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TE surprising that history should give us so little account, when or by whom it was reduced to the melancholy condition in which it now appears. The reason why Solomon erected Tadmor in so desolate a place, was, probably, the commodiousness of its situation to cut off all commerce between the Syrians and Mesopotamians, and to prevent them from conspiring against him as they had done against his father David. This city preserved its name of Tadmor to the time of Alexander. It then received the name of PALMYRA, which it preserved for several ages. About the middle of the third century, it became celebrated as the seat of the empire of Odenatus and Zenobia. When the Saracens became masters of the East, they restored its ancient name of Tadmor, which has continued to the present time. Its situation between two powerful empires, that of the Parthians on the east, and that of the Romans to the west, often exposed it to danger from their contests. In time of peace, however, it soon recovered itself, by its trade with both empires: for the caravans of Persia and of the Indies, which now unload at Aleppo, then used to stop at Palmyra: thence they carried the merchandise of the East, which came to them by land, to the ports of the Mediterranean, and returned the merchandise of the West after the same manner. TAHPANES.
1. TAHAPANES, or Tahpanhes (Jer. ii. 16.), a city of Egypt, wich anciently was a royal city, of considerable note: it is suppod to be the same as Daphne Pelusiacæ. Jeremiah, and the Isra lites with him, retired to this place: and here it was revealed to the prophet, that Nebuchadnezzar should take this city, and set u his throne in the very place where Jeremiah had hidden stones. (Jer. xliii. 7—11.)
2. A queen of Egypt, the wife of that Pharaoh who was contemporary with David, and gave her sister in marriage to Hadad the Edomite. Tahpanhes educated her sister's son among the royal family of Egypt, perhaps from the mingled motives of affection and of politics.
TAMMUZ, or THAMMUZ.
1 The tenth month of the civil year of the Jews, and the fourth of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, &c. in this month, see p. 76.
2. An Egyptian and Syrian idol, worshipped by the Israelites, notice of, 138.
TANIS. See ZOAN, p. 456. infra.
TARSHISH, OF TARTESSUS, a city and country in Spain, the most celebrated emporium in the West, to which the Hebrews traded; the ships of Tarshish (Isa. xxiii. 1. 4. lx. 9.) denote large merchant ships bound on long voyages (perhaps distinguished by their construction from the common Phoenician ships), even though they were sent to other countries instead of Tarshish. (Gibb's Hebrew Lexicon, pp. 713, 714., where the proofs are adduced at length.)
TARSUS, the metropolis of Cilicia (Acts xxi. 39.), was celebrated for being the place whither Jonah designed to flee, and where St. Paul was born. It was a very rich and populous city, and had an academy, furnished with men so eminent, that they are said to have excelled in all arts of polite learning and philosophy; even the academies of Alexandria, and Athens, and Rome itself, were indebted to it for their best professors. It is now called Tersoos; has no good buildings; and is but ill supplied with the necessaries of life. (Irby's and Mangles' Travels, p. 503.) TAXES paid by the Jews. See pp. 78, 79. TEACHERS, Jewish, appellations of, 185. Academical degrees conferred on them, ibid. note. Manner of teaching, ibid. TEKOAH, a village south-east of Jerusalem, not far from which the Great Desert commenced: it was the birth-place of the prophet Amos. (i. 1.)
TEMPLE at Jerusalem, plan of, 98. Account of the first temple erected by Solomon, ibid.; and of the second temple erected after the captivity, 98-100. Reverence of the Jews for it, 100, 101. Account of the temple-guard, 101., and of the ministers of the temple, 111-114. The temple-worship described, 121, 122. Annual payments made for its support, 78. Feast of the dedication of the temple, 128.
TEMPLES at Heliopolis and Gerizim, 101.
TERRACES (Oriental), notice of, 153.
TERTIUS, a Christian whom St. Paul employed as his amanu, ensis in writing his epistle to the Romans. (Rom. xvi. 22.) TERTULLUS, a Roman orator or advocate, whom the Jews
employed to bring forward their accusation against St. Paul, before the Roman procurator at Cæsarea; probably because they were themselves unacquainted with the modes of proceeding in the Roman courts. (Ácts xxiv. 1, 2.) TESSERE HOSPITALES, notice of, 173, 174. TETRARCH, Office of, 52, note 1. THADDEUS. See JUDE.
THAMMUZ. See TAMMUZ.
THEATRES and Theatrical performances, allusions to, explained. See pp. 190, 191.
THEBETH, OF TEBETH, the fourth month of the civil year of the Jews, and the tenth of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, &c. in this month, see p. 75.
