the corn; they shall the four great monarchies, each of which had subdued the Jews.
grow as the vine.—John xii

. 24. Except a corn of wheat fall into the 2. Horns of an altar.- The Divine protection.--Amos iii. 14. The
ground and die, it abideth alone ; but if it die, it bringeth forth much horns of the altar shall be cut off and fall to the ground. That is,
fruit. See also Isa. Ixvi. 14. and 1 Cor. xv. 36--44.

there shall be no more atonements made upon the altar. The
2. Growth in grace.—Isa. lv. 10, 11. For as the rain cometh down, asylum or sanctuary thereof shall not stand. Antiently, both among

and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the Jews and Gentiles, an altar was an asylum or sanctuary for such
earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the persons as fled to it for refuge.
sower, and bread to the ealer ;-80 shall my word be.

3. Strength, glory, and power.-Horns (it is well known) are emblems

of these qualities both in sacred and profine writers, because the
strength and beauty of horned animals consist in their horns. By

the seven horns, atiributed to the Lamb, (in Rev. v 6.) is signified
HAIL.

that universal power which our Lord obtained, when, suffering
1. The devastations made by the inroads of enemies.—Isa. xxviii. 2. death under the form of an innocent victim, he thereby vanquished

The Lord hath a mighty and a strong one [which) as a tempest of the formidable enemy of man. All power, said he to his disciples
hail...... shall cast down to the earth with the hand.-Under this re- immediately after this conflict, is given to me in heaven and in earth.
semblance the prophet represents the utter destruction of the king. (Matt. xxviii. 18.)
dom of the ten tribes, which afterwards was accomplished by Shal. 4. Horn of Salvation.-A mighty and glorious Saviour, or Deliverer.-
maneser. Compare Isa. xxxii. 19. Ezek. xiii. 11. 13.

Psal. xviii. 2. The LORD is... the horn of my salvation. See Luke
2. Hail and fire. The calamities of war, with all their horrors.—Rev. i. 69.
viii. 7. ''here followed hail and fire mingled with blood.

HORSE.
Hair.

1. The symbol of war and conquest.-God hath made Judah as his
1. Grey hairs.-Decay of natural strength, and tendency to dissolu. goodly horse in the battle. That is, He will make them conquerors

tion. -Hos. vii. 9. "Grey hairs are here and there. upon him, and he over his enemies, glorious and successful.
knoweth it not.

2. More particularly of speedy conquest.— Joel ii. 4. The appearance
2. Shaving the head, the hair of the feet and of the beard, with a of them is as the appearance of horses; and as horsemen so shall they

razor hired (the king of Assyria), in Isa. vii. 20. signifies the troubles, run.--Hab. i. 8. "Their horses are swister than leopards.—Jer. iv.
slaughter, and destruction that were to be brought upon the Jews 13. His horses are swifter than eagles.
by the Assyrian king and his armies.

3. White being the symbol of joy, felicity, and prosperity, and white
HAND.-Power and strength.

horses, being used by victors on their days of triumph, are the sym-
1. Right hand.-Great protection and favour.—Psal. xviii. 35. Thy bol of certain victory and great triumph upon that account.--Rev.
right hand hath holden me up.

vi. 2. I saw, and behold a white horse ; and he that sat on him....
2. Laying the right hand upon a person. The conveyance of bless- went forth conquering and to conquer. See also BLACK.

ings-strength-power, and authority. Thus Jacob conveyed bless. HOUSE.
ings to the two sons of Joseph. (Gen. xlviii. 20.) The hand that 1. The Church of God.--1 Tim. iii. 15. The House of God, which is
touched the prophet Daniel (x. 10.) strengthened him; and Moses the church of the living God. See Heb. iii. 6.
by laying his right hand upon Joshua (Numb. xxvii. 18.), delegated, 2. The body of man. - 2 Cor. v. 1. If our earthly house of (thisj
a portion of his authority to him.

tabernacle were dissolved.
3. Hand of God upon a prophet.—The immediate operation of God or Hunger and Thirst. -The appetites of the spirit after righteous-

his Holy Spirit upon a prophet.--Ezek. viii. 1. 'The hand of the ness.—Luke i. 53. He haih filled the hungry with good things.-
Lord God fell upon me. Compare 1 Kings xviii. 46. 2 Kings iii. Matt. v. 6. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after
15.

righteousness, for they shall be filled.—Psal. xlii. 2. My soul thirst-
HARVEST.

eth for God.
1. Some destroying judgment, by which people fall as corn by the

scythe.- Joel'iii. 13. Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe.
2. The end of the world.-Matt. xiii. 39.
HEAD.

