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TH surprising that history should give us so little account, when or employed to bring forward their accusation against St. Paul, by whom it was reduced to the melancholy condition in which it before the Roman procurator at Cæsarea ; probably because they now appears. The reason why Solomon erected Tadmor in so were themselves unacquainted with the modes of proceeding in desolate a place, was, probably, the commodiousness of its situa- the Roman courts. (Acts xxiv. 1, 2.) tion to cut off all commerce between the Syrians and Mesopota- TesserÆ HOSPITALES, notice of, 173, 174. mians, and to prevent them from conspiring against him as they TETRARCH, office of, 52, note 1. had done against his father David. This city preserved its name THADDEUS. See Jude. of Tadmor to the time of Alexander. It then received the name TAAMMUZ. See TAMMUZ. of PALMYRA, which it preserved for several ages. About the THEATRES and Theatrical performances, allusions to, exmiddle of the third century, it became celebrated as the seat of plained. See pp. 190, 191. the empire of Odenatus and Zenobia. When the Saracens be- THEBETH, or Tebeth, the fourth month of the civil year of came masters of the East, they restored its ancient name of Tad- the Jews, and the tenth of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice mor, which has continued to the present time. Its situation of the festivals, &c. in this month, see p. 75. between two powerful empires, that of the Parthians on the east, TheBez, a city in the tribe of Ephraim, at the siege of which and that of the Romans to the west, often exposed it to danger Abimelech was killed. (Judg. ix. 50—55.) Eusebius says, that from their contests. In time of peace, however, it soon recovered in the fourth century there was a village called Thebez, thirteen Itself, by its trade with both empires : for the caravans of Persia Roman miles from Shechem. and of the Indies, which now unload at Aleppo, then used to THEFT, punishment of, among the Jews, 62, 63. stop at Palmyra : thence they carried the merchandise of the East, Theocracy of the Hebrews, nature of, 41. It subsisted under which came to them by land, to the ports of the Mediterranean, the kings, 43. and returned the merchandise of the West after the same manner. Theophilus, the name of the person to whom Luke inscribed TAHPANES.

his Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. (Luke i. 3. Acts i. 1.) 1. Tanapanes, or Tahpanhes (Jer. ii. 16.), a city of Egypt, He was most probably some Gentile of rank, who had abjured w. ich anciently was a royal city, of considerable note : it is sup- paganism and embraced the Christian faith. pod to be the same as Daphne Pelusiacæ. Jeremiah, and the THESSALONICA, a large and populous city and sea-port of Israelites with him, retired to this place : and here it was revealed Macedonia, the capital of one of the four districts into which the to tate prophet, that Nebuchadnezzar should take this city, and Romans divided that country after its conquest by Paulus Æmiset u) his throne in the very place where Jeremiah had hidden lius. It was situated on the Thermæan Bay, and was anciently stones. (Jer. xliii. 7–11.)

called Thermæ; but, being rebuilt by Philip the father of Alex2. A queen of Egypt, the wife of that Pharaoh who was con- ander, after his victory over the Thessalians, it then received the temporary with David, and gave her sister in marriage to Hadad name of Thessalonica. At the time of writing the Epistle to the the Edomite. Tahpanhes educated her sister's son among the Thessalonians, Thessalonica was the residence of the proconsul royal family of Egypt, perhaps from the mingled motives of affec- who governed the province of Macedonia, and of the quæstor who tion and of politics.

had the charge of the imperial revenues. Besides being the seat TAMMUZ, or THAMMUZ.

of government, this port carried on an extensive commerce, 1 The tenth month of the civil year of the Jews, and the which caused a great inAux of strangers from all quarters; so fourth of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, that Thessalonica was remarkable for the number, wealth, and &c. in this month, see p. 76.

learning its inhabitants. The Jews were extremely numerous 2. An Egyptian and Syrian idol, worshipped by the Israelites, here. The modern name of this place is Salonichi: it is the notice of, 138.

chief port of modern Greece, and has a population of sixty thouTanis. See Zoan, p. 456. infra.

sand persons, twelve thousand of whom are Jews. According to TARES, notice of, 177.

Dr. Clarke, who has iven a very interesting account of the Tarsursa, or TarteśSUS, a city and country in Spain, the antiquities, present state, and commerce of Thessalonica, this most celebrated emporium in the West, to which the Hebrews place is the same now it was then ; a set of turbulent Jews contraded; the ships of Tarshish (Isa. xxiii. 1. 4. lx. 9.) denote large stituled a very principal part of its population : and when St. merchant ships bound on long voyages (perhaps distinguished Paul came hither from Philippi, where the Gospel was first by their construction from the common Phænician ships), even preached, to communicate the “glad tidings" to the Thessathough they were sent to other countries instead of Tarshish. lonians, the Jews were sufficient in number to " set all the city (Gibb's Hebrew Lexicon, pp. 713, 714., where the proofs are in an uproar." adduced at length.)

