2. The rock Etam, to which Samson retired after he had burned the harvest of the Philistines. (Judg. xv. 8.)

magnificent spectacle of ruins, among which those of the Temple | salem, to which Solomon used to resort. (Ant. Jud. lib. viii. c. 7.) of the Sun are most conspicuous. The splendid work of Messrs. It is highly probable that this was the site of one of King Solo Wood and Dawkins, published at London in 1753, and reprinted mon's houses of pleasure, where he made him gardens ana in 1827, will convey some idea of the magnificence of these re- orchards, and pools of water. (Eccles. ii. 5, 6.) In the vicinity mains of ancient art; of which some accurate views will be found of this place was in the "Landscape Illustrations of the Bible," edited by the author of this work. The population of Baalbec, which in 1751 was five thousand, in 1835 was reduced to two hundred persons. The modern town consists of a number of mean huts, and a few half-ruined mosques. A description of the ruins of this place, as they appeared in the autumn of 1835, is given by Mr. Addison, in his Damascus and Palmyra, vol. ii. pp. 51-72.; and by Lord Lindsay, as they appeared in the summer of 1837, in his Letters from Egypt, &c., vol. ii. pp. 191-204.

GADARA, page 423. col. 2. after last line but 13. add:-The ruins of the ancient city are very considerable. "Besides the foundations of a whole line of houses, there are two theatres on the north and west sides of the town, the former quite destroyed, but the latter in very tolerable preservation, and very handsome. Near it the ancient pavement, with wheel-tracks of carriages, is still visible. Broken columns and capitals lie in every direction." (Lord Lindsay's Letters from Edom, &c., vol. ii. p. 97.)

GATH-HEPHER, the birth-place of the prophet Jonah (2 Kings xiv. 25.), was a town in the allotment of the tribe of Zebulon. (Josh. xix. 13.) It was probably situated in the land of Hepher, mentioned in 1 Kings iv. 10. GEBAL.

BABEL, the name of a lofty tower, which the descendants of Noah began to build about one hundred and twenty years after the deluge: it was so called (Babel signifying confusion), because God there confounded the language of those who were employed in the undertaking. (Gen. x. 10. xi. 9.) Their object was to build a city and a tower, in order to prevent their further dispersion over the earth. But, as this was contrary to the divine purpose of replenishing the earth with inhabitants, God caused them to be scattered: the tower was left apparently incomplete: but the foundations of the city were probably laid, and a portionated on a hill, and inhabited by mariners and builders. Its caulkers of the builders continued to dwell there.

BEROTHAI, a town in the territory of Hadadezer, king of Syria, which was conquered by David, and from which he took away much brass. (2 Sam. viii. 8.) Hence it has been inferred that there were mines in its vicinity. It is impossible now accurately to determine its situation. "The similarity of the name would lead us to conjecture that Berothai or Berothah was not different from Berytus, the modern Beirut (Beyroot), a seaport town which is still of importance." (Rosenmüller's Bibl. Geogr. vol. ii. p. 266.)

BETHSAIDA, page 414. col. 2. after line 10. of this article, add:-2. The other Bethsaida lay in the region of Gaulonitis, on the eastern side of the sea of Tiberias, and near the place where the river Jordan enters it. This city was enlarged by Philip, who was Tetrarch of that region (Luke iii. 1.), and who called it Julias, in honour of Julia the daughter of the emperor Augustus, though it is not known by that name in the New Testament. This Bethsaida is mentioned in Luke ix. 10., where Jesus is said to have withdrawn himself to a desert place belonging to Bethsaida, after the murder of John the Baptist by Herod; and whence also he is said to have returned across the lake to Capernaum, after he had miraculously fed five thousand men with five loaves and two small fishes. (Matt. xiv. 22-34. John vi. 17.)

BOZRAH, a celebrated city of Edom or Idumæa, which was afterwards called Bostra by the Greeks and Romans. It is now "for the most part a heap of ruins, a most dreary spectacle. Here and there the direction of a street or alley is discernible, but that is all: the modern inhabitants, a mere handful, are almost lost in the maze of ruins." (Lord Lindsay's Letters from Egypt, &c. vol. ii. p. 151.) In pp. 135-150. his lordship has given a very interesting description of the remains of this once celebrated city, together with a sketch of its ancient history.

