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MA (1 Sam. iv. 3.) It was situated on a high mountain to the north 8vo.) has given a minute and very interesting account of the of Bethel.

antiquities of Shechem. See also Mr. Jolliffe's Letters from Shinar, the territory of Babylon. (Gen. x. 10. xi. 2. xiv. 1. Palestine, pp. 44–48. Isa. xi. 11. Dan. i. 2. Zech. v. 11.) The boundaries of this Sick, healing of, why deemed unlawful by the Jews, on the country are defined in Gen. x. 10., and depend on the interpre- Sabbath-day, 121. Treatment of, 194, 195. tation given to the names of cities mentioned in that verse. SIDDIN, Vale of, notice of, 31. Ships, of the ancients, notice of, 188, 189.

Sipos, or Zidon, a celebrated city of Palestine, reputed to Shishak, a king of Egypt who was contemporary with Solo- have been founded by Sidon the eldest son of Canaan, from mon and Rehoboam. He first gave an asylum to the malcon- whom, according to Josephus, it derives its name; but other tent Jeroboam (1 Kings xi. 40.); and afterwards, as soon as he authorities derive the name Sidon from the Hebrew or Syrian saw that Rehoboam's power was weakened by the revolt of the word 7793 (Tsíveu), which signifies fishing. If the primitive ten tribes, he invaded Judæa and advanced against Jerusalem founder was a fisherman, the two accounts may be easily reconwith an immense army, composed of Egyptians, Ethiopians, ciled. Joshua (xi. 8.) calls it Sidon the Great, by way of emiLybians, and Sukkim or Troglodytes. But, satisfied with the nence; whence some have taken occasion to say, that in his submission of the Jewish monarch and with the spoils of his time there were two Sidons, a greater and a lesser : but no gecapital, including the treasures of the temple, he left him his ographer has mentioned any other Sidon than Sidon the Great. throne, and drew off his forces. (1 Kings xiv. 25, 26. 2 Chron. Joshua assigned Sidon to the tribe of Asher (Josh. xix. 28.), xii. 2—9.) Shishak is the Sesonchis of profane historians, and but this tribe could never get possession of it. (Judg. i. 31.) the head of the Bubastite or twenty-second dynasty of the It is situated on the Mediterranean, one day's journey from Egyptian kings. His name has been discovered on the recently Paneas, or from the fountains of Jordan, in a fine level tract explained Egyptian monuments (compare Vol. I. p. 88, 89.); of land, the remarkably simple air of which suits with that and he is supposed to have been an Ethiopian, who, supported touching portion of the Gospel, which records the interview of by the military caste, dethroned the Pharaoh who was Solomon's Jesus Christ on this very spot,—the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, father-in-law.

with the Syro-Phænician woman. (Matt. xv. 21–28. Mark Shoes, or Sandals of the Hebrews, 157.

vii. 24-30.) Abulfeda places it sixty-six miles from Damascus. SHOW BREAD, table of, notice of, 100. 119.

This city has been always famous for its great trade and naviSHUNEM, a city in the tribe of Issachar. (Josh. xix. 18. gation. Its inhabitants were the first remarkable merchants in 2 Sam. xxviii. 4.) Here the prophet Elisha was hospitably en- the world, and were very early celebrated on account of their tertained by a benevolent woman ; whose son dying, he miracu- luxury; for, in the days of the judges of Israel, the inhabitants lously restored him to life. (2 Kings iv.) According to Euse- of Laish are said to have dwelt careless and secure after the bius, there was a place called Sulem (by a commutation of I and manner of the Zidonians. (Judg. xviii. 7.) The men of Sidon n) five Roman miles south of Mount Tabor.

being great shipwrights, were particularly eminent above all Suur, Wilderness of, notice of, 33.

other nations, for hewing and polishing timber, there being none SHuskan, the capital of Susiana, a province of Elam or Persia, who were skilled how to hew timber like the Sidoniuns. (1 Kings which Daniel terms the palace (viii. 2.), because the Chaldæan v. 6.) This place is now called Seide or Suide: its port is monarchs had here a royal palace. After Cyrus, the kings of small