THEBEZ, a city in the tribe of Ephraim, at the siege of which Abimelech was killed. (Judg. ix. 50-55.) Eusebius says, that in the fourth century there was a village called Thebez, thirteen Roman miles from Shechem.
THEFT, punishment of, among the Jews, 62, 63. THEOCRACY of the Hebrews, nature of, 41. It subsisted under the kings, 43.
THEOPHILUS, the name of the person to whom Luke inscribed his Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. (Luke i. 3. Acts i. 1.) He was most probably some Gentile of rank, who had abjured paganism and embraced the Christian faith.
THESSALONICA, a large and populous city and sea-port of Macedonia, the capital of one of the four districts into which the Romans divided that country after its conquest by Paulus Æmilius. It was situated on the Thermaan Bay, and was anciently called Therma; but, being rebuilt by Philip the father of Alexander, after his victory over the Thessalians, it then received the name of Thessalonica. At the time of writing the Epistle to the Thessalonians, Thessalonica was the residence of the proconsul who governed the province of Macedonia, and of the quaestor who had the charge of the imperial revenues. Besides being the seat of government, this port carried on an extensive commerce, which caused a great influx of strangers from all quarters; so that Thessalonica was remarkable for the number, wealth, and learning its inhabitants. The Jews were extremely numerous here. The modern name of this place is Salonichi: it is the chief port of modern Greece, and has a population of sixty thousand persons, twelve thousand of whom are Jews. According to Dr. Clarke, who has given a very interesting account of the antiquities, present state, and commerce of Thessalonica, this place is the same now it was then; a set of turbulent Jews constituted a very principal part of its population: and when St. Paul came hither from Philippi, where the Gospel was first preached, to communicate the "glad tidings" to the Thessalonians, the Jews were sufficient in number to "set all the city in an uproar."
THEUDAS, a seditious person, who excited popular tumults among the Jews, probably during the interregnum which followed the death of Herod the Great, while Archelaus was at Rome; at which time Judæa was agitated with frequent sedi tions. (Acts v. 36.) Compare Vol. I, p. 420.
THISBE, a town in the tribe of Naphtali, to the south of Kadesh, the chief city belonging to that tribe. The prophet Elijah is supposed to have been a native of this city, though he might afterwards have dwelt in the land of Gilead. (1 Kings xvii. 1.) THOMAS, called Didymus, one of the twelve apostles: of the circumstances of whose life very little is known.
THORNS, of which Christ's crown was made, 36, note 2. THREE TAVERNS, a small place or village on the Appian Way to Rome, where travellers stopped for refreshment. According to the Itinerary of Antoninus, it was thirty-three Roman (rather less than thirty-three English) miles from Rome. (Acts xxviii. 15.) Some critics and commentators, however, suppose that they were retail shops for the sale of provisions to travellers. THRESHING, and THRESHING-FLOORS, account of, 178. THYATIRA, a city of Asia Minor, was a considerable city in the road from Pergamos to Sardis, and about forty-eight miles eastward of the former. It is called by the Turks Akhisar, and is imbosomed in cypresses and poplars; it is now, as anciently it was, celebrated for dyeing. In 1826, the population was esti mated at 300 Greek houses, 30 Armenian, and 1000 Turkish. (Hartley's Visit, Miss. Reg. pp. 326, 327. Arundell's Visit, pp. 189-191.)
TIBERIAS (John vi. 1—23. xxi. 1.), still called by the natives Tabaria or Tabbareeah, was anciently one of the principal cities of Galilee it was built by Herod the Great, and so called in honour of the emperor, Tiberius. The privileges conferred upon
its ir.habitants by Herod caused it in a short time to become a
kings of Israel, from Jeroboam I. to Omri, who built the city of
TISRI or TIZRI, the first month of the civil year of the Jews, and the seventh of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, &c. occurring in this month, see p. 75.
TITHES, when and of what things paid, 120.
TITUS, a Christian teacher, by birth a Gentile, but converted by St. Paul, who therefore calls him his son (Gal. ii. 3. Tit. i. 4.), and whose companion and fellow-labourer he became. In 2 Tim. iv. 10. the apostle speaks of him as having gone to Dalmatia; and in Tit. i. 5. he assigns the reason of his leaving Titus in Crete, viz. to perfect the work which Paul had there begun, and to establish and regulate the churches. For an analysis of St. Paul's epistle to Titus, see pp. 346, 347.
TOLA, the tenth judge of Israel, of the tribe of Issachar. He succeeded Abimelech, and died after an administration of twentythree years. (Judg. x. 1, 2.)
TOMBS of the Hebrews, account of, 200, 201.
TRACHONITIS, district of, 18.