THEUDAS, a seditious person, who excited popular tumults Tarsus, the metropolis of Cilicia (Acts xxi. 39.), was cele- among the Jews, probably during the interregnum which folbrated for being the place whither Jonah designed to fee, and lowed the death of Herod the Great, while Archelaus was at where St. Paul was born. It was a very rich and populous city, Rome; at which time Judæa was agitated with frequent sedi and had an academy, furnished with men so eminent, that they tions. (Acts v. 36.) Compare Vol. I, p. 420. are said to have excelled in all arts of polite learning and philo- Tuisbe, a town in the tribe of Naphtali, to the south of sophy; even the academies of Alexandria, and Athens, and Kadesh, the chief city belonging to that tribe. The prophet Rome itself, were indebted to it for their best professors. It is now Elijah is supposed to have been a native of this city, though he called Tersoos; has no good buildings; and is but ill supplied with might afterwards have dwelt in the land of Gilead. (1 Kings xvii

. 1.) the necessaries of life. (Irby's and Mangles' Travels, p. 503.) Thomas, called Didymus, one of the twelve apostles: of the Taxes paid by the Jews. See pp. 78, 79.

circumstances of whose life very little is known. TEACHERS, Jewish, appellations of, 185. Academical degrees Thorns, of which Christ's crown was made, 36, note 2. conferred on them, ibid. note. Manner of teaching, ibid.

Three TAVERNS, a small place or village on the Appian Tekoan, a village south-east of Jerusalem, not far from which Way to Rome, where travellers stopped for refreshment. Acthe Great Desert commenced: it was the birth-place of the cording to the Itinerary of Antoninus, it was thirty-three Roman prophet Amos. (i. 1.)

(rather less than thirty-three English) miles from Rome. (Acts TEMPLE at Jerusalem, plan of, 98. Account of the first xxviii

. 15.) Some critics and commentators, however, suppose temple erected by Solomon, ibid., and of the second temple that they were retail shops for the sale of provisions to travellers. erected after the captivity, 98–100. Reverence of the Jews for THRESHING, and THRESHING-FLOORs, account of, 178. it, 100, 101, Account of the temple-guard, 101., and of the THYATIRA, a city of Asia Minor, was a considerable city in ministers of the temple, 111-114. The temple-worship de- the road from Pergamos to Sardis, and about forty-eight miles scribed, 121, 122. Annual payments made for its support, 78. eastward of the former. It is called by the Turks Akhisar, and Feast of the dedication of the temple, 128.

is imbosomed in cypresses and poplars; it is now, as anciently TEMPLES at Heliopolis and Gerizim, 101.

it was, celebrated for dyeing. In 1826, the population was estiTentus, when and of what things paid, 120.

mated at 300 Greek houses, 30 Armenian, and 1000 Turkish. Tents of the Hebrews, account of, 150, 151,

(Hartley's Visit, Miss. Reg. pp. 326, 327. Arundell's Visit, pp. TERAPHIM, notice of, 137.

189—191.) TERRACES (Oriental), notice of, 153.

TIBERIÁS (John vi. 1—23. xxi. 1.), still called by the natives TERTIUS, a Christian whom St. Paul employed as his amanu, Tabaria or Tabbareeah, was anciently one of the principal cities ensis in writing his epistle to the Romans. (Rom. xvi. 22.) of Galilee: it was built by Herod the Great, and so called in

Tertullus, a Roman orator or advocate, whom the Jews | honour of the emperor, Tiberius. The privileges conferred upon

TI

TR its ir.habitants by Herod caused it in a short time to become a kings of Israel, from Jeroboam I. to Omri, who built the city of place of considerable note: it was situated in a plain near the Samaria, which then became the capital of his kingdom. (Josh. Lake of Gennesareth, which is thence termed the Lake or Sea xii. 24. 1 Kings xiv. 17. xv. 21. 2 Kings xv. 14.) Its situation of Tiberias. (See it described in pp. 26, 27.) After the destruc- is represented as pleasant in Sol. Song vi. 4. tion of Jerusalem, this city became eminent for its Academy, Tisni or Tizri, the first month of the civil year of the Jews, over which a succession of Jewish doctors presided until the and the seventh of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the fourth century. On every side ruins of walls, columns, and festivals, &c. occurring in this month, see p. 75. foundations, indicate its ancient splendour. The modern popu- Titues, when and of what things paid, 120. lation of Tiberias is from fifteen hundred to two thousand : it is Titus, a Christian teacher, by birth a Gentile, but converted principally inhabited by Jews, who are said to be the descendants by St. Paul, who therefore calls him his son (Gal