CENCHREA, page 416. col. 1. After Acts xviii. 18., line 3. of this article, add:-In 1834, the site of ancient Cenchrea was occupied by a single farm-house: close to the sea; and in parts even covered by its waters are the foundations of a variety of buildings, the plans of which may yet be traced, as the walls still remain to the height of from two feet to three feet and a half (Major Sir G. Temple's Travels in Greece and Turkey, vol. i. p. 57.)

EKRON, page 420. col. 2. After (2 Kings i. 2.), line 8. of this article, add:-The site of this city is not known, thus attesting the literal fulfilment of the prophet Zephaniah (ii. 4.), that Ekron shall be ROOTED UP.

EPHESUS, page 422. col. 1. last line but 6. add:-The soil of the plain, on which the ruins of Ephesus lie, appears rich in the summer of 1835, when visited by Mr. Addison, it was covered with a rank burnt-up vegetation. This place (he states,) is a dreary uncultivated spot: a few corn-fields were scattered along the site of the ancient city, which is marked by some large masses of shapeless ruins and stone walls. (Addison's Damascus and Palmyra, vol. i. pp. 340, 341.) ETAM.

1. A city in the tribe of Judah between Bethlehem and Tekoah, which was rebuilt and fortified by Rehoboam. (2 Chron. xi. 6.) Josephus says, that there are very pleasant gardens, abounding with water, at Etham, about fifty furlongs or six miles from Jeru

1. Gebal, Mount, see p. 30.

2. Gebal, a Phoenician city between Tripoli and Beyroot, situ

are specially mentioned in Ezek. xxvii, 9., where its chiefs are termed wise men. The Arabs still call it Djeble and Djobail. 3. Gebal (the Gebalene of the Romans), was a mountainous district, inhabited by the Edomites, and extending from the Dead Sea southwards to Selah or Petra. It is mentioned in Psal. lxxxiii. 8. By the Arabs it is called Djebal.

GESHUR, a district of Syria, bordering north of the Hebrew territory (2 Sam. xv. 8. 1 Chron. ii. 23.), and situated on the eastern side of the river Jordan, between Mount Hermon, Maachah, and Bashan. (Deut. iii. 13, 14. Josh. xii. 3, 4.) The Geshurites and Maachathites were not expelled by the Israelites under Joshua. (Josh. xiii. 2. 13.) In the reign of David, Geshur had its own king Talmai, whose daughter Maachah was the mother of the rebel Absalom. (2 Sam. iii. 3. xiii. 37. xv. 8.) The Geshur signifies a bridge, and corresponds to the Arabic Djisr: and in the same region, where (according to the above data,) we must place Geshur, there still exists an ancient stone bridge of four arches over the river Jordan, called Djisr-Beni-Jakub, or the Bridge of the Children of Jacob.

GETHSEMANE, page 425. col. 2. line 12. add:-Although we are informed by Josephus that Titus cut down all the trees within one hundred furlongs of the city, yet it is not improbable that these trees, which are unquestionably of remote antiquity, may have arisen from the roots of the ancient trees; because the olive is very long-lived, and possesses the peculiar property of shooting up again, however frequently it may be cut down. The trees now standing in the garden of Gethsemane are of the species known to botanists as the Olea Europea. Mrs. Bracebridge, from whose sketch the beautiful drawing was made, which is given in the "Landscape Illustrations of the Bible," states that they are wild olives, and appear pollarded from extreme age; and their stems are very rough and gnarled. "The soil between these trees is bare, without a flower, vegetable, or verdure of any kind growing on it. A footpath intersects the place in an oblique direction, which is walled off from the rest, and is looked upon as accursed; being that (as it is said,) in which Judas walked when he betrayed his divine Master with a kiss." The view from the garden of Gethsemane is one of the most pleasing in the vicinity of Jerusalem. (Robinson's Travels in Palestine, vol. i. p. 122. Lord Lindsay's Letters from Egypt, &c.. vol. ii. p. 61.)

HALAH, a province of Assyria, into which Shalmaneser transported part of the ten tribes. (2 Kings xvii. 6. xviii. 11.)

HARAN, page 427. col. 1. after line 42. add:-Haran is enumerated among the towns which had been taken by the predecessors of Sennacherib king of Assyria (1 Kings xix. 12. Isa. xxxvii. 12.); and it is also mentioned by Ezekiel (xxvii. 23.), among the places which traded with Tyre. Haran was favourably situated for commerce, inasmuch as the great road, which led from the Euphrates to the countries of the east, branched off in two directions eastward to Nisibis and Assyria, and southward into Babylonia. (Rosenmüller's Bib. Geogr. vol. ii. p. 187.)