, and nearly filled up with the accumulation of mud. (Irby's Persia were accustomed to pass the winter there, and the sum- and Mangles' Travels, p. 201.) The city, as it exists at present, mer at Ecbatana. The winter was very moderate at Shushan, rises immediately from the strand, and, when seen from a slight but the heat of the summer was so great, that the very lizards distance, presents a rather imposing appearance. The interior, and serpents, if surprised by it in the streets, are said to have however, is most wretched and gloomy. “About half-way bebeen burned up by the solar rays. This city stands on the river tween Saide (or Sidon) and Sour (or Tyre) are very extensive Ulai, or Choaspes. In this city, and on this river, Daniel had ruins of towns which once connected these two cities; but of the vision of the ram with two horns, and the goat with one these ruins there is now scarcely one stone left upon another. horn, &c. in the third year of the reign of Belshazzar (Dan. They consist chiefly of lines which show, rased even with the viii. 1-3, &c.), a. M. 3447, B. c. 557. In this city of Shushan, soil, the foundation of houses—many stones irregularly scattered the transactions took place which are related in the book of -a few cisterns with half-defaced sculpture on them; and, at a Esther. Here Ahasuerus, or Darius the son of Hystaspes, gene- considerable distance from the path, there are at one spot several rally resided and reigned. (Esth. i. 1, 2. 5, &c.) He rebuilt, low columns either mutilated or considerably sunk in the earth. enlarged, and adorned it. Nehemiah was also at Shushan, when These relics show, what it needed indeed no such evidence to he obtained from king Artaxerxes permission to return into prove, that in peaceable and flourishing times, on this road beJudæa, and to repair the walls of Jerusalem. (Neh. i. 1.) Ben-tween two such considerable cities as Tyre and Sidon, there jamin of Tudela, and Abulfaragius, place the tomb of Daniel at must have been many smaller towns for business, pleasure, and Chuzestan, which is the ancient city of Shushan, and a tomb is agriculture, delightfully situated by the seaside; but peaceful sestill shown to travellers, as the tomb of the prophet. Dr. Light-curity has long been a blessing unknown to these regions; and foot says, that the outward gate of the eastern wall of the temple we may apply to them the language of Judges v. 7.The villages was called the gate of Shushan ; and that upon this gate was ceased; they ceased in Israel.” (Jowett's Christ. Researches in carved the figure (more probably the arms or insignia) of Shu- Syria, pp. 129, 130. shan, in acknowledgment of the decree there granted by Darius Sieges, how conducted, 89. son of Hystaspes, which permitted the rebuilding of the temple. SIGNETS, notice of, 157. The site of this once noble metropolis of the ancient sovereigns Sinon, a king of the Amorites, who refused a passage through of Persia is now a mere wilderness; no human being residing his territories to the Hebrews; and, coming to attack them, was there excepting one poor dervise, who keeps watch over the sup- himself slain. (Num. xxi. 21.) posed tomb of the prophet Daniel. See an account of the ruins Sinor, River, 26. and the present state of Shushan, in Sir R. K. Porter's Travels Silas or Silvanus (the former name being a contraction of in Georgia, Persia, &c. vol. ii. pp. 411–418.

the latter), an eminent Christian teacher, who was Saint Paul's SICARII, or assassins mentioned in the New Testament, no- companion in his journeys through Asia Minor and Greece. tice of, 148.

Siloam, Fountain or Pool of, 21. 28. Just over against this SICHEM, Sychan or Shechem, a city of Samaria, about forty pool, near the bottom of the valley, through which its waters miles distant from Jerusalem, which became the metropolis of how with an almost imperceptible current, and on the slope of a the Samaritans after the destruction of Samaria by Hyrcanus. lofty mountain on the opposite side, is a village called Siloa : it In the vicinity of this place is Jacob's well (John iv. 6), memo- has a miserable aspect, many of the habitations being no better rable for our Saviour's conversation with the Samaritan woman. than excavations from the rock, and the rest very meanly built It stands in a delightful situation, and is at present called Napo- houses and dilapidated stone huts; though it once could boast lose. The remains of the sect of the Samaritans, now reduced the palace of Pharaoh's daughter and Solomon's queen. The to about forty persons, chiefly reside here. Contiguous to this population is said not to exceed two hundred persons. (Jowett's place lies a valley, which opens into a plain watered by a fruit- Researches in Syria, p. 262. Three Weeks in Palestine, p. 45.) ful stream, that rises near the town. This is universally allowed SIMEON, the son of Jacob and Leah: he was the head of one to be the parcel of a field mentioned by Saint John (iv. 5.) of the twelve tribes; for the limits of whose allotment, see which Jacob bought at the hand of the children of Hamor. p. 17. (Gen. xxiii. 19.) Dr. Clarke (Travels, vol. iv. pp. 260—280. Simon or Simeon, the name of several persons mentioned in. so

ST the New Testament; of whom the following are the most re- Sabacho of profane history, the head of the twenty-fifth or Ethimarkable :

opian dynasty, who invaded Egypt, caused its monarch Boc1. Simon, surnamed Peter, who was also called Simon Bar- charis to be thrown into the flames, and usurped the throne. Jona. See Peter, p. 442.

More recent and correct researches have shown that So is the 2. Simon, surnamed the Canaanite (perhaps because he was Sevechus of profane history. (Coquerel, Biog. Sacr. tom. iv. a native of Cana in Galilee), and also Zelotes or the Zealous, p. 223.) probably because he had been of the ZEALOTs. (See p. 148. for SUDOM, the chief of the Pentapolitan cities, or five cities of the a notice of their principles.) He is supposed to have been the plain, gave the name to the whole land. It was burnt, with three brother of James the Less and Jude: the particulars of his life other cities, by fire from heaven, for the unnatural lusts of their are unknown.

inhabitants, the truth of which is attested by numerous heathen 3. Simon, surnamed the Cyrenean, from Cyrene in Libya writers. See pp. 27, 28. supra. (where many Jews were settled), who was compelled to assist in SOLDIERS (Jewish) levies of, how made, 84. Mosaic statutes bearing the cross of Jesus. (Matt. xxvii. 32.) Why he was so concerning them, 84, 85. How commanded, 85, 86. Their compelled, see p. 70. supra.

encampments, 86, 87. Their pay and training, 87. Arms of, 4. Simon, surnamed Bar-Jesus, a sorcerer. (Acts viii. 9. 13.) 87, 88. See Bar-Jesus, p. 413. col. 2.