. ii. 3. Tit. i. of families resident there in the time of our Saviour. Dr. Clarke 4.), and whose companion and fellow-labourer he became. In conjectures that they are a remnant of refugees who fled hither 2 Tim. iv. 10. the apostle speaks of him as having gone to Dalafter the capture of Jerusalem by the Romans. Tiberias is about matia ; and in Tit. i. 5. he assigns the reason of his leaving Titus ninety miles distant from Jerusalem : the modern town, which in Crete, viz. to perfect the work which Paul had there begun, is very small, and is walled round, with towers at equal distances, and to establish and regulate the churches. For an analysis of stands close to the lake, upon a plain surrounded by mountains ; St. Paul's epistle to Titus, see pp. 346, 347. and is celebrated for its hot baths, which are much frequented. Tola, the tenth judge of Israel, of the tribe of Issachar. He Tiberias has the most imposing appearance, from without, of succeeded Abimelech, and died after an administration of twentyany town in Syria ; but within, it is as wretched as any other. three years. (Judg. x. 1, 2.) About a mile from this town, and exactly in front of the lake, is Tombs of the Hebrews, account of, 200, 201, a chain of rocks, in which are distinctly seen cavities or grottoes, TORNADOES frequent in Palestine, 38, 39. that have been proof against the ravages of time. These have Tower of Antonia, 21. uniformly been represented to travellers as the places referred to TRACHONITIS, district of, 18. in Scripture, which were frequented by miserable and fierce TRADITIONS of the elders concerning the Sabbath, exposed, demoniacs, upon one of whom our Lord wrought a niraculous 121.; were preferred by the Pharisees to the Law of Moses, 145. and instantaneous cure. Matt. viii. 28. Mark v. 2, 3. Luke viji. TRANSFIGURATION, mount of, 31. and note 1. 27. (Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 219-233. 8vo. Light's TRANSMIGRATION of souls, believed by the Jews, 144. Travels in Egypt, &c. &c. p. 203. Jolliffe's Letters from Pales- TRAVELLING, Jewish mode of, 122. note 7. Horrors of traveltine, pp. 32–34. Burkhardt's Travels in Syria, &c. pp. 320—330. ling across the Great Desert of Arabia, 34, 35. Travels in Egypt and Nubia, &c. by Captains Irby and Mangles. TREATIES, nature of, 80. How made and ratified, 80, 81, p. 294. Jowett's Researches in Syria, pp. 171. 173. Carne's Trees of Palestine, notice of, 36, 37. Letters, pp. 361, 362. Rae Wilson's Travels in the Holy Land, Trespass-OFFERINGS, notice of, 65. 118. vol. ii. p. 25. Third edition.)

TRIALS, proceedings of, among the Jews, 55–57. TIBERIUS, Claudius Drusus Nero, emperor of Rome, succeeded TRIBES, allotments of. See pp. -16, 17. Heads or princes of, his step father Augustus: he died, a. 1). 37, after reigning 221 41, 42. years. In the 14th year of his reign, John the Baptist first TRIBUNAL (Imperial), appeals to, 59. Roman tribunals, 57. appeared; and the crucifixion of Jesus Christ took place in the Jewish tribunals, 54, 55. third or fourth year after. (Luke iii. 1.).

TRIBUTE paid by the Jews, account of, 78. Reluctantly paid TIGLATH-PILESER, king of Assyria, the son and successor of to the Romans, ibid. Sardanapalus. See Assyria, p. 409.

Triumrus (military) of the Romans, allusions to explained, TIME, Jewish and Roman modes of computing, 72–75. 94, 95. Calendar of the Jewish year, 75, 76. Parts of a period of time Troas, a maritime city of Mysia, situated on the western reckoned for the whole, 76, 77. Aras of time in use among the coast, at some distance to the southward of the supposed site of Jews, 77.

ancient Troy. The adjacent region is also called Troas or the Timox, the name of one of the seven primitive deacons of the Troad. (Acts xvi. 8. 11. xx. 5, 6. 2 Cor. ii. 12. 2 Tim. iv, 13.) church at Jerusalem. (Acts vi. 5.)

TROGYLLIUM (Acts xx. 15.), a promontory at the foot of TIMOTHEUS, commonly called Timothy, a Christian of Derbe, Mount Mycale, opposite to, and about five miles from, Samos. whose mother was of Jewish descent, and eminent for her piety, Troruies, military, of the Jews, 92. while his father was a Gentile. He was selected by St. Paul, as TROPHImus, a Christian disciple of Ephesus, who accompanied his chosen companion in his journeys; and was left by him at Saint Paul on his departure from Greece to Judæa, and at JeruEphesus to take the charge of the church there. He appears to salern was the innocent cause of the dangers to which he was have possessed in a high degree the confidence and affection of there exposed. Recognised by some Jews from Asia Minor, who St. Paul, by whom he is often mentioned in terms of warm com- had seen him with St. Paul, they took occasion to accuse the mendation. For analyses, &c. of the two epistles addressed to apostle of having taken Greeks with him into the temple. (Acts Timothy by the apostle, see pp. 343–346.