HELBON, a city of Syria, celebrated for its wines, which formed an important article of commerce. (Ezek. xxviii. 18.) In the apocryphal second book of Maccabees (xiii. 4.), it is mentioned under the name of Berea, which had been given to it by Seleucus Nicatur, who greatly embellished this city. It is the same as the present Haleb, or, as it is termed by Europeans, Aleppo. In 1822

it was almost annihilated by the tremendous earthquake which devastated Syria.

HENA, a city of Mesopotamia, the same probably which was afterwards called Arah: it was situated on a ford of the river Euphrates. (2 Kings xviii. 34. xix. 13. Isa. xxxvii. 13.)

MESHECH, the sixth son of Japhet (Gen. x. 2.), who is supposed to have been the father of the Moschi, a people inhabiting the mountainous region between Iberia, Armenia, and Colchis. Non, Land of: When Cain after the murder of his brother, went forth from the presence of Jehovah, he settled in the land of Nod, which lay to the east of Eden. (Gen. iv. 16.) The word Nod signifies, in Hebrew, wandering, flight, banishment: and the region doubtless obtained that name from the circumstance of the fratricide having been condemned by God (Gen. iv. 14.) to wander as an exile." (Rosenmüller's Biblical Geography, vol. i. p. 85.) It is now impossible to ascertain its precise situation. PHYGELLUS, a Christian of Asia, who being at Rome during Paul's second imprisonment, A. D. 65, basely deserted him, with Hermogenes, in his necessity. (2 Tim. i. 15.)

RAAMSES, or RAMESES, a city erected by the Hebrews during their bondage in Egypt. (Gen. xlvii. 11. Exod. i. 11.) It was situated in the Land of Goshen, and appears to have been the capital of that country. Most probably it was the same with Heroopolis, which stood on the great canal between the Nile and Suez. RABBATH, page 445. col. 2. line 6. add:-Various ruins, lying on both sides of a stream, attest its ancient splendour. "The dreariness of its present aspect" (says Lord Lindsay) "is quite indescribable. It looks like the abode of death: the valley stinks with dead camels; one of them was rotting in the stream; and though we saw none among the ruins, they were absolutely covered in every direction with their dung. That morning's ride would have convinced a sceptic how runs the prophecy. I will make Rabbah a stable for camels, and the Ammonites a couching-place for flocks. (Ezek. xxv. 5.) Nothing but the croaking of frogs and the screams of wild birds broke the silence as we advanced up this valley of desolation." (Letters from Egypt, &c., vol. ii. p. 112.) In pp. 113-117. Lord Lindsay has graphically described the ruins of Rabbath-Ammon, which is now deserted except by the Bedouins, who water their flocks at its little river.

RIPHATH, the second son of Gomer, and grandson of Japhet (Gen. x. 3. 1 Chron. i. 6.) The region peopled by his descendants is supposed to be the mountainous range extending from the west of Europe to that part of Asia which is situated on the east of the Black Sea. "But" (Rosenmüller is of opinion) "it is impossible to fix with precision upon any one chain of hills, or tribe of people, with which the Riphath of Scripture may certainly be identified." (Bibl. Geogr. by Morren, vol. i. p. 113.)

ROSH (Ezek. xxxviii. 2, 3. xxxix. 1.), the proper name of a northern nation, mentioned together with Tubal and Meshech; by whom (Gesenius says) are doubtless to be understood the Russians; who are described by the Byzantine writers of the tenth century, under the name of 'Ps, as inhabiting the northern part of Taurus; and also by Ibn Fosslan, an Arabian writer of the same period, under the name Rûs, as dwelling upon the river Rha, that is, the Wolga.

SHEBA, probably the Saba of the Greek geographer Strabo, was a region situated towards the southern part of Arabia, at a distance from the coast of the Red Sea. The queen of Sheba who visited Solomon (1 Kings x. 2. 2 Chron. ix.), appears to have been the sovereign of this region. The tradition of her visit has maintained itself among the Arabs, who call her Balkis, and affirm that she became the wife of Solomon. In Matt. xii. 42. she is said to have come from the uttermost parts of the earth, to indicate (according to the Jewish idiom) that Sheba was a remote country from Judæa.