TRADITIONS of the elders concerning the Sabbath, exposed, 121.; were preferred by the Pharisees to the Law of Moses, 145. TRANSFIGURATION, mount of, 31. and note 1. TRANSMIGRATION of souls, believed by the Jews, 144. TRAVELLING, Jewish mode of, 122. note 7. Horrors of travel
TREATIES, nature of, 80. How made and ratified, 80, 81.
TIBERIUS, Claudius Drusus Nero, emperor of Rome, succeeded his step father Augustus: he died, A. n. 37, after reigning 2241, years. In the 14th year of his reign, John the Baptist first appeared; and the crucifixion of Jesus Christ took place in the third or fourth year after. (Luke iii. 1.) TIGLATH-PILESER, king of Assyria, the son and successor of to the Romans, ibid. Sardanapalus. See ASSYRIA, p. 409.
TIME, Jewish and Roman modes of computing, 72-75. Calendar of the Jewish year, 75, 76. Parts of a period of time reckoned for the whole, 76, 77. Eras of time in use among the Jews, 77.
TIMON, the name of one of the seven primitive deacons of the church at Jerusalem. (Acts vi. 5.)
TIMOTHEUS, Commonly called Timothy, a Christian of Derbe, whose mother was of Jewish descent, and eminent for her piety, while his father was a Gentile. He was selected by St. Paul, as his chosen companion in his journeys; and was left by him at Ephesus to take the charge of the church there. He appears to have possessed in a high degree the confidence and affection of St. Paul, by whom he is often mentioned in terms of warm commendation. For analyses, &c. of the two epistles addressed to Timothy by the apostle, see pp. 343-346.
TRIBUTE paid by the Jews, account of, 78. Reluctantly paid
TRIUMPHS (military) of the Romans, allusions to, explained, 94, 95.
TROAS, a maritime city of Mysia, situated on the western coast, at some distance to the southward of the supposed site of ancient Troy. The adjacent region is also called Troas or the Troad. (Acts xvi. 8. 11. xx. 5, 6. 2 Cor. ii. 12. 2 Tim. iv. 13.)
TROGYLLIUM (Acts xx. 15.), a promontory at the foot of Mount Mycale, opposite to, and about five miles from, Samos. TROPHIES, military, of the Jews, 92.
TRUMPETS, form of, 184.; feast of, 127.
TROPHIMUS, a Christian disciple of Ephesus, who accompanied Saint Paul on his departure from Greece to Judæa, and at Jerusalem was the innocent cause of the dangers to which he was there exposed. Recognised by some Jews from Asia Minor, who had seen him with St. Paul, they took occasion to accuse the apostle of having taken Greeks with him into the temple. (Acts xx. 4. xxi. 29.) After this time we find no mention made of TIRHAKA, a king of Egypt or Ethiopia, is known in Scripture Trophimus in the New Testament, until after his master's first only by the powerful diversion which he made in behalf of Heze-imprisonment at Rome. In one of the voyages which followed kiah, king of Judah, when pressed by the forces of Sennacherib, the apostle's liberation, Trophimus was "left at Miletum sick." king of Assyria. (2 Kings xix. 9. xviii. 21. Isa. xxxvi. 6. xxxvii. (2 Tim. iv. 20.) This circumstance proves, if further proof 9.) Although, under this prince, Egypt appears to have recovered were wanting, that St. Paul was twice a prisoner at Rome; for some of the advantages which it had lost under So, the prede- Trophimus, at the time of his first journey to Miletus, had not cessor of Tirhaka; it is not clear whether we are to understand been left there, since we read of his arrival in Judæa. (Acts in the passages just cited a mere report of an invasion which xx. 15.) was circulated, and which deceived the Assyrians, or an actual war in which they were engaged with the Egyptian monarch. Some expositors are of opinion that he carried his arms into Assyria, while Sennacherib was in Judæa. Tirhaka, the third sovereign of the Ethiopian or twenty-fifth dynasty, whose name is confirmed by ancient Egyptian monuments and inscriptions (compare Vol. I. p. 89.), is the Taracus of profane historians. If the predictions contained in the thirtieth and following chapters of Isaiah relate to Hezekiah, Tirhaka must be the Pharaoh intended in those passages; which some commentators refer to anterior times. The prophecies contained in the nineteenth chapter of Isaiah, particularly verses 2. and 4., have been supposed to announce the events which followed Tirhaka's death, the supplanting or removal of the Ethiopian dynasty by that of the Saïtes, and the revolutions which are recorded to have taken place in that period of the history of Egypt. TIRZAH, a delightful city of Ephraim, the royal seat of the
TRUST, violations of, how punished, 63.