IDOL.-IDOLATRY.--Any thing too much, and sinfully indulged-1
1. The superior part or governing principle.- Isa. i. 5. The whole John v. 21. Keep yourself from idols.-Col. iii. 5. Covelousness

head is sick.—Dan. ii. 38. Thou art this head of gold.--Isa. vii. 8, which is idolatry:
9. The head (that is, the sovereign,) of Damascus is Rezin; and Image of gold, silver, brass, and iron.—The four great monarchies or
the head of Samaria is Remaliah's son ; that is, Pekah king of kingdoms of the world.-Dan. ii. 31–45. Compare p. 207. of this
Israel.

volume.
2. Heads of a people.—Princes or magistrates.--Isa. xxix. 10. The INCENSE.- Prayer, or the devotion of the heart in offering up prayer

prophets and your heads (marginal rendering) hath he covered.- to God.-Psal. cxli. 2. Let my prayer be set before thee as incense-
Micah iii. 1. 9.11. Hear, O heads of Jacob, and ye princes of the Rev. v. 8. Golden vials full of incense, which are the prayers of
house of Israel.... The heads judge for reward.

the saints. See also Luke i. 10.
3. When a body politic is represented under the symbol of an animal, INFIRMITIES of the Body. All the distempers and weaknesses of the

and is considered as one body, the head of it, by the rule of analogy, mind.-Matt. viii. 17. Himself took our infirmitics, and bare our
is its capital city.—Isa. vii. 8. 9. The head of Syria is Damas- sicknesser. Compare Isa. liii. 3. and xxxv. 5, 6.
VOL. II.

3N

ISLE-ISLAND--Any place or country to which the Hebrews went by | Life.

sea.--Gen. x. 5. By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in 1. Immortality.–Psal. xvi. 11. Thou wilt show me the path of life.
their lands ; that is, Europe.-In Isa. xx. 6. This isle means Ethio- Psal. xxxvi 9. With thee is the fountain of life.
pia, whither the Hebrews went by sea from Ezion-geber. And in 2. Christ, the fountain of natural, spiritual, and eternal life.-John i.
Isa. xxiii. 2. 6., the inhabitants of the isle are the Tyrians.

4. In him was life.—John xi. 25. I am the resurrection and the

life.-Col. iii. 4. When Christ, who is our life, shall appear.

3. The doctrine of the Gospel, which points out the way of life.- John
JERUSALEM.

vi. 63. The words that I speak unto you, they are life. See TREE
1 The earthly Jerusalem.-A sign, earnest, and pattern of the heaven- of LIFE.

y Jerusalem.-Rev. iii. 12. Him that overcometh...... I will write LIGHT.
upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God 1. Joy, comfort, and felicity.—Esther viii. 16. The Jews had light and
which is) new Jerusalem.--"The numerous prophecies, foretelling gladness, and joy, and honour.–Psal. xcvii. 11. Light is sown for
great and everlasting glory to Jerusalem, have not been fulfilled in the righteous.—Psal. cxii. 4. Unto the upright there ariseth light in
the literal Jerusalem ; nor can be so fulfilled, without contradicting the darkness; that is, in affliction.
other predictions, especially those of our Lord which have de- 2. That which enlightens the mind : instruction, doctrines, &c., which
nounced its ruin. They remain, therefore, to be fulfilled in a illuminates and fills the mind with higher and more perfect know-
spiritual sense ; in that sense which Saint Paul points out to us, ledge ; so that men are led to adopt a new and better mode of
when in opposition to Jerusalem that now is, and is in bondage with thinking, feeling, judging, and acting, and to entertain nobler
her children, he presents to our view, Jerusalem which is above, views and higher hopes. 1 Thess. v. 5. Eph. v. 8. Children (or
which is the mother of us all. (Gal. iv. 24–26.) This is the city sons) of the light; that is, those who have been enlightened.
which Abraham looked to; a building not made with hands, whose 3. The author of moral light, a moral teacher.-Ye are the light of the
builder and maker is God (Heb. xi. 10–16. xii. 22–24. xiii. 14.); world.—John v. 35. He was a burning and shining light; i. e. a
even the heavenly Jerusalem." [Dean Woodhouse on Rev. iii. distinguished and most zealous teacher of the mysteries of the king
12.)

dom of heaven.
2. Jerusalem that now is (Gal. iv. 25.); the Jewish or Mosiac dispen- Lion.
sation.