xx. 4. xxi. 29.) After this time we find no mention made of TIRhaka, a king of Egypt or Ethiopia, is known in Scripture Trophimus in the New Testament, until after his master's first only by the powerful diversion which he made in hehalf of Heze- imprisonment at Rome. In one of the voyages which followed kiah, king of Judah, wben pressed by the forces of Sennacherib, the apostle's liberation, Trophimus was "left at Miletum sick.” king of Assyria. (2 Kings xix. 9. xviii. 21. Isa. xxxvi. 6. xxxvi. (2 Tim. iv. 20.) This circumstance proves, if further proof 9.) Although, under this prince, Egypt appears to have recovered were wanting, that St. Paul was twice a prisoner at Rome; for some of the advantages which it had lost under So, the prede- Trophimus, at the time of his first journey to Miletus, had not cessor of Tirhaka; it is not clear whether we are to understand been left there, since we read of his arrival in Judæa. (Acts in the passages just cited a mere report of an invasion which xx. 15.) was circulated, and which deceived the Assyrians, or an actual TRUMPETS, form of, 184. ; feast of, 127. war in which they were engaged with the Egyptian monarch. Trust, violations of, how punished, 63. Some expositors are of opinion that he carried his arms into As- Tryphæna and TłYPHOSA, two Christian women resident at syria, while Sennacherib was in Judæa. Tirhaka, the third sove- Rome, where they laboured in diffusing a knowledge of the reign of the Ethiopian or twenty-fifth dynasty, whose name is Gospel, and in succouring their fellow-believers. The mention confirmed by ancient Egyptian monuments and inscriptions of both their names by Saint Paul has led some to conjecture (compare Vol. I. p. 89.), is the Taracus of profane historians. that they were sisters. (Rom. xvi. 12.) If the predictions contained in the thirtieth and following TUBAL-Cain, the son of Lamech and Zillah, invented the chapters of Isaiah relate to Hezekiah, Tirhaka must be the art of working metals: there is great reason to believe that he Pharaoh intended in those passages; which some commentators was the Vulcan of ancient mythology. refer to anterior times. The prophecies contained in the nine- Tuuttaviopus, or beating to death, account of, 68. teenth chapter of Isaiah, particularly verses 2. and 4., have been Tunics, of the Jews, form of, 156. supposed to announce the events which followed Tirhaka's Tychicus, a Christian, probably of Ephesus, who was the death, the supplanting or removal of the Ethiopian dynasty by friend and associate of St. Paul, and is mentioned by him in the that of the Saïtes, and the revolutions which are recorded to most affectionate terms. (Acts xx. 4. Eph. vi. 21. Col. iv. 7. have taken place in that period of the history of Egypt. 2 Tim. iv, 12. Tit.'iii. 12.)

Tirzau, a delightful city of Ephraim, the royal seat of the Tyrannus, a person at Ephesus, in whose house or school TY

VE St. Paul proposed and defended the doctrines of the Gospel. of fourteen months against Antigonus, before he could reduce (Acts xix. 9.) By some he is thought to have been a Jewish the city. After this, Tyre fell alternately under the dominion doctor or rabbi, who had a public school at Ephesus; while of the kings of Syria and Egypt, and then of the Romans, until others, with more probability, suppose that he was a Greek it was taken by the Saracens, about a. n. 639, retaken by the sophist, because the apostle taught for two successive years in Crusaders, a, n. 1124; and at length sacked and razed by the his school, after he had ceased to preach in the synagogues. Mamelukes of Egypt, with Sidon, and other strong towns, that (Acts xix. 9.)

they might no longer harbour the Christians, A. D. 1289. (Dr. Trre, a celebrated city and sea-port of Phænicia, that boasted Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. pp. 442—444.) The of a very early antiquity, which is recognised by the prophet population of modern Tyre is estimated at 7000; of whom Isaiah (xxiii. 7.), but which is variously estimated by profane 1600 are Christians having places of Worship, and about two writers, whose discordant accounts this is not the place to adjust hundred are Jews, who have a synagogue. (Rae Wilson's and determine. Even in the time of Joshua it was strongly Travels, vol. ii. p. 77.) fortified; for it is called the strong city Tyre. (Josh. xix. 29.) From Sidon to Tyre is generally one continued plain, varying Tyre was twofold, insular and continental. Insular Tyre was from 300 to 1000 yards in width. Nearer to Tyre, it becomes certainly the most ancient, for it was noticed by Joshua : the considerably wider; and forms to the east of that city, on every continental city, however, as being more commodiously situated, side, a rich and pleasing country. About Ras-el-Ain, in particufirst grew into consideration, and assumed the name of Pale- lar, the meadows, variegated by streamlets, are very picturesque, tyrus, or Old Tyre. Want of sufficient attention to this dis- and capable of being rendered highly productive. (Jowett's Christinction has embarrassed both the Tyrian chronology and tian Researches in Syria, p. 297.) geography. Insular Tyre was confined to a small rocky island, The following description of the modern town of Surat, by a eight hundred paces long and four hundred broad, and could recent intelligent traveller, will give the reader a lively idea of never exceed two miles in circumference. But Tyre, on the the splendour of ancient Tyre in the days of her commercial opposite coast, about half a mile from the sea, was a city of prosperity, as delineated by the prophet Ezekiel (xxvii. 3.) ; vast extent, since, many centuries after its demolition by Nebu- “The bazaars, filled with costly merchandise, picturesque and chadnezzar, the scattered ruins measured nineteen miles round, interesting groups of natives on elephants, camels, horses, and as we learn from Pliny and Strabo. Of these, the most curious mules; strangers from all parts of the globe, in their respective and surprising are, the cisterns of Ras-el-Ain, designed to supply costume ; vessels building on the stocks, others navigating the the city with water; of which there are three still entire, about river; together with Turks, Persians, and Armenians, on Araone or two furlongs from the sea; so well described by Maun-bian chargers; European ladies in splendid carriages, the Asiatic drell, for their curious construction and solid masonry. “The females in hackeries drawn by oxen; and the motley appearance fountains of these waters," says he, after the description, "are of the English and nabob's troops on the fortifications, remind as unknown as the contriver of them. According to common us of the following description of Tyre: 0 thou that art situate, tradition, they are filled from a subterraneous river, which king &c. (Ezek. xxvii. 3.) This is a true picture of Oriental comSolomon discovered by his great sagacity ; and he caused these merce in ancient times; and a very exact description of the port cisterns to be made as part of his recompense to king Hiram, and the bazaars of Surat, at the present day.” (Forbes's Oriental for the materials furnished by that prince towards building the Memoirs, vol. i. p. 244.) temple at Jerusalem. It is certain, however, from their rising so “ Numerous beautiful columns, stretched along the beach, or high above the level of the ground, that they must be brought standing in fragments half buried in the sand that has been acfrom some part of the mountains, which are about a league dis- cumulating for ages, the broken aqueduct, and the ruins which tant; and it is as certain that the work was well done at first; appear in its neighbourhood, exist, as an affecting monument of seeing it performs its office so well, at so great a distance of the fragile and transitory nature of earthly grandeur.” (Jowe time; the Turks having broken an outlet on the west side of the ett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, Appendix, p. cistern, through which there issues a stream like a brook, driving 422.) See also his Christian Researches in Syria, pp. 131 — four corn mills between it and the sea.” From these cisterns 141. ; and for other testimonies of modern travellers relative to there was an aqueduct which led to the city, supported by arches, the actual state of Tyre, see Vol. I. pp. 124, 125. supra. On about six yards from the ground, running in a northerly direc- the commerce of the Tyrians with the Hebrews, see pp. 187, 188. tion, about an hour, when it turns to the west, at a small mount, of this volume. where anciently stood a fort, but now a mosque, which seems to ascertain the site of the old city; and thence proceeds over the UNBLOODY SACRIFICES, 119. isthmus that connects Insular Tyre with the main, built by UNCLEAN PERSONs, who were such, 133. Alexander, when he besieged and took it.