TRYPHENA and TRYPHOSA, two Christian women resident at Rome, where they laboured in diffusing a knowledge of the Gospel, and in succouring their fellow-believers. The mention of both their names by Saint Paul has led some to conjecture that they were sisters. (Rom. xvi. 12.)
TUBAL-CAIN, the son of Lamech and Zillah, invented the art of working metals: there is great reason to believe that he was the Vulcan of ancient mythology.
Tuμravioμs, or beating to death, account of, 68.
TYCHICUS, a Christian, probably of Ephesus, who was the friend and associate of St. Paul, and is mentioned by him in the most affectionate terms. (Acts xx. 4. Eph. vi. 21. Col. iv. 7. 2 Tim. iv. 12. Tit. iii. 12.)
TYRANNUS, a person at Ephesus, in whose house or school
St. Paul proposed and defended the doctrines of the Gospel. (Acts xix. 9.) By some he is thought to have been a Jewish doctor or rabbi, who had a public school at Ephesus; while others, with more probability, suppose that he was a Greek sophist, because the apostle taught for two successive years in his school, after he had ceased to preach in the synagogues. (Acts xix. 9.)
of fourteen months against Antigonus, before he could reduce the city. After this, Tyre fell alternately under the dominion of the kings of Syria and Egypt, and then of the Romans, until it was taken by the Saracens, about A. n. 639, retaken by the Crusaders, a. D. 1124; and at length sacked and razed by the Mamelukes of Egypt, with Sidon, and other strong towns, that they might no longer harbour the Christians, A. D. 1289. (Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. pp. 442-444.) The population of modern Tyre is estimated at 7000; of whom 1600 are Christians having places of worship, and about two hundred are Jews, who have a synagogue. (Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. ii. p. 77.)
From Sidon to Tyre is generally one continued plain, varying from 300 to 1000 yards in width. Nearer to Tyre, it becomes considerably wider; and forms to the east of that city, on every side, a rich and pleasing country. About Ras-el-Ain, in particular, the meadows, variegated by streamlets, are very picturesque, and capable of being rendered highly productive. (Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, p. 297.)
The following description of the modern town of Surat, by a recent intelligent traveller, will give the reader a lively idea of the splendour of ancient Tyre in the days of her commercial prosperity, as delineated by the prophet Ezekiel (xxvii. 3.) :— interesting groups of natives on elephants, camels, horses, and mules; strangers from all parts of the globe, in their respective costume; vessels building on the stocks, others navigating the river; together with Turks, Persians, and Armenians, on Arabian chargers; European ladies in splendid carriages, the Asiatic females in hackeries drawn by oxen; and the motley appearance of the English and nabob's troops on the fortifications, remind us of the following description of Tyre: 0 thou that art situate, &c. (Ezek. xxvii. 3.) This is a true picture of Oriental commerce in ancient times; and a very exact description of the port and the bazaars of Surat, at the present day." (Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 244.)
TYRE, a celebrated city and sea-port of Phoenicia, that boasted of a very early antiquity, which is recognised by the prophet Isaiah (xxiii. 7.), but which is variously estimated by profane writers, whose discordant accounts this is not the place to adjust and determine. Even in the time of Joshua it was strongly fortified; for it is called the strong city Tyre. (Josh. xix. 29.) Tyre was twofold, insular and continental. Insular Tyre was certainly the most ancient, for it was noticed by Joshua: the continental city, however, as being more commodiously situated, first grew into consideration, and assumed the name of Palatyrus, or Old Tyre. Want of sufficient attention to this distinction has embarrassed both the Tyrian chronology and geography. Insular Tyre was confined to a small rocky island, eight hundred paces long and four hundred broad, and could never exceed two miles in circumference. But Tyre, on the opposite coast, about half a mile from the sea, was a city of vast extent, since, many centuries after its demolition by Nebu-"The bazaars, filled with costly merchandise, picturesque and chadnezzar, the scattered ruins measured nineteen miles round, as we learn from Pliny and Strabo. Of these, the most curious and surprising are, the cisterns of Ras-el-Ain, designed to supply the city with water; of which there are three still entire, about one or two furlongs from the sea; so well described by Maundrell, for their curious construction and solid masonry. "The fountains of these waters." says he, after the description, "are as unknown as the contriver of them. According to common tradition, they are filled from a subterraneous river, which king Solomon discovered by his great sagacity; and he caused these cisterns to be made as part of his recompense to king Hiram, for the materials furnished by that prince towards building the temple at Jerusalem. It is certain, however, from their rising so high above the level of the ground, that they must be brought from some part of the mountains, which are about a league distant; and it is as certain that the work was well done at first; seeing it performs its office so well, at so great a distance of time; the Turks having broken an outlet on the west side of the cistern, through which there issues a stream like a brook, driving four corn mills between it and the sea." From these cisterns there was an aqueduct which led to the city, supported by arches, about six yards from the ground, running in a northerly direction, about an hour, when it turns to the west, at a small mount, where anciently stood a fort, but now a mosque, which seems to ascertain the site of the old city; and thence proceeds over the isthmus that connects Insular Tyre with the main, built by Alexander, when he besieged and took it.