SOLDIERS (Roman), allusions to the officers, armour, and dis SIMOom Wind, pestilential effects of, 40.

cipline of, 92-94. Their treatment of Jesus Christ, 70. They Sin.

watched at the execution of criminals, 72. 1. A strong city in Egypt (Ezek. xxx. 15, 16.), according to Solomon, the son of David and Bathsheba, and the third king Jerome, Pelusium: it was situated on the eastern boundary of of Israel, renowned for his wisdom and riches, and for the mas Egypt, and was defended by the swamps which lay around it. nificent temple which he caused to be erected at Jerusalem.

2. Desert of Sin, a part of Arabia Deserta, towards Egypt, The commencement of his reign was characterized by piety and between Elim and Mount Sinai. (Exod. xvi. 1. xvii. 1. Num. justice; but afterwards he abandoned himself, through the influxxxiii. 12.)

ence of his heathen wives, to gross and shameful idolatry. TemSIN-OFFERING, notice of, 118. Account of, 65.

ple of, 98. Extent of his dominions, 17. His commerce, 187, SINAI.

188. He died B. c. 975, after a reign of forty years. For analy1. DESERT OF SINAI, 34.

ses of the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles, which 2. Mount Sinai, a mountain in Arabia Petræa, where the were composed by him, see pp. 245—253, law was given. It had two summits; the one lower, called Ho. Solomon's Porci, notice of, 99. reb, or the Mount of God (Exod. iii. 1.), when he appeared to Sons, education of, 164. Parental authority over them, Ibid. Moses in a flame of fire in a bush. (See HOREB, p. 428., col. 1.) Sosthenes, a chief ruler of a synagogue at Corinth. (Acts This Horeb is therefore called Sinai by Saint Stephen. (Acts xviii. 17.) Concerning the interpretation of which passage the vii. 30.) Mount Sinai is an enormous mass of granite rocks, learned differ greatly. Some suppose him to have been at this with a Greek convent at the bottom, called the Convent of St. time an enemy to the apostle Paul, and his accuser, though subCatharine. It is the highest of a chain of mountains called by sequently a convert to the Christian faith ; and that he was the Arabians Djebbel Moosa (or the mountains of Moses), and beaten by the unbelieving Greeks, in consequence of the opinion which requires a journey of several days to go entirely round it. given by the judge, and because he had troubled the proconsul This chain is partly composed of sand-stone : it contains several with so impertinent an affair. Others are of opinion, that, at fertile valleys, in which are gardens producing grapes, pears, this time, he favoured Christianity, and suffered on that account, dates, and other excellent fruits. These are taken to Cairo, the Greeks beating him at the instigation of the unbelieving where they are sold at a high price ; but the general aspect of the Jews. However this may have been, Sosthenes afterwards joined peninsula of Mount Sinai is that of a frightful sterility. (Malte- with Saint Paul in sending the first Epistle to the Corinthians. Brun's System of Geography, vol. ii. p. 200.)

(Biscoe on the Acts, vol. i. p. 417.) Sinim, a land very distant from Palestine. From the context Sowing of corn, Jewish mode of, 177. of Isa. xlix. 12. it appears to have been situated towards the Spain, an extensive region of Europe, which anciently com. south or east. Some expositors have supposed it to be Pelusium prehended the country forming the modern kingdoms of Spain or Syene; but these are only cities, and not sufficiently remote. and Portugal. In the time of St. Paul it was subject to the RoIt were better (says Gesenius) to understand it of an eastern mans. (Rom. xv. 24. 28.) country, perhaps China; of the name of which the Hebrews SPEARS of the Hebrews, notice of, 88. may have heard, as well as of Scythia and India.

Spoil, how distributed by the Jews, 91, 92. Sion or Sirion, a name of Mount Hermon, 30.

Staff, divination by, 143. Sivan or Siuvan, the third month of the ecclesiastical year STEPHANUS, one of the principal Christians at Corinth, whom of the Jews; and the ninth of their civil year. For a notice of St. Paul baptized with all his family. This was the first family the festivals, &c. in this month, see p. 76.

in Achaia that embraced the Gospel : its members zealously deSlaves, how acquired, 165. Their condition and treatment voted themselves to the service of the Christians, and their affecamong the Hebrews, 165, 166; and heathens, 166, 167. Expla- tionate hospitality is recommended by the apostle, as an example nation of customs relating to them, mentioned in the New Tes to the Corinthians. (1 Cor. i. 16. xvi. 15, 16.) tament, 167. Different kinds of, 167,-168.

STEPHEN, the first martyr for the faith of Christ: he was Slaying with the sword, a Jewish punishment, 67.

one of the seven primitive, deacons of the Christian church. Slings of the Hebrews, notice of, 88.

After having wrought many miracles, and ably defended the SMYRNA, a city of Asia Minor, was situated between forty and doctrines of Christ, he was put to death by the Jews. (Acts vi. forty-five miles to the north of Ephesus, of which city it was vii.) On the stoning of Stephen, see p. 53. note 4. originally a colony. It is now celebrated chiefly for the number, Stocks, punishment of, 65. wealth, and commerce of the inhabitants. Of its population, Storcs, a sect of philosophers who derived their name from which is estimated at about 75.000 inhabitants, 45,000 are Turks; the Etor or portico where their founder Zeno delivered his lec15,000 Greeks ; 8000 Armenians; 8000 Jews; and less than tures. Their philosophy required an absolute control over all 1000 Europeans. (Hartley's Visit

, p. 289.) The angel of the the passions, and taught that man alone, even in his present state church of Smyrna, addressed in the second apocalyptic epistle, of existence, might attain to perfection and felicity. They en. is supposed to have been Polycarp, the disciple of Saint John, couraged suicide, and disbelieved in a future state of rewards and by whom he was appointed bishop of Smyrna. As he afterwards punishments,-a doctrine which they deemed unnecessary as an suffered much, being burnt alive at Smyrna, A. n. 166, the exhor- incitement to virtue. tation in Rev. ii. 10. would be peculiarly calculated to support Stone, white, import of, 56, and encourage him.