SICHEM, SYCHAR, or SHECHEM, a city in the allotment of the tribe of Benjamin, near which Jacob bought a field which he gave to Joseph, who was buried there. (Gen. xlviii. 22. Josh. xvii. 7. xxiv. 32. Acts vii. 16.) In its vicinity was Jacob's well or fountain, at which Jesus Christ, conversed with a woman of Samaria.

(John iv. 5.) After the ruin of Samaria by Shalmaneser, Shechem became the capital of the Samaritans, a remnant of whose sect, now reduced to a very small number, still reside there. It is about forty miles north of Jerusalem. Shechem stands in a delightful situation at the foot and on the lowest slope of Mount Gerizim, and is "embowered in groves of the richest verdurefigs, mulberries, olives; one solitary palm tree towering over them; and hedges of the prickly pear, with its fantastic boughs and yellow blossoms, guarding every plantation." (Lord Lindsay's Letters from Egypt, &c. [in 1837], vol. ii. p. 74.) This place is now called Napolose or Nablous (a corruption of its Greek name Neapolis).

SMYRNA, page 451. col. 1. last line but 7. add:-The condition of the Christians residing here is said to be better than in any of the sites of the seven churches mentioned in the Apocalypse; as if the promise was still in some measure made good to Smyrna Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer. Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. (Rev. ii. 10.)

TADMOR, page 453. col. 1. line 21. add :-Mr. Addison has described the ruins of Palmyra, as they appeared in 1835, in his "Damascus and Palmyra," vol. ii. pp. 284-326.; and Lord Lindsay, as they appeared in 1837, in his "Letters from Egypt," &c., vol. ii. pp. 168-178. But the reader who would see these superb remains of ancient art accurately delineated and described, is referred to Messrs. Wood and Dawkins's "Ruins of Palmyra," which were first published at London in 1753, in one volume folio. The modern village of Tadmor, or (as the Arabs call it) Thadmor, contains 12 or 15 families, among whom there are not more than 20 able-bodied men: their chief wealth consists of a few herds of goats and dromedaries, with poultry. (Addison, vol. ii. p. 333.)

TEL-ABIB, a place to which some of the Israelites were carried captive. (Ezek. iii. 15.) Gesenius and Rosenmüller think it not improbably to be the place now called Thelabba, in Mesopotamia, on the river Chebar.

THELASAR, OF TELASAR, a province of Assyria, mentioned in 2 Kings xix. 12. and Isa. xxxvii. 12. Its precise situation has not been ascertained: but it is supposed to be towards Armenia and Mesopotamia, and about the sources of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, from the circumstance of the children of Eden inhabiting that country.

TIBERIAS, page 454. col. 1. line 19. add:-This town was left in ruins by the earthquake which devastated Syria, on Jan. 1. 1837: its walls were cast down to the ground, its towers split asunder, and their galleries laid open. (Lord Lindsay's Letters from Egypt, &c. [in 1837], vol. ii. p. 88.)

TIPSAH, an important city on the western bank of the river Euphrates, which was the frontier town of the north-eastern extremity of Solomon's dominions: it is a day's journey to the east of Tadmor or Palmyra. Here was a celebrated passage or ferry over the Euphrates. (1 Kings iv. 24.) By the ancients it was called Thapsacus: its modern name is El Deir.

TOGARMAH, the name of a northern region and people sprung from Gomer the son of Japhet. (Gen. x. 3.) This country abounded in horses, which were sold to the Tyrians. (Ezek. xxvii. 14.) Most probably it was Armenia, part of which country was celebrated for its horses. Such also is the opinion of the modern Armenians themselves, who claim Torgom the son of Gomer as the founder of their nation, and call themselves the House of Torgom.

TUBAL, or THUBAL, the fifth son of Japhet (Gen. x. 2.), whose descendants are supposed to have peopled a region of Asia Minor, near the Euxine Sea, on the west of Meshech. Compare Rosenmüller's Biblical Geography, vol. i. pp. 130, 131.

ZOBAH, or ARAM-ZOBAH, was the name of a city and petty kingdom of Syria, whose sovereign carried on war with Saul and David. (1 Sam. xiv. 47. 2 Sam. viii. 3. x. 6.) It seems to have been situated near Damascus, and not only to have included the city Hamath (2 Chron. viii. 3.), but also to have extended towards the Euphrates. (2 Sam. viii. 3.)

No. II.





[Designed to facilitate the perusal of the Prophetic Books, analysed in this Volume.]1

1. Sin in general.-Isa. lxvi. 3. Their soul delighteth in abominations. Ezek. xvi. 50. They... committed abomination before me. See also ver. 51.