Uphaz, a country rich in gold, the situation of which is no Old Tyre withstood the mighty Assyrian power, having been where pointed out. Calmet supposed it to be the same with besieged in vain, by Shalmaneser, for five years, although he cut Ophir. (Dan. x. 5. Jer. x. 9.) off their supplies of water from the cisterns, which they remedied UPPER GARMENTS, form of, 156. by digging wells within the city. It afterwards held out for Ur of the Chaldees, a city of Mesopotamia, the dwellingthirteen years against Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and place of Terah and Abraham; which the latter was ordered to was at length taken ; but not until the Tyrians had removed their quit. (Gen. xi. 28.) By faith he obeyed, and went out not effects to the insular town, and left nothing but the bare walls to knowing whither he was going. (Heb. xi. 8.) Ur was subsethe victor, which he demolished. What completed the de- quently called Edessa, by the Macedonians; and by the Turks, struction of the city was, that Alexander afterwards made use Orfah. Mr. Buckingham has given a long and interesting deof these materials to build a prodigious causeway, or isthmus, scription of its present state. (Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. i. pp. . above half a mile long, to the insular city, which revived, as the 121–191.) phenix, from the ashes of the old, and grew to great power and Urim and TUUMMIM, what. See p. 114. opulence, as a maritime state; and which he stormed after a Uz, land of (Job i. 1.), is Idumea. Here Job dwelt. Com. most obstinate siege of five months. Bp. Pococke observes, that pare p. 231. there are no signs of the ancient city; and as it is a sandy Uzziah, also called Azariah, a king of Judah, who succeeded shore, the face of every thing is altered, and the great aqueduct his father Amaziah, when he was only sixteen years of age, is in many parts almost buried in the sand.” (Vol. ii. p. 81.) The commencement of his reign was auspicious for his piety Thus has been fulfilled the prophecy of Ezekiel : Thou shalt bé and zeal for the worship of God; but, afterwards, presuming to built no more: though thou be sought for, yet shalt thou never take upon him the sacerdotal office, he was struck with a leprobe found again ! (xxvi. 21.)

sy; and he continued without Jerusalem, separated from other The fate of Insular Tyre has been no less remarkable; when men, until his death, B. c. 758. (2 Kings xiv. 21, 22. xv. 1—7.) Alexander stormed the city, he set fire to it. This circumstance was foretold: “Tyre did build herself a strong-hold, and heaped VALLEY of Ajalon, 31. Berachah or Blessing, Ibid. Bochim, up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets. 32. Elah, Ibid. Hinnom, Ibid. Jehoshaphat, Ibid. Mamre, Behold the Lord will cast her out, and he will smite her power 31, Rephaim, Ibid. Salt. Ibid. Sharon, 32. Shaveh, 31. Sidin the sea, and she shall be devoured with fire." (Zech. ix. 3, 4.) dim, Ibid. After this terrible calamity, Tyre again retrieved her losses. VEGETABLES, grown in Palestine, 35–37. Only eighteen years after, she had recovered such a share of her VEils of the Hebrew women, 157. ancient commerce and opulence, as enabled her to stand a siegel VESTMENTS of the priests, 113. Of the high-priest, 113, 114. ZE

zo VICTIMS, selection and immolation of, 117, 118.