Stones, consecrated, notice of, 138. Hieroglyphic stones So, an Egyptian king, contemporary with Hoshea, with whom prohibited to the Israelites, Ibid. he formed an alliance. (2 Kings xvii. 4.) He appears, however, Stoning to death, a Jewish punishment, 67, 68. to have been too weak to succour Hoshea against the Assyrians, STRANGERS, laws concerning the treatment of, 82. one of whose kings, named Sargon, obtained signal advantages STRAW, used in making bricks, 151. over him. (Isa. xx. 1.) According to Jablonski, So means a STREETS (Oriental), arrangement of, 155. chief prince of the dwelling. a long

STUDIES of the Jews, 185–187.

Pharaonwho is named Soy in the scriptures, was taken

for the ! SerokwisAthex, military, illustration of, 93.

ZE

zo Victims, selection and immolation of, 117, 118.

3. The son of Berechiah, and the last but one of the mino Victors, reception of, 91. Triumphs of, among the Romans, prophets. For an analysis of his predictions, see pp. 287, 288 94, 95.

4. A priest of the class of Abia, the father of John the BapVines and VINEYARDS of the Jews, culture and management tist. (Luke i.) of, 178–180.

ZEDEKJAH, the name of the last king of Judah, to whom it Visiteks, how received, 169, 170.

was given by Nebuchadnezzar instead of his former name of VOLUNTARY Oblations, 119.

Mattaniah. He revolted against the king of Babylon, who Vows, nature and different kinds of, 129, 130.

besieged and captured Jerusalem, caused the children of Zede

kiah to be slain before his face, put out his eyes, and commanded Wars of the Hebrews, 83, 84.,89—91.

him to be sent to Babylon. (2 Kings xxiv. 17. Jer. xxxii. 4. WATCHES of the Night, 73.

lii. 4—11.) Water, importance of, in the East, 25. 28. Fetched by ZEMARITE (Gen. x. 18.), the name of a Syrian people, who, women, 29.

according to Calmet and others, dwelt in Simyra, a city of WATERS OF MEROM, notice of, 27.

Phænicia. Weapons (Military) of the Jews, 87, 88. Allusions to the ZEPHANIAH, the son of Cushi, the ninth of the minor prophets, Greek and Roman weapons in the New Testament, 93. who lived in the time of Josiah king of Judah. For an analysis Weddings of the Jews, 160—163.

of his predictions, see p. 272. Weeks, account of, 73.

Zerah, king of Egypt, and contemporary with Asa king of WEIGHTS, table of, 394.

Judah, is in Scripture termed an Ethiopian or Cushite; an apWells, in Palestine, account of, 28. The stopping of them pellation which perhaps marks the origin of the dynasty to which up an act of hostility, ibid.

he belonged. He invaded Judæa at the head of an immense Wheat, abundance of, in Palestine, 35.

army, which was met by Asa in the valley of Mareshah, in the WHIRLWinds in Palestine, 38, 39.

tribe of Judah, and totally discomfited. Interpreters have long Widows, portion of, 164.

been perplexed to ascertain where the dominions of Zerah were WILDERNESS, in Palestine, account of, 33, 34.

situated; some supposing him to be a king of Cushite Arabia Wines of the Jews, 179.

(though there is no evidence that that country then had powerWinter, in Palestine, account of, 23, 24.

ful sovereigns), while others have imagined that he was king of WITHERED HAND, what disease intended by, 197.

Abyssinia or African Ethiopia, but without being able to explain WITNESSES, examination of, 56. Punishment of false wit- how he could have traversed Egypt, in order to penetrate into nesses, 64, 65.

Judæa. All these difficulties are now removed. The name of WORSHIP of the Temple and in the Synagogue, 104–106. this king exists on ancient monuments; and the Zerah of Allusions to the idolatrous worship of the heathens explained, Scripture is the Osorchon or Osoroth of the Egyptian fists 140-142.

and legends, the second king of the twenty-second dynasty, the Wounds, treatment of, 195.

son and successor of Shishak, who was contemporary with Writing of the Jews, and materials used for this purpose, Rehoboam. 181–183.

ZERUBBABEL or ZOROBABEL, the son of Salathiel, of the

royal house of David, was appointed chief of those Jews who, XILOPHORIA, or, feast of wood-offering, 128.

by the permission of Cyrus, came from Babylon, at the com

mencement of that prince's reign. He. laid the foundation of the YEARS (Jewish), civil and ecclesiastical, account of, 74. Ca- temple, and restored the Mosaic worship. It is not known when lendar of the Jewish year, 75, 76. Years of plants and beasts, this great man and pious ruler died. 74. Sabbatical year, i28. Year of jubilee, 128, 129.

Zuon. See Sipon, p. 450. supra.