2. An Idol. Isa. xliv. 19. Shall I make the residue thereof an abomination? See also 2 Kings xxiii. 13.

3. The rites and ceremonies of the idolatrous and corrupt church of Rome. Rev. xvii. 4. Having a golden cup in her hand, full of abominations.

4. Abomination of Desolation.-The Roman army, so called on account of its ensigns and images which the soldiers worshipped, and which were abominable to the Jews.-Matt. xxiv. 15. When ye shall see the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel the Prophet.


1. Devoted to destruction. Josh. vi. 17.

2. Accursed from Christ. Excluded from intercourse, fellowship, and alliance with Christ.-Rom. ix. 3.

ADULTERESS, or Harlot-An apostate church or city; particularly the daughter of Jerusalem or the Jewish church and people.-Isa. i. 21. How is the faithful city become a harlot? See Jer. iii. 6. 8, 9. Ezek. xvi. 22. xxiii. 7. In Rev. xvii. 5. Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots, means the idolatrous Latin church. ADULTEROUS Generation (Matt. xii. 39. xvi. 4. Mark viii. 38.); a faithless and impious generation.

ADULTERY.-Idolatry and apostacy from the worship of the true God. Jer. iii. 8, 9. When backsliding Israel committed adultery... with stones and with stocks. See also Ezek. xvi. 32. xxiii. 37. Rev. ii. 22. AIR, Wind, Breath.—The Holy Spirit.-John iii. 8. The wind bloweth where it listeth; and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh and whither it goeth; so is every one that is born of the Spirit.-John xx. 22. He breathed on them, and saith unto them, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost."-Acts ii. 2. 4. Suddenly there came a sound from Heaven as of a rushing mighty wind.... And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost.-See PRINCE. ALPHA and OMEGA, an appellation which Jesus Christ appropriates to himself; to denote that, as he is the Creator, so he will be the final judge of all things. Rev. i. 8. I am Alpha and Omega the beginning and the ending.


1. Truth and faithfulness; a title of Christ.-Rev. iii. 14. Thus saith | the Amen; Truth, i.e. He who is true says, &c.

2. So be it: a form of wishing, approving, or praying at the end of a sentence. Rom. i. 25. Gal. i. 5. Eph. iii. 21. Phil. iv. 20. 1 Tim. i. 17. It was customary among the Jews, when the priests or other persons offered up prayers or praises to God in public, for the whole assembly to respond Amen. Numb. v. 22. This custom was adopted by Christians; and in allusion to it Amen occurs in 1 Cor. xiv. 16.


1. Angel of the LORD.-Jesus Christ.-Zech. i. 12. The angel of the LORD answered and said.... See Lowth's Commentary, in loc. 2. Those intellectual and immaterial Beings, whom the Almighty employs, as the ministers of his providence or of his judgments. Rev. xv. 8. xvi. 1. Seven Angels.-xxii. 8. I fell down to worship before the feel of the angel, who showed me these things.

3. The presiding ministers or bishops of the church.-Rev. ii. 1. The angel of the church of Ephesus. See also ii. 8. 12. 18. iii. 1. 7. 14. 4. Fallen Spirits.-Matt. xxv. 41. Everlasting fire prepared for the Devil and his Angels.

1 Besides the authorities cited for particular words, this Index of the Prophetic or Symbolical Language of the Scriptures has been drawn up, after a careful perusal of the remarks on this subject by Sir Isaac Newton, Bishops Lowth and Hurd, the Commentary of William Lowth on the Prophets, the Rev. William Jones's Key to the Language of Prophecy, Dr. Lancaster's admirable Symbolical Alphabetical Dictionary prefixed to his Abridgment of Daubuz's Perpetual Commentary on the Revelation

of St. John, Robinson's Greek Lexicon to the New Testament, and Dr. Woodhouse's Notes to his Translation of the Apocalypse. Those symbols, and interpretations of symbols, which have been the subject of contro versy among some late writers on prophecy, are designedly omitted.


1. The infinite power of God in creating the world.-Jer. xxvii. 5. have made the earth... by my great power, and by my outstretchea arm. See also Jer. xxxii. 17.

2. The power, strength, and miracles of Christ.-Isa. liii. 1. John xii. 38. To whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?