3. The son of Berechiah, and the last but one of the mino Victors, reception of, 91. Triumphs of, among the Romans, prophets. For an analysis of his predictions, see pp. 287, 288 94, 95.

4. A priest of the class of Abia, the father of John the BapVines and VINEYARDS of the Jews, culture and management tist. (Luke i.) of, 178–180.

ZEDEKIAH, the name of the last king of Judah, to whom it Visiters, how received, 169, 170.

was given by Nebuchadnezzar instead of his former name of VOLUNTARY Oblations, 119.

Mattaniah. He revolted against the king of Babylon, who Vows, nature and different kinds of, 129, 130.

besieged and captured Jerusalem, caused the children of Zede

kiah to be slain before his face, put out his eyes, and commanded Wars of the Hebrews, 83, 84.,89—91,

him to be sent to Babylon. (2 Kings xxiv. 17. Jer. xxxii. 4. WATCHES of the Night, 73.

lii. 4–11.) Water, importance of, in the East, 25. 28. Fetched by ZEMARITE (Gen. x. 18.), the name of a Syrian people, who, women, 29.

according to Calmet and others, dwelt in Simyra, a city of WATERS OF MEROM, notice of, 27.

Phænicia. WEAPONS (Military) of the Jews, 87, 88. Allusions to the ZEPHANIAH, the son of Cushi, the ninth of the minor prophets, Greek and Roman weapons in the New Testament, 93. who lived in the time of Josiah king of Judah. For an analysis WEDDINGS of the Jews, 160—163.

of his predictions, see p. 272. WEEKS, account of, 73.

ZERAH, king of Egypt, and contemporary with Asa king of WEIGHTS, table of, 394.

Judah, is in Scripture termed an Ethiopian or Cushite; an apWells, in Palestine, account of, 28. The stopping of them pellation which perhaps marks the origin of the dynasty to which up an act of hostility, ibid.

he belonged. He invaded Judæa at the head of an immense Wheat, abundance of, in Palestine, 35.

army, which was met by Asa in the valley of Mareshah, in the WHIRLwinds in Palestine, 38, 39.

tribe of Judah, and totally discomfited. Interpreters have long Widows, portion of, 164.

been perplexed to ascertain where the dominions of Zerah were WILDERNESS, in Palestine, account of, 33, 34,

situated; some supposing him to be a king of Cushite Arabia Wines of the Jews, 179.

(though there is no evidence that that country then had powerWINTER, in Palestine, account of, 23, 24.

ful sovereigns), while others have imagined that he was king of WITHERED HAND, what disease intended by, 197.

Abyssinia or African Ethiopia, but without being able to explain WITNESSES, examination of, 56. Punishment of false wit- how he could have traversed Egypt, in order to penetrate into nesses, 64, 65.

Judæa. All these difficulties are now removed. The name of Worship of the Temple and in the Synagogue, 104–106. this king exists on ancient monuments; and the Zerah of Allusions to the idolatrous worship of the heathens explained, Scripture is the Osorchon or Osoroth of the Egyptian fists 140-142.

and legends, the second king of the twenty-second dynasty, the Wounds, treatment of, 195.

son and successor of Shishak, who was contemporary with Writing of the Jews, and materials used for this purpose, Rehoboam. 181—183.

ZERUB BABEL or ZOROBABEL, the son of Salathiel, of the

royal house of David, was appointed chief of those Jews who, XYLOPHORIA, or, feast of wood-offering, 128.

by the permission of Cyrus, came from Babylon, at the com

mencement of that prince's reign. He laid the foundation of the YEARS (Jewish), civil and ecclesiastical, account of, 74. Ca- temple, and restored the Mosaic worship. It is not known when lendar of the Jewish year, 75, 76. Years of plants and beasts, this great man and pious ruler died. 74. Sabbatical year, 128. Year of jubilee, 128, 129.

Zuon. See Sipon, p. 450. supra.

Zır, the eighth month of the civil year of the Jews, and the Zabulon, or Zebulon, the tenth son of Jacob, born of Leah, second of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, who gave his name to one of the twelve tribes of Israel ; for the &c. in this month, see p. 267. limits allotted to which, see p. 17.

ZIKLAG, a city which Achish, king of Gath, gave to David Zaccueus, a chief collector or receiver-general of the customs while he took shelter in the land of the Philistines, and which or taxes; who entertained Jesus Christ at his house, and became afterwards remained as a domain to the kings of Judah. (1 Sam his disciple. (Luke xix. 1—8.)