Old Tyre withstood the mighty Assyrian power, having been besieged in vain, by Shalmaneser, for five years, although he cut off their supplies of water from the cisterns, which they remedied by digging wells within the city. It afterwards held out for thirteen years against Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and was at length taken; but not until the Tyrians had removed their effects to the insular town, and left nothing but the bare walls to the victor, which he demolished. What completed the destruction of the city was, that Alexander afterwards made use of these materials to build a prodigious causeway, or isthmus, above half a mile long, to the insular city, which revived, as the phoenix, from the ashes of the old, and grew to great power and opulence, as a maritime state; and which he stormed after a most obstinate siege of five months. Bp. Pococke observes, that "there are no signs of the ancient city; and as it is a sandy shore, the face of every thing is altered, and the great aqueduct is in many parts almost buried in the sand." (Vol. ii. p. 81.) Thus has been fulfilled the prophecy of Ezekiel: Thou shalt be built no more: though thou be sought for, yet shalt thou never be found again! (xxvi. 21.)
The fate of Insular Tyre has been no less remarkable; when Alexander stormed the city, he set fire to it. This circumstance was foretold: "Tyre did build herself a strong-hold, and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets. Behold the Lord will cast her out, and he will smite her power in the sea, and she shall be devoured with fire." (Zech. ix. 3, 4.) After this terrible calamity, Tyre again retrieved her losses. Only eighteen years after, she had recovered such a share of her ancient commerce and opulence, as enabled her to stand a siege |
"Numerous beautiful columns, stretched along the beach, or standing in fragments half buried in the sand that has been accumulating for ages, the broken aqueduct, and the ruins which appear in its neighbourhood, exist, as an affecting monument of the fragile and transitory nature of earthly grandeur." (Jowett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, Appendix, p. 422.) See also his Christian Researches in Syria, pp. 131141.; and for other testimonies of modern travellers relative to the actual state of Tyre, see Vol. I. pp. 124, 125. supra. On the commerce of the Tyrians with the Hebrews, see pp. 187, 188. of this volume.
UNBLOODY SACRIFICES, 119.
UNCLEAN PERSONS, who were such, 133.
UPHAZ, a country rich in gold, the situation of which is no where pointed out. Calmet supposed it to be the same with Ophir. (Dan. x. 5. Jer. x. 9.)
UPPER GARMENTS, form of, 156.
UR of the Chaldees, a city of Mesopotamia, the dwellingplace of Terah and Abraham; which the latter was ordered to quit. (Gen. xi. 28.) By faith he obeyed, and went out not knowing whither he was going. (Heb. xi. 8.) Ur was subsequently called Edessa, by the Macedonians; and by the Turks, Orfah. Mr. Buckingham has given a long and interesting description of its present state. (Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. i. pp. 121-191.)
URIM and THUMMIM, what. See p. 114.
Uz, land of (Job i. 1.), is Idumæa. Here Job dwelt. Compare p. 231.
UZZIAH, also called Azariah, a king of Judah, who succeeded his father Amaziah, when he was only sixteen years of age. The commencement of his reign was auspicious for his piety and zeal for the worship of God; but, afterwards, presuming to take upon him the sacerdotal office, he was struck with a leprosy; and he continued without Jerusalem, separated from other men, until his death, B. c. 758. (2 Kings xiv. 21, 22. xv. 1—7.)
VALLEY of Ajalon, 31. Berachah or Blessing, Ibid. Bochim, 32. Elah, Ibid. Hinnom, Ibid. Jehoshaphat, Ibid. Mamre, 31. Rephaim, Ibid. Salt. Ibid. Sharon, 32. Shaveh, 31. Siddim, Ibid.
VEGETABLES, grown in Palestine, 35-37.
VESTMENTS of the priests, 113. Of the high-priest, 113, 114.
3. The son of Berechiah, and the last but one of the mino prophets. For an analysis of his predictions, see pp. 287, 288 4. A priest of the class of Abia, the father of John the Baptist. (Luke i.)