3. When Jehovah is said to make bare his holy arm, it means that he hath displayed his great power, which for a long time seemed to be hidden and unemployed.-Isa. lii. 10. The Lord hath made bare his holy arm. ARMOUR.-Such graces and spiritual weapons, as are for the defence of the soul, and by which we may be enabled to combat with our spiritual enemies.-Rom. xiii. 12. Let us put on the armour of light.-Eph. vi. 11. Put on the whole armour of God. ARROWS.

1. Calamities, or judgments of God.-Job vi. 4. The arrows of the Almighty are within me, the poison whereof drinketh up my spirit.2 Sam. xxii. 14, 15. compare Psal. xxxviii. 2, 3. and Ezek. v. 16. That calamities are represented among the eastern writers as the arrows of the Almighty, we have abundant proces: one single instance, from the fine sayings ascribed to Ali (or Aaly) the son-inlaw of the impostor of Arabia, will illustrate this remark. "It was once demanded of the fourth Khalif (Ali), on whom be the mercy of the Creator, if the canopy of heaven were a bow; and if the earth were the cord thereof; and if calamities were arrows: if mankind were the mark for those arrows; and if Almighty God, the tremendous and the glorious, were the unerring archer, to whom could the sons of Adam flee for protection? The Khalif answered saying, The sons of Adam must flee unto the Lord.' This fine image Job keeps in view, (vi. 8, 9.) wishing that the unerring marksman may let fly these arrows, let loose his hand, to destroy and cut him off." Dr. A. Clarke on Job vi. 4.



Abusive or slanderous words.-Psal. lxiv. 3. Who bend their bows to shoot their arrows, even bitter words.

Children.-Psal. cxxvii. 4, 5. As arrows are in the hand of a mighty man; so are children of the youth. Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them. "The orientals are accustomed to call brave and valiant sons the arrows and darts of their parents, because they are able to defend them. To sharpen arrows, to make sharp arrows, is, among them, to get brave and valiant sons." [Burder's Oriental Literature, vol. ii. p. 53.] ASHES. See DUST and ASHES.

[blocks in formation]

2. Those who are weak in the Christian faith and knowledge, being ignorant and inconstant, like infants.-1 Cor. iii. 1. And 1, brethren, could not speak unto you... but as... unto babes in Christ.Heb. v. 13. For he is a babe. BABYLON.-Papal Rome with all her idolatrous rites.-Rev. xiv. 8. Babylon is fallen. See also Rev. xvii. xviii.

BALAAM, Doctrine, error, or way of-A defection from true religion united with immoral and lascivious practices.-Rev. ii. 14. Thou hast them that hold the doctrine of Balaam.-Jude 11. They have ...run greedily after the error of Balaam.-2 Pet. ii. 15. Following the way of Balaam.


1. The known symbol of a strict observation of justice and fair dealing. Prov. xi. 1. A false balance is abomination unto the Lord.Prov. xvi. 11. A just weight and balance are the Lord's. See also Job xxxi. 6.


Joined with symbols, denoting the sale of corn and fruits by weight, it becomes the symbol of scarcity-Lev. xxvi. 26. When I have broken the staff of your bread; ten women shall bake your bread in one oven; and they shall deliver you bread again by weight, and

4. Good or evil desires and designs.-Deut. xxviii. 54. His eye shall
be evil towards his brother.-ver. 56. Her eye shall be evil towards
the husband of her bosom, and towards her son, and towards her
daughter. That is, they shall form cruel and evil designs against
them to kill, and even to eat them. History confirms the predic-



FIELD. The World.-Matt. xiii. 38.

1. With such adjuncts as denote that it is not put for light, it signifies
destruction or torment, great sickness, war, and its dismal effects.-
Isa. xlii. 25. It hath set him on fire.-Isa. lxvi. 15. The LORD will
come with fire. See Ezek. xxii. 20-22.

2. Burning fire.-The wrath of God.-Ezek. xxii. 31. I have con-
sumed them with the fire of my wrath.

3. Afflictions, or persecution. Isa. xxiv. 15. Glorify ye the LORD God

in the fires.

1. As applied to God, it denotes his favour.-Dan. ix. 17. Cause thy 4. Coals of fire proceeding out of the month of God, or from his
face to shine upon thy sanctuary-See Psal. xxxi. 16.