xxvii. 6.) It was taken and plundered by the Amalekites during Zapunath-Panneah, the name given by Pharaoh to Joseph David's absence : it was situated in the extreme parts of the tribe (Gen. xli. 45.), which in the margin of our larger Bibles is ren- of Judah, southward. dered, a revealer of secrets, or the man to whom secrets are ZIMRI, the fifth king of Israel, commander of one half of the revealed; this is the interpretation given in the Chaldee para- cavalry of Elath, assassinated his master, usurped his throne, and phrase, the Syriac and Arabic versions, and by Kimchi. It has, destroyed all the branches of the royal family. His reign lasted however, been ascertained to be the Coptic or Egyptian word only a week: in consequence of his having neglected to secure Joph-te-peneh, which, according to Louis Picques and Jablonski, the army, they chose Omri king of Israel, who besieged him in signifies salus mundi, the salvation of the world, referring most Tirzah ; and Žimri

, finding his capital taken, set the royal palace probably to the preservation of Egypt from famine by the wise on fire, and perished in the flames. (1 Kings xvi. 9—20) counsels of Joseph; and which in the Septuagint version is ren

Zix, a desert in the south of Palestine towards Ilumæa. dered by Ychouorunx and Fcvbspebarnx. This interpretation of (Num. xiii. 21. xx. 1. xxxiv. 3, 4. Josh. xv. 1. 3.) Picques and Jablonski is approved by Ñ. Quatremère. (Jablonski, Zion, the more elevated southernmost mountain, and upper Opuscula, ed. a Te Water, tom. i. pp: 207—216. Quatremère, part of the city of Jerusalem. In the poetical and prophetical Recherches sur la Langue et Littérature de l'Egypte, p. 74.)

books it is often used for Jerusalem itself. ZAREPRATH. See SAREPTA, p. 449.

Ziph, a city of Judah (Josh. xv. 24.), near Hebron, eastward. ZEALOTS, a Jewish sect, notice of, 148.

Its modern name is Sephoury. It was a place of rendezvous for ZEBEDEE, the husband of Salome, and father of the apostles armies during the crusades ; and at a short distance from it is a James and John.

celebrated fountain. (Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. ii. p. 40.) ZEBOIM, a city in the vale of Siddim, which was synk, toge

ZIPs, wilderness of, 34. ther with Sodom and Gomorrah, in the Dead Sea.

Zoan, an ancient city in Lower Egypt ; according to the SepZEBULON. See ZABULON.

tuagint and Targums, it is Tanis on the eastern mouth of the ZECHARIAH.

Nile. (Num. xiii. 22. Isa. xix. 11. 13. xxx. 4. Ezek. xxx. 14.) 1. The son of the high-priest Jerolada (or Barachias), who Zoar, a city on the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. was stoned to death by order of Joash king of Judah, for his (Gen. xiii. 10. xix. 22. 30. Isa. xv. 5. Jer. xlviii. 34.) Its more fidelity in opposing the idolatry of the Jews. (2 Chron. xxiv. ancient name was Bela. 20, 21.)

Zobah, a city in Mesopotamia, otherwise called Nesibin, Nisi2. The fourteenth king of Israel, who succeeded his father bis, Antiochia, Mygdonia. (1 Sam. xiv. 47. 2 Sam. viii. 3. xxiii. Jeroboam II. He imitated the idolatries and iniquities of his 36.) Its territory is denominated Aram of Zobah : it was the predecessors; and, after a short reign of six months, he was assas- residence of a king who, in the time of David, carried on consinated by SHALLUM. (2 Kings xiv. 29. IV. 8—10.)

siderable wars with Israel.

ADDENDA

TO THE

BIOGRAPHICAL, HISTORICAL, AND GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX.

Acazib, a city belonging to the tribe of Asher (Josh, xix. 29.), there are springs of naphtha. The country abounds in wheat, who were unable to expel the old inhabitants from it. (Judg. i. and in the more esteemed kinds of fruit, as also in wine, cotton, 31.). It is now called Zib, and is situated on the sea-coast, to the and manna. It was therefore with truth, that the Assyrian comnorth of Ptolemais. Another Achzib, in the territory of Judah, mander Rabshakeh called his native country a land, where there is mentioned in Josh. xiv. 44. and Micah i. 14.

is corn and wine, bread, and vineyards, olive oil and honey. ADUMMIM, a rising ground at the entrance of the wilderness (2 Kings xviii. 32. Isa. xxxvi. 17.)” Which account is conof Jericho is called the going up to Adummim, in Josh. xv. 7.: ùrmed by Mr. Rich. (Residence in Kourdistan, vol. i. pp. 132. which name signifies red or bloody, probably from the sanguinary 142.) murders there committed. A town of this name belonged to the Athens, page 411. col. 1. after line 33. add :—Modern Athens tribe of Benjamin.

suffered severely during the late war with the Turks. It is in. Antioch of Pisidia.–Page 406. col. 2. after “city,” last line tended to be the metropolis of the new kingdom of Greece: and but 31. add :—Hitherto, on the authority of D'Anville and other the plan of the city has been so arranged, that many of the prinsubsequent geographers, this Antioch has been considered to oc- cipal remains of antiquity will be brought into view in one long cupy the site of the modern town of Aksher, (the ancient Philo- street, which is to pass through the centre, and finish at the anmelium) but the Rev. F. V. J. Arundell