ZIF, the eighth month of the civil year of the Jews, and the Zabulon, or Zebulon, the tenth son of Jacob, born of Leah, second of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, who gave his name to one of the twelve tribes of Israel ; for the &c. in this month, see p. 267. limits allotted to which, see p. 17.

ZIKLAG, a city which Achish, king of Gath, gave to David Zaccheus, a chief collector or receiver-general of the customs while he took shelter in the land of the Philistines, and which or taxes; who entertained Jesus Christ at his house, and became afterwards remained as a domain to the kings of Judah. (1 Sam his disciple. (Luke xix. 148.)

xxvii. 6.) It was taken and plundered by the Amalekites during ZaPunath-Panear, the name given by Pharaoh to Joseph David's absence : it was situated in the extreme parts of the tribe (Gen. xli. 45.), which in the margin of our larger Bibles is ren- of Judah, southward. dered, a revealer of secrets, or the man to whom secrets are ZIMRI, the fifth king of Israel, commander of one half of the revealed; this is the interpretation given in the Chaldee para- cavalry of Elath, assassinated his master, usurped his throne, and phrase, the Syriac and Arabic versions, and by Kimchi. It has

, destroyed all the branches of the royal family. His reign lasted however, been ascertained to be the Coptic or Egyptian word only a week : in consequence of his having neglected to secure Joph-te-peneh, which, according to Louis Picques and Jablonski, the army, they chose Omri king of Israel, who besieged him in signifies salus mundi, the salvation of the world, referring most Tirzah ; and Zimri, finding his capital taken, set the royal palace probably to the preservation of Egypt from famine by the wise on fire, and perished in the flames. (1 Kings xvi. 9—20) counsels of Joseph; and which in the Septuagint version is ren- Zin, a desert in the south of Palestine towards Idumea. dered by Ychouquing and 4 cv@spepzynx. This interpretation of (Num. xiii. 21. xx. 1. xxxiv. 3, 4. Josh. xv. 1. 3.) Picques and Jablonski is approved by M. Quatremère. (Jablonski, Zion, the more elevated southernmost mountain, and upper Opuscula, ed. a Te Water, tom. i. pp: 207—216. Quatremère, part of the city of Jerusalem. In the poetical and prophetica! Recherches sur la Langue et Littérature de l'Egypte, p. 74.)

books it is often used for Jerusalem itself. ZAREPHATH. See SAREPTA, p. 449.

Ziph, a city of Judah (Josh. xv. 24.), near Hebron, eastward. ZEALOTS, a Jewish sect, notice of, 148.

Its modern name is Sephoury. It was a place of rendezvous for ZEBEDEE, the husband of Salome, and father of the apostles armies during the crusades ; and at a short distance from it is a James and John.

celebrated fountain. (Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. ii. p. 40.) ZEBOIM, a city in the vale of Siddim, which was synk, toge- ZIph, wilderness of, 34. ther with Sodom and Gomorrah, in the Dead Sea.

Zoan, an ancient city in Lower Egypt; according to the SepZEBULON. See Zabulox.

tuagint and Targums, it is Tanis on the eastern mouth of the ZECHARIAH.

Nile. (Num. xiii

. 22. Isa. xix. 11. 13. xxx. 4. Ezek. xxx. 14.) 1. The son of the high-priest Jehoiada (or Barachias), who ZOAR, a city on the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. was stoned to death by order of Joash king of Judah, for his (Gen. xiii. 10. xix. 22. 30. Isa. xv, 5. Jer. xlviii. 34.) Its more fidelity in opposing the idolatry of the Jews. (2 Chron. xxiv. ancient name was Bela. 20, 21.)

Zobah, a city in Mesopotamia, otherwise called Nesibin, Nisi2. The fourteenth king of Israel, who succeeded his father bis, Antiochia, Mygdonia. (1 Sam. xiv. 47. 2 Sam. viii. 3. xxiii. Jeroboam II. He imitated the idolatries and iniquities of his 36.) Its territory is denominated Aram of Zobah : it was the predecessors; and, after a short reign of six months, he was assas- residence of a king who, in the time of David, carried on consinated by SHALLUM. (2 Kings xiv. 29. xv. 8—10.)

siderable wars with Israel.

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ST the New Testament; of whom the following are the most re- Sabacho of profane history, the head of the twenty-fifth or Ethimarkable :

opian dynasty, who invaded Egypt, caused its monarch Boc1. Simon, surnamed Peter, who was also called Simon Bar- charis to be thrown into the flames, and usurped the throne. Jona. See PETER, p. 442.

More recent and correct researches have shown that So is the 2. Simon, surnamed the Canaanite (perhaps because he was Sevechus of profane history. (Coquerel, Biog. Sacr. tom. iv. a native of Cana in Galilee), and also Zelotes or the Zealous, p. 223.) probably because he had been of the ZEALOTS. (See p. 148. for SODOM, the chief of the Pentapolitan cities, or five cities of the a notice of their principles.) He is supposed to have been the plain, gave the name to the whole land. It was burnt, with three brother of James the Less and Jude: the particulars of his life other cities, by fire from heaven, for the unnatural lusts of their are unknown.

inhabitants, the truth of which is attested by numerous heathen 3. Simon, surnamed the Cyrenean, from Cyrene in Libya writers. See pp. 27, 28. supra. (where many Jews were settled), who was compelled to assist in SOLDIERS (Jewish) levies of, how made, 84. Mosaic statutes bearing the cross of Jesus. (Matt. xxvii. 32.) Why he was so concerning them, 84, 85. How commanded, 85, 86. Their compelled, see p. 70. supra.

encampments, 86, 87. Their pay and training, 87. Arms of, 4. Simon, surnamed Bar-Jesus, a sorcerer. (Acts viii. 9. 13.) 87, 88. See Bar-Jesus, p. 413. col. 2.