ZEDEKIAH, the name of the last king of Judah, to whom it I was given by Nebuchadnezzar instead of his former name of Mattaniah. He revolted against the king of Babylon, who besieged and captured Jerusalem, caused the children of Zedekiah to be slain before his face, put out his eyes, and commanded him to be sent to Babylon. (2 Kings xxiv. 17. Jer. xxxii. 4. lii. 4-11.)
ZEMARITE (Gen. x. 18.), the name of a Syrian people, who, according to Calmet and others, dwelt in Simyra, a city of Phoenicia.
ZEPHANIAH, the son of Cushi, the ninth of the minor prophets, who lived in the time of Josiah king of Judah. For an analysis of his predictions, see p. 272.
ZERAH, king of Egypt, and contemporary with Asa king of Judah, is in Scripture termed an Ethiopian or Cushite; an ap
WELLS, in Palestine, account of, 28. The stopping of them pellation which perhaps marks the origin of the dynasty to which up an act of hostility, ibid.
WHEAT, abundance of, in Palestine, 35.
WIDOWS, portion of, 164.
WILDERNESS, in Palestine, account of, 33, 34.
WINTER, in Palestine, account of, 23, 24.
WORSHIP of the Temple and in the Synagogue, 104-106. Allusions to the idolatrous worship of the heathens explained, 140-142.
WOUNDS, treatment of, 195.
he belonged. He invaded Judæa at the head of an immense army, which was met by Asa in the valley of Mareshah, in the tribe of Judah, and totally discomfited. Interpreters have long been perplexed to ascertain where the dominions of Zerah were situated; some supposing him to be a king of Cushite Arabia (though there is no evidence that that country then had powerful sovereigns), while others have imagined that he was king of Abyssinia or African Ethiopia, but without being able to explain how he could have traversed Egypt, in order to penetrate into Judæa. All these difficulties are now removed. The name of this king exists on ancient monuments; and the Zerah of Scripture is the Osorchon or Osoroth of the Egyptian lists and legends, the second king of the twenty-second dynasty, the son and successor of Shishak, who was contemporary with
WRITING of the Jews, and materials used for this purpose, Rehoboam. 181-183.
XYLOPHORIA, or, feast of wood-offering, 128.
YEARS (Jewish), civil and ecclesiastical, account of, 74. Calendar of the Jewish year, 75, 76. Years of plants and beasts, 74. Sabbatical year, 128. Year of jubilee, 128, 129.
ZABULON, OF ZEBULON, the tenth son of Jacob, born of Leah, who gave his name to one of the twelve tribes of Israel; for the limits allotted to which, see p. 17.
ZACCHEUS, a chief collector or receiver-general of the customs or taxes; who entertained Jesus Christ at his house, and became his disciple. (Luke xix. 1-8.)
ZAPHNATH-PAANEAH, the name given by Pharaoh to Joseph (Gen. xli. 45.), which in the margin of our larger Bibles is rendered, a revealer of secrets, or the man to whom secrets are revealed; this is the interpretation given in the Chaldee paraphrase, the Syriac and Arabic versions, and by Kimchi. It has, however, been ascertained to be the Coptic or Egyptian word Joph-te-peneh, which, according to Louis Picques and Jablonski, signifies salus mundi, the salvation of the world, referring most probably to the preservation of Egypt from famine by the wise counsels of Joseph; and which in the Septuagint version is rendered by box and Forex. This interpretation of Picques and Jablonski is approved by M. Quatremère. (Jablonski, Opuscula, ed. a Te Water, tom. i. pp. 207-216. Quatremère, Recherches sur la Langue et Littérature de l'Egypte, p. 74.) ZAREPHATH. See SARETTA, p. 449. ZEALOTS, a Jewish sect, notice of, 148. ZEBEDEE, the husband of Salome, and father of the apostles James and John.
ZEBOIM, a city in the vale of Siddim, which was sunk, together with Sodom and Gomorrah, in the Dead Sea. ZEBULON. See ZABULON.
1. The son of the high-priest JEHOIADA (or Barachias), who was stoned to death by order of Joash king of Judah, for his fidelity in opposing the idolatry of the Jews. (2 Chron. xxiv. 20, 21.)
2. The fourteenth king of Israel, who succeeded his father Jeroboam II. He imitated the idolatries and iniquities of his predecessors; and, after a short reign of six months, he was assassinated by SHALLUM. (2 Kings xiv. 29. xv. 8—10.)
ZERUBBABEL OF ZOROBABEL, the son of Salathiel, of the royal house of David, was appointed chief of those Jews who, by the permission of Cyrus, came from Babylon, at the commencement of that prince's reign. He laid the foundation of the temple, and restored the Mosaic worship. It is not known when this great man and pious ruler died.