2. As applied to man.

FACES harder than a rock (Jer. v. 3.) denote unblushing, shameless

FAITH (II.5.) In consequence of not attending to the ambiguity of
the words, which in our authorised version is usually trans-
lated faith, it has been applied by many divines, wherever it occurs,
exclusively to faith in the Messiah, when the context often manifestly
requires it to be taken in a different sense. Faith or believing then

1. Our assenting to any truth, even to such truths as are known by the
evidences of our senses: thus in John xx. 29. Thomas, whom the
evidence of his senses had convinced of the reality of Christ's re-
surrection, is said to have believed.

2. A general disposition of the mind to embrace all that we know concern-
ing God, whether by reason or revelation: as in Heb. xi. 6. Without
faith it is impossible to please God; which expression is subsequent-
ly applied to the existence of God, his goodness and bounty towards
his sincere worshippers.

3. A peculiar assent to a certain revelation; for instance, in Rom. iv.
throughout, and in other passages that treat of Abraham's faith, it is
manifest that this faith must be referred to the peculiar promises
made to Abraham that a son should be born unto him, though he
himself was then about a hundred years old, and Sarah, who was
ninety, was barren.

4. An assent given to the revelation made to Moses; as when the
children of Israel are said to have believed the Lord and his servant
Moses. (Exod. xiv. 31. compared with John v. 45, 46. and ix. 28)
5. An assent given to the relation made to the prophets: as when King
Jehoshaphat says to the Jews (2 Chron. xx. 20.,) "Believe in the
Lord your God, so shall ye be established; believe his prophets, 'so
shall ye prosper." Compare also Isa. vii. 9.

6. A cordial assent to the Christian revelation or to some of its leading
and fundamental points; as in those passages where we are com-
manded to believe in Christ, or that he is the Son of God, or that he
rose from the dead.

7. An assent to future and invisible things revealed by God, as in
Heb. xi. 1. where it is defined to be the substance of things hoped
for, and the evidence of things not seen, that is, the giving of a present
subsistence to things future, which are fully expected, and the
proving and demonstrating of things which are not seen.

8. The Gospel, as in Gal. iii. 2. where Saint Paul demands of the
Galatians, whether they received the Spirit by the works of the law,
or by the hearing of faith: in which passage it is evident that the
hearing of faith denotes the hearing of the preached Gospel; and in
this sense the word faith appears to be used in all those parts of the
Epistle to the Romans, where it is opposed to the works of the law.
9. A persuasion that what we do is well pleasing to God: thus the
meaning of Rom. xiv. 23, Whatsoever is not of faith is sin, is, that
it is sinful in us to do any thing, which we are not fully persuaded
is well pleasing to God, or at least permitted by him.
10. Faith in miracles, that is, a firm confidence in Christ, to which, at
the first propagation of the Gospel, was annexed the performance
of miracles: such was the faith which Jesus Christ frequently re-
quired of his disciples and others, that he might work certain
miracles by them (compare Matt. xvii. 20. Mark xi. 22. xvi. 17. and
Luke xvii. 6.;) and to which Saint Paul refers in 1 Cor. xiii. 2.
Lastly, faith sometimes signifies,

countenance, denote his anger.-Psal. xviii. 8. 12, 13.



The riches, goods, or possessions of any person conquered, oppres-
sed, or slain, as the case may be.-Psal. lxxiv. 14. Thou breakest
the heads of leviathan in pieces (didst destroy the power of Pharaoh
and his princes,) [and] gavest him [to be] meat to the people inhabiting
the wilderness: that is, didst enrich the Israelites with their
spoils. Isa. xvii. 4. The fatness of his flesh shall be made lean. See
also Mic. iii. 2, 3. and Zech. xi. 9. 16.; in all which places the Tar
2. To devour much flesh, is to conquer and spoil many enemies of their
gum explains flesh by riches and substance.
lands and possessions. In Dan. vii. 5. this expression is used to de-
note the cruelty of the Medes and Persians, many of whose sove
reigns were more like ferocious bears than men. Instances of their
cruelty abound in almost all the historians who have written of
their affairs.



Weak, mortal man.-Isa. xl. 6. All flesh is grass.
The exterior of man; viz.

(1.) External actions, as circumcision, the choice of food, &c. in
which the body is the part chiefly affected.-Rom. iv. 1. What shall
we say then, that Abraham our father hath found, as pertaining to the
flesh i. e. so far as regards external actions.-1 Cor. x. 18. Behold
Israel after the flesh; i. e. as it respects the external performance of
their religious rites.-Gal. iii. 3....Are ye now made perfect by the
flesh? will ye turn again to mere external ceremonies?