1. An emblem of fortitude and strength.-Rev. v. 5. The Lion of the
3. Jerusalem that is above (Gal. iv. 26.), the celestial Jerusalem, i. e. tribe of Judah, means Jesus Christ, who sprang from this tribe, of

the Christian dispensation, which will be perfected in splendour which a lion was the emblem.

and majesty, when Christ shall descend to judge the world. 2. The lion is seldom taken in an ill sense, except when his mouth or
TEZEBEL-A woman of great rank and influence at Thyatira, who rapacity is in view.-Psal. xxii. 13. They gaped upon me with their
seduced the Christians to intermix idolatry and heathen impurities mouths as a ravening and a roaring lion. See also 1 Pet. v. 8.
with their religion.-Rev. ii. 20. I have a few things against thee, Locusts.—Antichristian corrupters of the Gospel.-Rev. ix. 3. There
because thou hast suffered that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth.' Dean Woodhouse re-
a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, fers them to the Gnostic heretics; but most other commentators to
and io eat things offered unto idols.-Instead of that woman Jeze. the overwhelming forces of Mohammed.
bel—rnu guurixx 1: —many excellent manuscripts, and almost Loins. Gird up the loins of your mind : hold your minds in a state
all the ancient versions, read tu yuzixx Go IsgaBy, THY wife Jeze. of constant preparation and expectation. The metaphor is derived
bel; which reading asserts that this bad woman was the wife of the from the customs of the Orientals : who, when they wish to apply
bishop or angel of that church; whose criminality in suffering her themselves to any business requiring exertion, are obliged to bind
was, therefore, the greater. She called herself a prophetess, that is,

their long flowing garments closely around them.
set up for a teacher; and taught the Christians that fornication and
eating things offered to idols were matters of indifference, and thus
they were seduced from the truth. [Dean Woodhouse and Dr. A.
Clarke, on Rev. ii. 20.]

Mammon of unrighteousness.—Luke xvi. 9. Worldly riches. Mammon

was the Syrian god of riches.

MANNA.
KEYS.

1. The bread of life. John vi. 26–50.
1. Power, authority.---Rev. i. 18. I.... have the keys of hell and of 2. Hidden manna.—The ineffable joys of immortality.—Rev. ii. 17.

death ; that is, power and authority over life, death, and the grave. To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna.
Compare Rev. iii. 7. and Isa. xxii. 22.- The keys of the kingdom of MEAT. See FLESH.
heaven, in Matt. xvi. 19., signify the power to admit into that state, Moon.
and to confer the graces and benefits thereof.

1. The Church.—Song of Sol. vi. 10. Fair as the moon.
The key of knowledge, in Luke xi. 52., is the power or mean of at- 2. The Mosaic dispensation.-Rev. xii. 1. The moon under her feet.
taining knowledge.

See Sun, 3.
KINE of Bashan. (Amos iv. 1.) The luxurious matrons of Israel. MOUNTIAN.
King.–God, the King of kings, and origin of all authority and power. ( 1. High mountains and lofty hills denote kingdoms, republics, states,
See Matt. xxii. 2. Rev. xvii. 14.

and cities.- Isa. ii. 12, 14.' The day of the Lord shall be ......upon
all the high mountains. In Jer. li.

25. the destroying mountain means
the Babylonish nation.

2. Mountain of the Lord's House. The kingdom of the Messiah.-
LABOURER.—The minister who serves under God in his husbandry.- Isa. ii. 2. It shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of
Matt. ix. 37, 38. The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers the Lord's

House shall be established upon the top of the mountains,
are few. Pray ye, therefore, the Lord of the harvest, that he will send and shall be exalted above the hills, and all nations shall flow unto it.
forih labourers into this harvesl.—1 Cor. iii. 9. We are labourers See Isa. xi. 9. and Dan. ii. 35. 45.
together with God.

3. An obstacle to the spread of the Gospel. Isa. xl. 4.
LAME.-The Messiah, suffering for the sins of the world.—John i. 29. MYSTERY.

Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world.—Rev. 1. A secret, something that is hidden, not fully manifest, not published
v. 12. Worthy is the Lamb tha! was slain.

to the world, though, perhaps, communicated to a select number.
LAMP.

In this sense it occurs in 2. Thess. ii. 7. where Saint Paul, speaking
1. Direction or support.—2 Sam. xxii. 17. That thou quench not the of the Antichristian spirit, says, " The mystery of iniquity doth al-
light (Heb. lamp) of Israel.

ready work.” The spirit of Antichrist has begun to operate, but the
2. A Christian church.—Rey. i. 12. The seven golden lamps (incor- operation is latent and unperceived. In this sense also the same

rectly rendered candlesticks in our version) are the seven churches apostle applies the words“ mystery,” and “mystery of Christ," in a
of Christ (Rev. i. 20.), represented as golden, to show how precious peculiar manner to the calling of the Gentiles (Eph. iii. 3-9.);
they are in the sight of God.

which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men,
LEAVEN.-Corrupt doctrine and corrupt practices.-Matt. xvi. 6. Luke as it is now revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit

,
xii. 1. Mark viii. 15. Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and that the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs and of the same body (namely
Sadducees, which is hypocrisy-i Cor. v. 6–8. Know ye not that a with the Jews), and partakers of his promise in Christ by the Gospel."
little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge, therefore, the old Compare also Rom. xvi. 25, 26. Eph. i. 9. iji. 9. vi. 19. Col. i. 26,
leaven, that ye may be a new lump.. Let us keep the feast, not 27.
with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness, 2. “A spiritual truth couched under an external representation or
but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

similitude, and concealed or hidden thereby, unless some explana-
LEAVES.-Words, the service of the lips, as distinguished from the tion be given." To this import of the word our Saviour probably

fruits of good works.--Psal. i. 3. His leaf also shall not wither. alluded when he said to his disciples, To you it is given to know the
LEBANON.- Zech. xi. 1. Open thy doors, O Lebanon ; i. e. the temple mystery of the kingdom of God; but, to them that are without, all

at Jerusalem, the stately buildings of which were compared to the these things are done in parables. (Mark iv. 11.) The secret was
cedars of the forests of Lebanon.

disclosed to the apostles, who obtained the spiritual sense of the
LEGION.--Any great number.—Matt. xxvi. 53. More than twelve similitude, while the multitude amused themselves with the para-
legions of angels.

ble, and sought no further. In this sense, mystery is used in the
LEOPARD.

following passages of the New Testament - Rev. i. 20. The
1. A swift, powerful, and rapacious enemy-Dan. vii. 6. 1 beheld, myslery, that is, the spiritual meaning, of the seven stars.— The seven

and lo, another like a leopard, i. e. Alexander, falsely named the stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven candlesticks
Great, whose rapid conquests are well characterised by this sym- are the seven churches. Again, xvii. 5. And upon her forehead a name
bol.

written Mystery, Babylon the Great, that is Babylon in a mystical
2. Men of fierce, untractable, and cruel disposition.—Isa. xi. 6. The sense, the inother of idolatry and abominations; and, in verse 7.1
leopard shall lie down with the kid.

will tell thee the mystery, or spiritual signification, of the woman, and

of the beast thal carrieth her, &c. In this sense likewise the word midst of the paradise of God.—Luke xxiii. 43. 7o day shall thou be
mystery is to be understood in Eph. v. 32.

with me in paradise.
3. "Some sacred thing, hidden or secret, which is naturally unknown Passover.- Jesus Christ.—1 Cor. v. 7. Christ our passover is

to human reason, and is only known by the revelation of God.” sacrificed for us. On the spiritual import of this term, compare Vol.
Thus, in 1 Tim. iii. 16. we read-Without controversy great is the II. Chap. IV. SIV. 3.
mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the PHYSICIAN.—The Saviour, curing the sins and sicknesses of the
Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the mind.-Matt. ix. 12. They that be whole, need not a physician ; but
world, received up into glory." The mystery of godliness, or of irue they that are sick.
religion, consists in the several particulars here mentioned by the Pillar or COLUMN.
apostle-particulars, indeed, which it would never have entered into 1. The chief prop of a family, city, or state.-Gal. ii. 9. James, Cephas,
the heart of man to conceive (1 Cor. ii

. 9.), had not God accomplished and John, who seemed to be pillars.
them in fact, and published them by the preaching of his Gospel ; | 2. Pillar of iron. The symbol of great firmness and duration.-Jer. i.
but which, being thus manifested, are intelligible as facts to the 18. I have made thee....an iron pillar.
meanest understanding" So in 1 Cor. xiii. 2. the understanding of PLOUGHING and breaking up the ground. The preparation of the
all mysteries denote the understanding of all the revealed truths heart by repentance.—Hos. x. 12. Break up your fallow-ground.
of the Christian religion, which in 1 Tim. iji.

9. are called the mys- See also Jer iv. 3.
tery of faith, and of which, in 1 Cor. iv. 1., the apostles are called Poison.—Lies, error, and delusion.—Psal. cxl. 3. Adders' poison is

stewards of the mysteries of God.
4. The word mystery is used in reference to things or doctrines which

under their lips.--Psal. lviii. 3, 4. They go astray as soon as they are
remain wholly or in part incomprehensible, or above reason, after

born, speaking lies. Their poison is like the poison of a serpent.-
they are revealed. Such are the doctrines of the resurrection of the

Rom. iii. 13. The poison of asps is under their lips; whose mouth
dead, that all shall not die at the last day, but that all shall be POWER.

is full of cursing and bitterness.
changed (1 Cor. xv. 51.), the incarnation of the Son of God, the 1. Dignity, privilege, prerogative.—John i. 12. As many as received
doctrine of the Trinity, &c. This is the ordinary or theological
sense of the word mystery: it does not imply any thing contrary to 2. The emblem of power, or of honour and dignity, that is, a veil.-1

him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God.
reason, nor utterly unknown as to its being; but it signifies a mat-