ZIDON. See SIDON, p. 450. supra.
ZIF, the eighth month of the civil year of the Jews, and the second of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, &c. in this month, see p. 267.
ZIKLAG, a city which Achish, king of Gath, gave to David while he took shelter in the land of the Philistines, and which afterwards remained as a domain to the kings of Judah. (1 Sam xxvii. 6.) It was taken and plundered by the Amalekites during David's absence: it was situated in the extreme parts of the tribe of Judah, southward.
ZIMRI, the fifth king of Israel, commander of one half of the cavalry of Elath, assassinated his master, usurped his throne, and destroyed all the branches of the royal family. His reign lasted only a week: in consequence of his having neglected to secure the army, they chose Omri king of Israel, who besieged him in Tirzah; and Zimri, finding his capital taken, set the royal palace on fire, and perished in the flames. (1 Kings xvi. 9-20)
ZIN, a desert in the south of Palestine towards Idumæa. (Num. xiii. 21. xx. 1. xxxiv. 3, 4. Josh. xv. 1. 3.)
ZION, the more elevated southernmost mountain, and upper part of the city of Jerusalem. In the poetical and prophetical books it is often used for Jerusalem itself.
ZIPH, a city of Judah (Josh. xv. 24.), near Hebron, eastward. Its modern name is Sephoury. It was a place of rendezvous for armies during the crusades; and at a short distance from it is a celebrated fountain. (Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. ii. p. 40.) ZIPH, wilderness of, 34.
ZOAN, an ancient city in Lower Egypt; according to the Septuagint and Targums, it is Tanis on the eastern mouth of the Nile. (Num. xiii. 22. Isa. xix. 11. 13. xxx. 4. Ezek. xxx. 14.)
ZOAR, a city on the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. (Gen. xiii. 10. xix. 22. 30. Isa. xv. 5. Jer. xlviii. 34.) Its more ancient name was Bela.
ZOBAH, a city in Mesopotamia, otherwise called Nesibin, Nisibis, Antiochia, Mygdonia. (1 Sam. xiv. 47. 2 Sam. viii. 3. xxiii. 36.) Its territory is denominated Aram of Zobah: it was the residence of a king who, in the time of David, carried on considerable wars with Israel.
BIOGRAPHICAL, HISTORICAL, AND GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX.
ACHZIB, a city belonging to the tribe of Asher (Josh. xix. 29.), who were unable to expel the old inhabitants from it. (Judg. i. 31.) It is now called Zib, and is situated on the sea-coast, to the north of Ptolemais. Another Achzib, in the territory of Judah, is mentioned in Josh. xiv. 44. and Micah i. 14.
ADUMMIM, a rising ground at the entrance of the wilderness of Jericho is called the going up to Adummim, in Josh. xv. 7.: which name signifies red or bloody, probably from the sanguinary murders there committed. A town of this name belonged to the tribe of Benjamin.
ANTIOCH of Pisidia.-Page 406. col. 2. after "city," last line but 31. add :-Hitherto, on the authority of D'Anville and other subsequent geographers, this Antioch has been considered to occupy the site of the modern town of Aksher, (the ancient Philomelium) but the Rev. F. V. J. Arundell, by whom it was discovered in November 1833, after it had been long lost to the traveller, has proved that it was at Yalobatz, a place several miles to the south of Aksher. The site and present state of this once celebrated city are minutely described by Mr. A. The remains of a splendid aqueduct, twenty-one arches of which are perfect, of massive walls, of a theatre, acropolis, and of a temple of Bacchus, together with the ruins of two if not more extensive Christian churches, attest the ancient magnificence of Antioch. (Discoveries, vol. i. pp. 267-312.)
ARARAT, page 408. col. 1. after line 18. read :-It is of stupendous height, and was inaccessible, to the summit, until Professor Parrot, of the University of Dorpat, on the 27th of September, O. S. 1829, after repeated failures, overcame every impediment. By trigonometrical measurement he ascertained that the larger and principal peak is 16,254 Paris feet above the level of the sea. He describes the summit as being a slightly convex, almost circular platform, about 200 Paris feet in diameter, which at the extremity declines pretty steeply on all sides. He subsequently ascended the little Ararat, which is above 13,100 feet above the level of the sea. The entire upper region of the mountain is covered with perpetual snow and ice: and the magnitude of the great peak is annually increasing in consequence of the continual accession of ice. The eternal snows upon its summit occasionally form vast avalanches, which precipitate themselves down its sides, with a sound not unlike that of an earthquake. ASKELON, or ASHKELON, page 409. col. 1. after last line but 12. add:-Numerous ruins attest its ancient strength; its walls are broken down, and at present not a single inhabitant is to be found there, thus literally fulfilling the prophecies of Jeremiah, Zephaniah, and Zechariah:-Ashkelon is cut off (Jer. xlvii. 5.), Ashkelon shall be a desolation (Zeph. ii. 4.), Ashkelon shall not be inhabited. (Zech. ix. 5.)