, by whom it was disco- cient entrance. The present small population is daily increasing. vered in November 1833, after it had been long lost to the tra- An extensive olive grove in the suburbs affords almost the only veller, has proved that it was at Yalobatz, a place several miles to article of commerce connected with the place. (Hardy's Notices the south of Aksher. The site and present state of this once of the Holy Land, pp. 314—317.) celebrated city are minutely described by Mr. A. The remains Azotus, or Ashdod, a city of Judæa, was anciently one of the of a splendid aqueduct, twenty-one arches of which are perfect, five cities belonging to the princes of the Philistines. (Josh. xiii. of massive walls, of a theatre, acropolis, and of a temple of Bac- 3. 1 Sam. vi. 17.) In the division of Palestine by Joshua it was chus, together with the ruins of two if not more extensive Chris- allotted to the tribe of Judah (Josh. xv. 47.); but the possession tian churches, attest the ancient magnificence of Antioch. (Dis- of if not retained, was soon recovered by the Philistines, who coveries, vol. i. pp. 267–312.)

three hundred years afterwards, having captured the ark of God, ARARAT, page 408. col. 1. after line 18. read :— It is of stupen-brought it to Ashdod, and deposited it in the temple of their idoldous height, and was inaccessible, to the summit, until Pro-deity Dagon. (1 Sam. v. 1.) Subsequently Uzziah king of Judah, fessor Parrot, of the University of Dorpat, on the 27th of Sep- having successfully warred against the Philistines, broke down its tember, 0. S. 1829, after repeated failures, overcame every impe-walls. (2 Chron. xxvi. 6.) The city was captured by Tartan the diment. By trigonometrical measurement he ascertained that the Assyrian general, in the time of Hezekiah. (Isa. xx. 1.) After larger and principal peak is 16,254 Paris feet above the level of the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, the numerthe sea. He describes the summit as being a slightly convex, ous alliances made by them with the women of Ashdod, introalmost circular platform, about 200 Paris feet in diameter, which duced the worship of false gods into their families; so that the at the extremity declines pretty steeply on all sides. He subse- offspring of these marriages spake half in the language of Ashdod, quently ascended the little Ararat, which is above 13,100 feet and could not speak in the Jews' language, but according to the above the level of the sea. The entire upper region of the moun-language of each people. For this crime against the law of God, tain is covered with perpetual snow and ice: and the magnitude that most upright and patriotic of religious governors, Nehemiah, of the great peak is annually increasing in consequence of the contended with them, and made them swear that they would concontinual accession of ice. The eternal snows upon its summit tract no more such idolatrous unions. (Neh. xiii. 23–26.) Ashdod occasionally form vast avalanches, which precipitate themselves was afterwards captured by Judas Maccabæus (1 Macc. v. 68.), down its sides, with a sound not unlike that of an earthquake. by whose brother Jonathan it was reduced to ashes. (1 Macc. x.

ASKElon, or AsukELON, page 409. col. 1. after last line but 84.) It was evidently a place of great strength and consequence. 12. add :-Numerous ruins attest its ancient strength; its walls By the Greeks it was called Azotus. Here Philip the evangeare broken down, and at present not a single inhabitant is to be list was found, after he had baptized the Ethiopian eunuch at found there, thus literally fulfilling the prophecies of Jeremiah, Gaza, which was about thirty miles distant. (Acts viii. 40.) At Zephaniah, and Zechariah :- Ashkelon is cut off (Jer. xlvii. 5.), present Ashdod is an inconsiderable village called Esdud, which Ashkelon shall be a desolation (Zeph. ii. 4.), Ashkelon shall not exhibits no vestiges of its former splendour. The road to this lies be inhabited. (Zech. ix, 5.)

over an undulating surface, partially covered with grain and thisAssynia, page 409. col. 2. after “ Persia,line 12. add :-Ro- tles: it stands on the summit of a grassy hill, with luxuriant passenmüller (Bib. Geogr. vol. ii. p. 120.) states that it " nearly cor- ture around it. (Robinson's Travels in Palestine, vol. i. p. 21.) responded with the modern Kourdistan or land of the Kourds” BAAL-GAD, a city which was situated in the valley of Lebanon, (a hardy and predatory nomadic tribe), “ with the pachalik of under Mount Hermon (Josh. xi. 17. xii. 7.): it was one of the Mosul, which contains about sixteen hundred German miles, and places which remained unconquered by the Israelites at the death was thus about the size of the United Kingdoms of Naples and of Joshua. (Josh. xiii. 5.) By the Greeks and Romans it was Sicily. The northern part was very mountainous, but towards afterwards called Heliopolis, and by the modern natives it is called the south it is generally level, like the neighbouring country of Baalbec, both which names mean the City of the Sun. It is Babylonia. The culture of the soil is promoted by the number supposed to have been the place called Baal-Hamon in Sol. Song of rivers which traverse the country, and by the pleasant alterna- viii. 11., and also Baalatu in 2 Kings ix. 18. The inhabitants

: tion of hill and dale which diversify its surface ; while the navi- of the country believe that Baal-Gad or Baalbec was erected by gable Tigris” (the Hiddekel of the Hebrews) " presents great Solomon. It stands at the foot of Anti-Libanus, just where the facilities for commerce. In different parts of the southern division mountain terminates in a plain, and it presents to the traveller a Vol. II.-3M

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