Cor. xi. 10. A woman ought to have power on her head, that is to be
ter, of whose existence we have clear evidence in the Scriptures,

veiled, because of the spies, or evil-minded persons who were sent
although the mode of such existence is incomprehensible, or above

into the meetings of the Christians by their enemies, in order that
our reason. (Schleusner's and Parkhurst's Greek Lexicons to the

they might be able to take advantage of any irregularity in their
New Testament, voce Musuprov. Dr. Campbell's Translation of the

proceedings, or of any departure from established customs. The
Four Gospels, vol. i. pp. 298–306. See also J. G. Pfeiffer's Instit.

veil, worn by married women, was an emblem of subjection to the
Herm. Sac. pp. 704–724.)

power of the husband. The marginal rendering of I Cor. xi. 10.

is,—a covering, in sign that she is under the power of her husband.
NAKED. — Destitute of the image of God; not clothed with the gar- POWERS.-A certain order of angels; whether good, as in Col. i. 16.
ment of holiness and purity.—Rev. iii. 17. And knowest not that

Eph. iii. 10. 1 Pet. iii. 22.; or evil, as in Col. ii. 15. and Eph. vi. 12.
thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked.

(Parkhurst and Robinson, voce 'EE DUGOGO)
NAMES.—The persons called by them.-Acts i. 15. The number of the Prince of the power of the air.- Eph. ii. 2. Satan. In this passage
names were about an hundred and twenty.—Rev. iii. 4. Thou hast,

the air denotes the jurisdiction of fallen spirits.
a few names even in Sardis.
NATURE.
1. Birth, origin, or nativity. Jews by nature. Gal. ii. 15.

Rain (gentle).
2. The constitution and order of God in the natural world. Rom. i. 1. The divine goodness.—Isa. xxvii. 3. xliv. 3.
26. xi. 21. 24.

2: Pure and heavenly doctrine.—Deut. xxxii. 2. especially the word
3. The native dispositions, qualities, properties, &c. of any person or of the Lord. Isa ly. 10, 11.

thing2 Pet. i. 14. Parlakers of a divine nature.-Eph. ii. 3. We REAPERS.— The angels.—Matt. xiii. 39.
were by nature, i. e. according to our natural disposition, when not REGENERATION.
enlightened and renewed by the influences of the Gospel, children 1. The melioration of all things, the new condition of all things in the
of wrath.

reign of the Messiah, when the universe, and all that it contains,
4. A native feeling of decorum, a native sense of propriety, by which will be restored to their state of pristine purity and splendour.-

a person is withheld from needlessly receding from the customs of Matt. xix. 28. In the regeneration, when the son of man shall sit on
his country.--1 Cor. xi. 14. Doth not nature itself-doth not your the throne of his glory.
own native sense of decorum-teach you, that if a man have long 2. In a moral sense, renovation, that is, the change from a carnal to a
hair, it is a shame unto him, viz. among the Greeks, to whom alone Christian life. Tit. iii. 5. (Robinson, voce IIzanggoro16.)
the apostle was writing; and consequently he does not refer to the Riches and TALENTS.-Gifts and graces from God.-Matt. xxv. 15.
custoins of the Hebrews. (Robinson's Lexicon, voce Puris.)

To one he gave five talents, &c. See also Luke xix. 13, &c.
Night.--Intellectual darkness; adversity.-Rev. xxi. 25. There shall RIVER.

be no night there ; that is, there shall be no more idolatry, no more 1. An overflowing river.—Invasion by an army:—Isa. lix. 19. The
intellectual darkness, no more adversity in the New Jerusalem ; but Enemy shall come in like a flood.- Jer. xlvi. 7, 8. Who is this that
all shall be peace, joy, happiness, and security.

cometh up as a flood, whose waters are moved as the rivers ? Egypt
NUMBERS.

riseth up like a flood, and his waters are moved like the rivers : and
Two; a few.- Isa. vii. 21. A man shall nourish two sheep.-1 Kings he saith, I will go up, and will cover the earth ; I will destroy the city
xvii. 12. I am gathering two sticks.

and the inhabitants thereof. See also Isa. xxviii. 2. Jer. xlvii. 2.
Three or third.—Greatness, excellency, and perfection.—Isa. xix. 24. Amos ix. 5. Nahum i. 4.
In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and Assyria ; that is, 2. A river being frequently the barrier or boundary of a nation or
as the prophet immediately explains, great, admired, beloved, and country, the drying of it up is a symbol of evil to the adjoining land;
blessed.

and signifies that its enemies will make an easy conquest of it
Four.-Universality of the matters comprised therein.—Isa. xi. 12. when they find no water to impede their progress. Thus, Isaiah,