SOLDIERS (Roman), allusions to the officers, armour, and dis SIMOom Wind, pestilential effects of, 40.

cipline of, 92–94. Their treatment of Jesus Christ, 70. They Sin.

watched at the execution of criminals, 72. 1. A strong city in Egypt (Ezek. xxx. 15, 16.), according to Solomon, the son of David and Bathsheba, and the third king Jerome, Pelusium: it was situated on the eastern boundary of of Israel, renowned for his wisdom and riches, and for the mas Egypt, and was defended by the swamps which lay around it. nificent temple which he caused to be erected at Jerusalem.

2. Desert of Sin, a part of Arabia Deserta, towards Egypt, The commencement of his reign was characterized by piety and between Elim and Mount Sinai. (Exod. xvi. 1. xvii. 1. Num. justice; but afterwards he abandoned himself, through the influxxxii. 12.)

ence of his heathen wives, to gross and shameful idolatry. TemSIN-OFFERING, notice of, 118. Account of, 65.

ple of, 98. Extent of his dominions, 17. His commerce, 187, SINAI.

188. He died B.c. 975, after a reign of forty years. For analy1. DESERT OF Sixal, 34.

ses of the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles, which 2. Mount Sinai, a mountain in Arabia Petræa, where the were composed by him, see pp. 245–253. law was given. It had two summits; the one lower, called Ho. Solomon's Porcii, notice of, 99. reb, or the Mount of God (Exod. iii. 1.), when he appeared to Sons, education of, 164. Parental authority over them, Ibid. Moses in a flame of fire in a bush. (See Horeb, p. 428., col. 1.) Sosthenes, a chief ruler of a synagogue at Corinth. (Acts This Horeb is therefore called Sinai by Saint Stephen. (Acts xviii. 17.) Concerning the interpretation of which passage the vii. 30.) Mount Sinai is an enormous mass of granite rocks, learned differ greatly. Some suppose him to have been at this with a Greek convent at the bottom, called the Convent of St. time an enemy to the apostle Paul, and his accuser, though subCatharine. It is the highest of a chain of mountains called by sequently a convert to the Christian faith ; and that he was the Arabians Djebbel Moosa (or the mountains of Moses), and beaten by the unbelieving Greeks, in consequence of the opinion which requires a journey of several days to go entirely round it. given by the judge, and because he had troubled the proconsul This chain is partly composed of sand-stone: it contains several with so impertinent an affair. Others are of opinion, that, at fertile valleys, in which are gardens producing grapes, pears, this time, he favoured Christianity, and suffered on that account, dates, and other excellent fruits. These are taken to Cairo, the Greeks beating him at the instigation of the unbelieving where they are sold at a high price ; but the general aspect of the Jews. However this may have been, Sosthenes afterwards joined peninsula of Mount Sinai is that of a frightful sterility. (Malte- with Saint Paul in sending the first Epistle to the Corinthians. Brun's System of Geography, vol. ii. p. 200.).

(Biscoe on the Acts, vol. i. p. 417.) Sinim, a land very distant from Palestine. From the context Sowing of corn, Jewish mode of, 177. of Isa. xlix. 12. it appears to have been situated towards the Spain, an extensive region of Europe, which anciently com. south or east. Some expositors have supposed it to be Pelusium prehended the country forming the modern kingdoms of Spain or Syene; but these are only cities, and not sufficiently remote. and Portugal. In the time of St. Paul it was subject to the RoIt were better (says Gesenius) to understand it of an castern mans. (Rom. xv. 24. 28.) country, perhaps China; of the name of which the Hebrews Spears of the Hebrews, notice of, 88. may have heard, as well as of Scythia and India.

Spoil, how distributed by the Jews, 91, 92. Sion or Sirion, a name of Mount Hermox, 30.

Staff, divination by, 143. Siyan or Siuyan, the third month of the ecclesiastical year STEPHANUS, one of the principal Christians at Corinth, whom of the Jews; and the ninth of their civil year. For a notice of St. Paul baptized with all his family. This was the first family the festivals, &c. in this month, see p. 76.

in Achaia that embraced the Gospel : its members zealously deSLAVES, how acquired, 165. Their condition and treatment voted themselves to the service of the Christians, and their affecamong the Hebrews, 165, 166 ; and heathens, 166, 167. Expla- tionate hospitality is recommended by the apostle, as an example nation of customs relating to them, mentioned in the New Tes to the Corinthians. (1 Cor. i. 16. xvi. 15, 16.) tament, 167. Different kinds of, 167, 168.

STEPHEN, the first martyr for the faith of Christ: he was Slaying with the sword, a Jewish punishment, 67. one of the seven primitive, deacons of the Christian church. Slings of the Hebrews, notice of, 88.