(2) External appearance, condition, circumstances, character &c.-
John vi. 63. The flesh profiteth nothing.-2. Cor. v. 16. We know
FLOOD-Extreme danger.-Psal. Ixix. 15.
no man after the flesh.

overflow me. See RIVER.

Let not the water-flood

FOREHEAD.-A public profession or appearance before men.-An
tiently, slaves were stigmatised in their forehead with their master's
mark; hence to be sealed in the forehead (Rev. vii. 3.,) and to have
a mark in the forehead (Rev. xiii. 16. &c.,) is to make a public pro-
fession of belonging to the person whose mark is said to be re-


FOREST of the South-field. See SOUTH-FIELD.
FORNICATION. All those carnal impurities, which were common
among the heathens, and even formed a part of their sacred rites,
Rev. ii. 20. Thou sufferest that woman Jezebel....to seduce my ser
vants to commit fornification.

Fox-A cunning, deceitful person.-Luke xiii. 32 Go, tell that fox.—
Ezek. xiii. 4. Thy prophets are like the foxes in the deserts.

1. The consequences of an action. Prov. i. 31. They shall eat the fruit
af their own ways.
2. Good works--Psal. i. 3, He (the pious man) .....bringeth forth
his fruit in his season.—Matt. iii. 8. Bring forth fruits meet for re-

1. A place of great affliction-Deut. iv. 20. The LORD hath...brought
you forth out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt.
2. Such afflictions as God sends for the amendment and correction of
men. Jer. ix. 7. I will melt them, and try them, that is, in the
furnace of affliction.

11. Fidelity, or faithfulness in the discharge of duties or promises, and
so the Greek word, is properly rendered in Tit. ii. 10.; as it
also should have been in 1 Tim. v. 12., the faith, there said to have
been cast off by the younger widows, being their fidelity to Christ.
FALLING down, or prostrate, before another.-Submission and ho-
mage.-Isa. xlv. 14. They shall fall down unto thee, and make sup-1.
plication unto thee. See also Gen. xxvii. 29. xxxvii. 7, 8.
FAMILY.-The Church of God.--Eph. iii. 15. Of whom the whole
family in heaven and earth is named.


1. The most excellent of every thing.-Psal. lxxxi. 16. He should have
fed them with the finest (Heb. fat) of the wheat.-Psal. cxlvii. 14. He
filleth thee with the finest (Heb. fat) of the wheat.

2. Riches.-Psal. xxii. 29. All the fat upon earth.-Jer. v. 28. They
are waxen fat.



1. God, whose children we all are by creation and redemption.-Mal.
i. 6. If I be a father, where is mine honour ?-Mal. ii. 10. Have we
not all one Father? Hath not one God created us? See Jer. xxxi.
2. Father of any thing; that is, the author, cause, or source of it.-
John viii. 44. When he (Satan) speaketh a lie... he is the father of
it.-James i. 17. The Father of lights; the source of spiritual and
coporeal light.

3. Example, pattern, or prototype.-John viii. 44. Ye are of your
father, the devil; ye follow the example of Satan, so that he may be
properly called your father, and ye his children.


White garments were not only the emblem of purity and being in
the favour of God (Psal. li. 7. Isa. i. 18.,) but also, as being worn
on festival days, were tokens of joy and pleasure. (Isa. lii. xi.
10.) Kings and princes likewise were arrayed in white garments
of fine linen. (Gen. xli. 42. 1 Chron. xv. 27. Luke xvi. 19.) Hence,
to walk or be clothed in white, signifies to be prosperous, successful,
and victorious, to be holy, happy, honoured, and rewarded.-Rev.
iii. 4, 5. They shall walk in white...... The same shall be clothed
in white raiment.

2. Souls.-Rev. iii. 4. Thou hast a few names in Sardis which have
not defiled their garments.-The Hebrews considered holiness as the
garb of the soul, and evil actions as stains or spots upon this garb.

1. Gates of the daughter of Sion. The ordinances of Jehovah, by
which the soul is helped forward in the way of salvation.-Psal. ix.
14. That I may show forth all thy praise in the gates of the daughter
of Sion.

2. Gates of Death.

Imminent danger of death.-Psal. ix. 13. Have mercy upon me, O
LORD..... thou that deliverest me from the gates of death. "The
Hebrew poets supposed the lower world, or region of death, to have
gates. Thus it is said in Job xxxviii. 17. Have the gates of death

« ElőzőTovább »