The four corners of the earth denote all parts of the earth.–Jer. xlix. foretelling the conquest of Cyrus and the destruction of the Babylo-
6. Upon Elam (or Persia) will I bring the four winds from the four nian monarchy, has these words :- That saith to the deep, Be dry :
quarters of the earth ; that is, all the winds. In Ezek. vii. 2. the four and I will dry up thy rivers.—Isa. xi. 15. The LORD shall utterly de-
corners of the land, signify all parts of the land of Judea.

stroy the tongue of the Egyptian Sea (that part of the land of Egypt,
Seven.-A large and complete, yet uncertain and indefinite, number. which was inclosed among the mouths of the Nile); and with his
It is of very

frequent occurrence in the Apocalypse, where we read mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river and shall smite
of the seven spirits of God, seven angels, seven thunders, seven seals, it in the seven streams, and make [men] go over dry-shod. See also
&c. &c. [See Dr. Woodhouse on Rev. i. 4.]

Isa. xix. 6. and Zech. x. 11.
Ten.—Many, as well as that precise number. In Gen. xxxi. 7.41. Ten 3. A clear river is the symbol of the greatest good.-Psal. xxxvi. 8.
times are many times; in Lev. xxvi. 26. ten women are many wo- They shall be abundantly satisfied with the fatness of thy house; and
See also Dan. i. 20. Amos vi. 9. Zech. viii. 23.

thou shalt make them drink of the river of thy pleasures. For with
thee is the fountain of life.- Rev. xxii. 1. He showed me a clear

river of water of life, (that is, the inexhaustible and abundant hap-
Oaks of BASHAN.—The princes and nobles of Israel and Judah.—Isa. piness of the inhabitants of the New Jerusalem) bright as crystal,

ii. 13. The day of the Lord shall be .... upon all the oaks of Bashan. proceeding out of the throne of God and the Lamb. Its clearness in-
OLIVES.

dicates their holiness and peace; and the brightness of its shining
1. The wild olive; Man in a state of nature.—Rom. xi. 17. Thou being like crystal, the glorious life of those who drink of it.
a wild olive-tree, wert graffed in amongst them .......

Rock.
2. The cultivaled olive; the church of God.—Rom. xi. 24. If thou 1. A defence, or place of refuge.—Isa. xvii. 10. Thou hast forgotten

wert cut out of the olive-tree, which is wild by nature, and wert graffed the God of thy salvation, and hast not been mindful of the rock of thy
contrary to nature into a good olive-tree...

strength.-Psal. xviii. 2. The Lord is my rock.
2. A quarry, figuratively the patriarch or first father of a nation; who

is, as it were, the quarry whence the men of such nation must have
Palms.-Symbols of joy after a victory, attended with antecedent suf- proceeded. — Isa. li

. 1. Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn, that
ferings. -Rev. vii. 9. I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude ... clothed is, to Abraham and Sarah, whose descendants ye are.
with white robes, and palms in their hands.

. 6. Some fell upon a rock, and as
PARADISE.—The invisible residence of the blessed.-Rev. ij. 7. TO soon as it sprang up, it withered away. See the interpretation of

3. An unfruitful hearer.—Luke viii

him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Christ himself, in verse 13.

ܪ

men.

4. Rock giving water to the Israelites. (Exod. xvii. 6. Numb. xx. 10, li. 16. The Arabs and Persians employ the same word to denote

11.) Christ. -1 Cor. x. 4. They drank of that spiritual rock that the same thing, using these expressions :-“ May the shadow of thy
followed them, and that rock was CHRIST.

prosperity be extended.May the shadow of thy prosperity le
Rod dr Wand.--Power and rule.-Psal. ii. 9. Thou shalt break them spread over the heads of thy well-wishers."-"May thy protection
in pieces wilh a rod of iron.

never be removed from thy head; may God extend thy SHADOW

externally." [Dr. A. Clarke on Numb. xvi. 9.]
SACRIFICE.

SHEEP-SHEPHERD.
1. The thing sacrificed ; a victim.-Eph. v. 2. A sacrifice to God. See 1. Sheep under a Shepherd.—The people under a king.—Zech. xiii. 7.
Heb. ix. 26. x. 12. and also in many other passages.

Smile the shepherd; and the sheep shall be scaltered.
2. Whatever is exhibited or undertaken in honour of God or in refer- 2. The disciples of Christ, who is their SHEPHERD; the church of
ence to his will : as,

Christ, consisting of all true believers in Him their Shepherd.-
(1.) Piety, devoted ess.-1 Pet. ii.5. Spiritual sacrifices.

John x. 11-14. I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd giveth
(2.) The praises of God and works of charity to men. See Heb. xiii. his life for the sheep. I.... know my sheep-1 Pet. ii. 25. Ye....
15, 16.

are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.
(3.) Virtuous conduct, correct deportment.— Rom. xii. 1. Present 3. Lost or straying sheep represent persons not yet converted, but
your bodies a living sacrifice.

wandering in sin and error.---Matt. x. 6. xv. 24. The lost sheep of
(1.) Exertions for the support of Christian ministers and of the the house of Israel.—1 Pet. ii, 25. Ye were as sheep going astray.
Christian religion.--Phil. ii. 17. If I be offered upon the sacrifice Compare also Matt. ix. 36. and Mark vi. 34.
and service of your faith.