After having wrought many miracles, and ably defended the SMYRNA, a city of Asia Minor, was situated between forty and doctrines of Christ, he was put to death by the Jews. (Acts vi. forty-five miles to the north of Ephesus, of which city it was vii.) On the stoning of Stephen, see p. 53. note 4. originally a colony. It is now celebrated chiefly for the number, Stocks, punishment of, 65. wealth, and commerce of the inhabitants. Of its population, Stoics, a sect of philosophers who derived their name from which is estimated at about 75.000 inhabitants, 45,000 are Turks; the Etoz or portico where their founder Zeno delivered his lec15,000 Greeks; 8000 Armenians; 8000 Jews; and less than tures. Their philosophy required an absolute control over all 1000 Europeans. (Hartley's Visit, p. 289.) The angel of the the passions, and taught that man alone, even in his present state church of Smyrna, addressed in the second apocalyptic epistle, of existence, might attain to perfection and felicity. They enis supposed to have been Polycarp, the disciple of Saint John, couraged suicide, and disbelieved in a future state of rewards and by whom he was appointed bishop of Smyrna. As he afterwards punishments,-a doctrine which they deemed unnecessary as an suffered much, being burnt alive at Smyrna, a. 1. 166, the exhor- incitement to virtue. tation in Rev. ii. 10. would be peculiarly calculated to support Stone, white, import of, 56, and encourage him.

Stones, consecrated, notice of, 138. Hieroglyphic stones So, an Egyptian king, contemporary with Hoshea, with whom prohibited to the Israelites, Ibid. he formed an alliance. (2 Kings xvii. 4.) He appears, however, Stoning to death, a Jewish punishment, 67, 68. to have been too weak to succour Hoshea against the Assyrians, STRANGERS, laws concerning the treatment of, 82. one of whose kings, named Sargon, obtained signal advantages STRAW, used in making bricks, 151. over him. (Isa. xx. 1.) According to Jablonski, So means a STREETS (Oriental), arrangement of, 155. chief prince or prince of the dwelling. For a long time the STUDIES of the Jews, 185–187. Pharaoh, who is named So, in the Scriptures, was taken for the SUBORDINATION, military, illustration of, 93.

SY

TA Succoth.

6. SYRIA OF Tor, or of Ishtob, or of the land of Tob, or of 1. A city in the tribe of Gad. (Josh. xiii. 27. Judg. viii. 5. the Tubieni, as they are called in the Maccabees, was in the 1 Kings vii. 46.) Hither “ Jacob journeyed, and built him a neighbourhood of Libanus, the northern extremity of Palestine. house, and made booths for his cattle: therefore the name of the (Judg. xi. 3. 5. 1 Macc. v. 13. 2 Macc. xii, 17.) When Jephplace is called Succoth," that is, booths. (Gen. xxxiii. 17.). thah was banished by his brethren from Gilead, he withdrew into

2. The first encampment of the Israélites in their march out the land of Tob. of Egypt. (Num. xxxiii. 5. Exod. xii. 37. xiii. 20.) Dr. Shaw 7. SYRIA OF EMATH, or Hamath, that of which the city Hais of opinion that no fixed situation can be assigned for this place math, on the Orontes, was the capital. (it signifying only a place of tents), being probably nothing more 8. Syria, without any other appellation, stands for the Kingthan some considerable Dou-war" (or encampment) of the Ish- DOM OF SIRIA, of which Antioch became the capital after the maelites or Arabs, such as may be still met with, at the distance reign of the Seleucidæ. of fifteen or twenty miles from Cairo, on the road towards the 9. Celo-Syria, or Cæle-Syria, or the Lower Syria, occurs Red Sea. The rendezvous of the caravan which conducted Dr. in several places of the Maccabees. (1 Macc. x. 69. 2 Macc. iii. S. to Suez was at one of these Dou-wars; at the same time he 5. 8. iv. 4. viii. 8.) The word Cæle-Syria, in the Greek, signisaw another about six miles off, in the very same direction which fies. Syria Cava, or Syria the Hollow, or deep. It may be conthe Israelites may be supposed to have taken in their marches sidered, says Strabo, either in a proper and restrained sense, as from Goshen to the Red Sea. (Travels, vol. ii. p. 93.)

comprehending only the tract of land between Libanus and AntiSuccoth-BENOTH (or booths of the daughters), an object of libanus : or in a larger signification, and then it will comprehend idolatrous worship among the Babylonians. According to the all the country in obedience to the kings of Syria, from Seleucia most common opinion they were small tents or booths, in which or Arabia and Egypt. the Babylonish maidens exposed themselves to prostitution, in Syria at first was governed by its own kings, each of whom honour of a Babylonish goddess called Mylitta. Herodotus (Hist. reigned in his own city and territories. David subdued them 1. i. c. 199.) gives a particular account of these abominable prac- about a. M. 2960, B.c. 1044 (2 Sam. viii. 6.), on occasion of his tices; which, there is reason to conclude from 1 Kings xvii. 30., war against the Ammonites, to whom the Syrians gave assistance. the Babylonians introduced into Judæa.