ASSYRIA, page 409. col. 2. after "Persia," line 12. add:-Rosenmüller (Bib. Geogr. vol. ii. p. 120.) states that it "nearly corresponded with the modern Kourdistan or land of the Kourds" (a hardy and predatory nomadic tribe), "with the pachalik of Mosul, which contains about sixteen hundred German miles, and was thus about the size of the United Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily. The northern part was very mountainous, but towards the south it is generally level, like the neighbouring country of Babylonia. The culture of the soil is promoted by the number of rivers which traverse the country, and by the pleasant alternation of hill and dale which diversify its surface; while the navigable Tigris" (the Hiddekel of the Hebrews) "presents great facilities for commerce. In different parts of the southern division VOL. II.-3 M
there are springs of naphtha. The country abounds in wheat, and in the more esteemed kinds of fruit, as also in wine, cotton, and manna. It was therefore with truth, that the Assyrian commander Rabshakeh called his native country a land, where there is corn and wine, bread, and vineyards, olive oil and honey. (2 Kings xviii. 32. Isa. xxxvi. 17.)" Which account is confirmed by Mr. Rich. (Residence in Kourdistan, vol. i. pp. 132. 142.)
ATHENS, page 411. col. 1. after line 33. add :-Modern Athens suffered severely during the late war with the Turks. It is intended to be the metropolis of the new kingdom of Greece: and the plan of the city has been so arranged, that many of the principal remains of antiquity will be brought into view in one long street, which is to pass through the centre, and finish at the ancient entrance. The present small population is daily increasing. An extensive olive grove in the suburbs affords almost the only article of commerce connected with the place. (Hardy's Notices of the Holy Land, pp. 314-317.)
AZOTUS, or ASHDOD, a city of Judæa, was anciently one of the five cities belonging to the princes of the Philistines. (Josh. xiii. 3. 1 Sam. vi. 17.) In the division of Palestine by Joshua it was allotted to the tribe of Judah (Josh. xv. 47.); but the possession of it, if not retained, was soon recovered by the Philistines, who three hundred years afterwards, having captured the ark of God, brought it to Ashdod, and deposited it in the temple of their idoldeity Dagon. (1 Sam. v. 1.) Subsequently Uzziah king of Judah, having successfully warred against the Philistines, broke down its walls. (2 Chron. xxvi. 6.) The city was captured by Tartan the Assyrian general, in the time of Hezekiah. (Isa. xx. 1.) After the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, the numer ous alliances made by them with the women of Ashdod, introduced the worship of false gods into their families; so that the offspring of these marriages spake half in the language of Ashdod, and could not speak in the Jews' language, but according to the language of each people. For this crime against the law of God, that most upright and patriotic of religious governors, Nehemiah, contended with them, and made them swear that they would contract no more such idolatrous unions. (Neh. xiii. 23-26.) Ashdod was afterwards captured by Judas Maccabæus (1 Macc. v. 68.), by whose brother Jonathan it was reduced to ashes. (1 Macc. x. 84.) It was evidently a place of great strength and consequence. By the Greeks it was called Azorus. Here Philip the evangelist was found, after he had baptized the Ethiopian eunuch at Gaza, which was about thirty miles distant. (Acts viii. 40.) At present Ashdod is an inconsiderable village called Esdud, which exhibits no vestiges of its former splendour. The road to this lies over an undulating surface, partially covered with grain and thistles: it stands on the summit of a grassy hill, with luxuriant pasture around it. (Robinson's Travels in Palestine, vol. i. p. 21.)
BAAL-GAD, a city which was situated in the valley of Lebanon, under Mount Hermon (Josh. xi. 17. xii. 7.): it was one of the places which remained unconquered by the Israelites at the death of Joshua. (Josh. xiii. 5.) By the Greeks and Romans it was afterwards called Heliopolis, and by the modern natives it is called Baalbec, both which names mean the City of the Sun. It is supposed to have been the place called BAAL-HAMON in Sol. Song viii. 11., and also BAALATH in 2 Kings ix. 18. The inhabitants of the country believe that Baal-Gad or Baalbec was erected by Solomon. It stands at the foot of Anti-Libanus, just where the mountain terminates in a plain, and it presents to the traveller a