SHIELD.
SALT.-Sound doctrines, such as preserves the world from corrup- 1. A defence.-Psal. xviii. 2. The Lord is my buckler or shield. See

tion.—Matt. v. 13. Ye are the salt of the earth.-Col. iv. 6. Let your Psal. xxxiii. 20.
speech be always with grace, seasoned with salt.

2. Faith, by which we are enabled to resist the fiery darts of the
Sand of the sea.-An aggregate body of innumerable individuals.- wicked. Eph. vi. 16.
Their widows are increased above the sand of the seas.--Gen. xxii

. Ships of Tarshish; merchants, men enriched by commerce, and
17. I will multiply thy seed....as the sand which is upon the sea- abounding in all the elegancies and luxuries of life, particularly the
shore,

merchants

of Tyre and Sidon. — Isa. ii. 12—16. The day of the
SCORCHING Ileat. See HEAT.

LORD of Hosts shall be .... upon all the ships of Tarshish.—Isa. xxiii.
Sica.
1. The Gentile world.—Isa. Ix. 5. The abundance of the sea shall be Shoes. The preparation of the Gospel of peace.—Eph. vi. 15.

1. Howl, O ye ships of Tarshish.
converted. See also Rev. viii, 8. and Dr. Woodhouse thereon. SILENCE.
[Apocalypse, p. 213.]

1. Bringing to silence, or putting to silence.Utter destruction. Isa.
2. The great river Euphrates, Nile, &c.--Isa. xxi. 1. The desert of

xv. l. As if Moab is laid waste, and brought to silence.-Jer. viii.
the sea, means the country of Babylon, which was watered by the

14. The LORD Our God hath put us to silence.
Euphrates.--Jer. li. 36. I will dry up her sea, and make her springs 2. A symbol of praying.-Luke i. 9, 10.
dry: this refers to the stratagem by which Cyrus diverted the SIT-SITTING.
course of the river and captured Babylon.—Ezek. xxxii. 2. Thou 1. Reigning, ruling, and judging.-In Judge v. 10. Ye that sit in
art as a whale in the sea; the prophet is speaking of the king of
Egypt, through which the Nile flowed. See WAVES.

judgment, are the magistrates or judges. The sitting on a throne,

which occurs so very frequently in the Scriptures, invariably
3. Sea of glass. -Rev. iv. 6. The blood of the Redeemer, which

means to reign.
alone cleanses man from sin. It is called a sea, in allusion to the 2. With other adjuncts, sitting has a different signification : as,
large vessel in the temple, out of which the priests drew water to

(1.) To sit upon the earth or dust, (Isa. iii. 26. xlvii. 1. Lam. ii. 10.
wash themselves, the sacrifices, and the instruments of which they

Ezek. xxvi. 16.) or on a dunghill, signifies to be in extreme misery.
made use, for sacrificing.–1 Kings vii. 23. See also Sand and

(2.) To sit in darkness (Psal. cvii. 10. Isa. xlii. 7.) is to be in prison
WAVES.

and slavery.
SEAL-SEALING.

(3.) To sit as a widow (Isa. xlvii. 8.) is to mourn as a widow.
1. Preservation and security.-Sol. Song iv. 12. A fountain scaled, SLAVE.-One who has no property in himself, but is bought by
is a fountain carefully preserved from the injuries of weather and

another. Such are all mankind, whom Christ has redeemed from
beasts, that its waters may be preserved good and clean.

the slavery of sin.-1 Cor. vi. 20. Ye are bought with a price. See
2. Secresy and privacy, because men usually seal up those things Deut. vii. 8. Isa. Ixi. 1.

which they design to keep secret. Thus a book sealed, is one whose | SLEEP.-Death.-Dan. xii. 2. Many that sleep in the dust of the earth
contents are secret, and are not to be disclosed until the removal of

shall awake.
the seal. In Isa. xxix. 11. a vision like unto a book sealed, is a Sodom and GOMARRAH.—Any apostate city or people : or the wicked
vision not yet understood.

world at large.—Isa. i. 10. Hear the word of the LORD, ye rulers of
3. Completion and perfection, also authority ; because the putting of Sodom; give hear unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah.
a seal to any decree, will, or other instrument in writing, com-

See Rev. xi. 8.
pletes the whole transaction.-Ezek. xxviii. 12. Thou (the King of SOLDIER.-A Christian who is at war with the world, the flesh, and
Tyre) sealest up the sum full of wisdom and perfect in beauty ; that

the devil.—2 Tim. ii. 3. Endure hardness as a good soldier of Jesus
is, thou lookest upon thyself as having arrived at the highest pitch Christ.