(2 Sam. x. 6. 8. 13. 18, 19.) They continued in subjection till SUKKims, an African people mentioned in 2 Chron. xiii. 3. in after the reign of Solomon, when they shook off the yoke, and conjunction with Libyans and Ethiopians. In the Septuagint could not be reduced again till the time of Jeroboam II. king of and Vulgate versions, they are termed 'Troglodytes, probably from Israel, A. m. 3179, B. C. 820. Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, their dwelling in caves. Such a people dwelt near the Red Sea. king of Israel, having declared war against Ahab, king of Judah, SUMMER of Palestine, notice of, 24.

this prince found himself under the necessity of calling to his SUPERIORS, reverence to, how shown, 169.

assistance Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, who put Rezin to SURVEYING of land, known to the Jews, 187.

death, took Damascus, and transported the Syrians out of their SUSANCuites, the inhabitants of Susa or Sausian. (Ezra iv. 9.) country beyond the Euphrates. From that time Syria continued SWEARING, or oaths of the Jews. See pp. 81, 82.

in subjection to the kings of Assyria. Afterwards it came under Swords of the Hebrews, notice of, 88.

the dominion of the Chaldæans; then under that of the Persians; SYCAMORE trees of Palestine, 37.

lastly, it was reduced by Alexander the Great, and was subject to SYCHAR. See SICHEM, p. 450.

all the revolutions that happened to the great empires of the East. STENE, a city on the southern frontiers of Egypt, bordering Syrian Idols, notice of, 137, 138. on Ethiopia. (Ezek. xxix. 10. xxx. 6.)

Syro-Puenicia is Phænicia properly so called, of which SYNAGOGUES, origin and form of, 103, 104. Officers of, 104. Sidon, or Zidon, was the capital ; which having by right of conAccount of the synagogue worship, 104–106. Its ecclesiastical quest been united to the kingdom of Syria, added its old name power, 106. Nineteen Jewish prayers read in the synagogue, Phænicia to that of Syria. The Canaanitish woman is called a 106, 107.

Syrophænician (Mark vii. 26.), because she was of Phænicia, SYRACUSE, a large and celebrated city on the eastern coast of which was then considered as making part of Syria. St. MatSicily, furnished with a capacious and excellent harbour. Saint thew calls her a Canaanitish women (Matt. xv. 22. 24.), because Paul abode here three days on his first journey to Rome. (Acts this country was really peopled by the Canaanites, Sidon being xxviii. 12.)

the eldest son of Canaan. (Gen. x. 15.) The Syro-Phænicians Syria, properly so called, was a country of Asia, compre- were so called to distinguish them from the Phænicians of Africa, hended between the Euphrates on the east, the Mediterranean on who were called Liby-Phænicians. Both were of the same the west, Cilicia on the north, Phenicia, Judæa, and Arabia Canaanitish stock or original. Deserta, on the south. It was divided into various provinces or cantons, which derived their names from their situation, with TABERAH (or burning), an encampment of the Israelites in respect to particular rivers or cities. Thus,

the wilderness. (Num. xi. 3. Deut. ix. 22.) It derives its name i. Syria of the two rivers, or MesOPOTAMIA of Syria, or from the circumstance that fire went forth from the tabernacle, ARAM NAHARALM (Hebrew), was comprehended between the and burnt a considerable part of their camp, as a punishment for two rivers Tigris and Euphrates.

their murmurings. 2. Syria or Damascus, that of which Damascus was the TABERNACLES, feast of, how celebrated, 126, 127. A proof capital, extended eastward along Mount Libanus. Its limits of the credibility of the Old Testament, I. 66. varied according as the princes that reigned at Damascus were TABERNACLES, various, in use among the Israelites, 96. Form more or less powerful.

and construction of the tabernacle of Moses, 96, 97. Its migra3. SYRIA OF Zobah, or Soba, or Sobal, as it is called by the tions, 97. Septuagint, was probably Cole-Syria, or Syria the hollow. Its Tábita, the Aramean name of a female Christian, otherwise capital was Zobah, a city unknown, unless it be Hoba or Hobal, called Dorcas, whom St. Peter miraculously restored to life. (Acts north of Damascus. (Gen. xiv, 15.)

ix. 36. 40.) 4. SYRIA OF Maachar, or of Bethmaacah, was also towards Table, ancient mode of reclining at, explained, 154. Libanus. (2 Sam. x. 6. 8. 2 Kings xv. 29.) It extended beyond TABLETS, for writing, form of, 182. Jordan, and was given to Manasseh. (Deut. iii. 14.)

Tabor, or THABOR, Mount, account of, 30, 31. 5. SYRIA OF Ronos or Renob, was that part of Syria of TABRET, notice of, 183. which Rehob was the capital. But Rohob was near the northern Tactics, military, of the Jews, 89, 90. frontier of the land of promise (Num. xiii. 21.), on the way or Tadmor, a city of Syria, erected by king Solomon. It was pass that leads to Emath or Hamath. It was given to the tribe situated in the wilderness of Syria, on the borders of Arabia of Asher, and is contiguous to Aphek, which was in Libanus. Deserta, whence it is called l'admor in the Wilderness, in (Josh. xix. 28. 30. and xxi. 31.) Laish, otherwise called Dan, 1 Kings ix. 18. Josephus places it at two days journey from situate at the fountains of Jordan, was in the country of Rohob. the Upper Syria, one day's journey from the Euphrates, and six (Judg. i. 31.) Hadadazer, king of Syria of Zobah, was son of days' journey from Babylon. He says that there is no water in Rehob or Rohob, or perhaps a native of the city of this name. the wilderness but in this place. (Ant. Jud. lib. viii. c. 6. $ 1.) (2 Sam. viii. 3. 12.) The Ammonites called to their assistance, If we may form any conjecture of this city by the ruins of it, against David, the Syrians of Rehob, of Zoba, of Maachah, and which later travellers have described, it must have been one of of Ishtob. (2 Sam. x 6. 8.)

the first and most magnificent in the East; and it is somewhat

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