of wisdom and glory. See Neh. ix. 8. Esther viii. 8.
4. Restraint or hinderance.—Job xxxvii. 7. He sealeth up the hand SORES, O ULCERS, symbolically denote sins ; because, according to

the Hebrew idiom and notions, lo heal signifies to pardon sins; and
of every man ; that is, the Almighty restrains their power.—Job is.

to pardon a sin is equivalent to healing.--2 Chron. xxx. 20. The
7. Which sealeth up the stars; that is, restrains their influences. pious monarch, Hezekiah, having prayed that God would excuse
5. Exclusive property in a thing.--Anciently, it was the custom to and pardon those who had taten the passover without being suffi-
seal goods purchased ; each person having his peculiar mark, which

ciently purified, the LORD hearkened to Hezekiah, and healed the
ascertained the property to be his own. Hence, the seal of God is
His mark, by which he knoweth them that are His. (2 Tim. ii. 19.)

people.- Isa. liii. 5. By his stripes we are healed. In Isa. i. 6.

Wounds, bruises, and sores, are sins; the binding up of them signifies
Under the law of Moses, circumcision is represented to be the seal

repentance; and the healing up, remission or forgiveness.
which separated the people of God from the heathen who did not South.-Judæa.-Ezek. xx. 46. Set thy face towards the south, and
call upon his name." (Rom. iv. 11.) And in this sense the sacra-

drop (thy word] towards the south.-Judæa lay to south of Chaldæa,
ment of baptism succeeding to circumcision, was called by the fa. where the prophet Ezekiel stood.
thers of the church the seal of God: but in the Gospel, this divine SOUTH FIELD. —Ezek. xx. 46. Prophesy against the forest of the South
seal is more accurately described to be the Holy Spirit of God. field ; that is, against Jerusalem, in which there were good and bad
They who have this spirit are marked as his (2 Cor. i. 22. Eph. i.

men, as there are trees in a forest.
13. iv. 30.) Our Lord Jesus Christ is represented as eminently pos. Sower.-A preacher of the word.—Matt. xiii. 3. A sower went forth
sessing this mark. (John vi. 27.). Generally, all who name the

to sow. See verse 39.
name of Christ and depart from iniquity, are said to be thus divine- SPEAKING. See VOICE, 2.
ly sealed. (2 Tim. ii. 19.). By the seal of the living God, mentioned STAR.
in Rev. vii. 2., is signified that impression of the Holy Spirit upon 1. A ruler or conqueror.—Numb. xxiv. 17. There shall come a star
the heart of man, which preserves in it the principles of pure faith, out of Jacob and a sceptre shall arise out of Israel, and shall smile the
producing the fruits of piety and virtue. This is the seal which corners of Moab, and shall destroy all the children of Sheth.–See an
marks the real Christian as the property of the Almighty. In Rev.

exposition of this prophecy in the note to p. 208 of this volume.
vii. 3, 4. the sealed mark is said to be impressed upon the foreheads 2. The rulers of the church.—Rev. i. 20. The seven stars are the
of the servants of God, either because on this conspicuous part of angels of the seven churches.
the person, distinguishing ornaments were worn by the eastern 3. Glorified saints. -1 Cor. xv. 41. One star differeth from another
nations; or because slaves anciently were marked upon their fore.

star in glory.
heads, as the property of their masters. [Dean Woodhouse on Rev. 4. Wandering stars.-Jude. 13. Wicked apostates, that go from light
vii. 2, 3.)

into outer darknss.
SEED.- The Word of God.—Luke vii. 11.

STONE
SERPENT.–Satan, the enemy of snuls.-Rev. xii. 9. That old serpent, 1. Head stone of the corner—JESUS CHRIST. See CORNER STONE.

called the Devil and Salan, which deceiveth the whole world.—2 Cor. 2. Slone of stumbling, (1 Pet. ii. 7.) spoken of Jesus Christ; who is
xi. 3. The serpent beguiled Eve through his subtility.

termed a stone of stumbling, that is, an occasion of ruin to the Jews,
SEVEN. See NUMBERS.
SHADOW.--Defence, protection. In the sultry eastern countries this

since they took offence at his person and character, and thereby

brought destruction and misery upon themselves.
metaphor is highly expressive of support and protection.-Numb. 3. Stones. --Believers who are built upon the true foundation, the
xiv. 9. Their defence (Heb. Obs tsilam, shadow) is departed from Lord Jesus Christ.—1 Pet. ii. 5. Ye also as lively (or living) stones
them. Compare also Psal. xci. 1. cxxi. 5. Isa. xxx. 2. xxxii. 2. and are built up a spiritual house.

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