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RA contiguous to his estate ; and he most probably entertained the capital city of the Ammonites, and against the rest of the country, apostle during his three months' residence on that island. (Acts which probably had their completion five years after the destruc xxiii. 7, 8.) An ancient inscription found at Malta designates its tion of Jerusalem. Antiochus the Greek took the city of Rab governor by the same appellation—IIPATOZ or chief man- | bath-Ammon about a. M. 3786. Some time before this, Ptolemy which St. Luke gives to Publius. (Bloomfield and Kuiniel on Philadelphus had given it the name of PAILADELPHIA. Which Acts xxviii. 7, 8.)

see in this index. Pol, or Puur.

2. RABBATH-MOAB, or Rabbath of the children of Moab, the 1. The proper name of a people remote from Palestine. (Isa. capital of the Moabites, otherwise Ar, or ARIEL of Moab, and Ixvi. 19.). The Latin Vulgate renders it Africa ; according to KIRHERES, or the city with brick walls. (Jer. xlviii. 31, 36.) Bochart, it was Philæ, an island of the Nile in Upper Egypt. This city was situated on the river Ar: it underwent many revoVitringa supposes it to be a place in the extremity of Egypt; it lutions, and the prophets denounced heavy judgments against it. being the prophet's object, in the passage just cited, to designate Rabbi, or Rabboni, import of, 185. the most remote parts.

RabdoMaxcy, or divination by the staff, 143. 2. The name of the first king of Assyria, who is mentioned in RABSIAKEH, an officer of Sennacherib king of Assyria, who the Scriptures. He invaded the kingdom of Israel shortly after was sent with Rabsaris and Tartan to summon Hezekiah to surMenahem had usurped the throne, who gave a thousand talents render to his master. (2 Kings xviii. 17.) of silver to support him in his kingdom. (2 Kings xv. 19, 20.) Raca, a Syriac word of contempt, meaning a worthless person.

PUNISHMENTS (Hebrew), design of, 64. Inferior punishments, (Matt. v. 22.) Those who applied this term to another were ob 64–66. Capital punishments, 66–69.

noxious to punishment by the Council of twenty-three. See Punishments (Roman), mentioned in the Bible, account of, p. 55. supra. 69–72.

Rachel, the youngest daughter of Laban, and the wife of PURIFICATIONS of the Hebrews, account of, 133. Purifica- Jacob. She was the mother of Joseph and Benjamin. In Jer. tions of the leprosy, in persons, garments, and houses, 133, 134. xxxi. 15. the prophet introduces Rachel as bewailing the exile of Purifications in case of minor impurities, 134.

her posterity, that is, Ephraim; by quoting which language the Purim, or feast of Lots, account of, 128.

evangelist Matthew (ii

. 18.) in a similar manner introduces her as Puteoli, a maritime town of Campania, in Italy, between bemoaning the fate of the children who were massacred at BethBaie and Naples, founded by a colony from Cumæ. It was lehem. (Compare Vol. i. p. 317.) The tomb of Rachel is still originally called Dicæarchia, and afterwards Puteoli, from the shown to travellers, near the ruins of the village of Ramah. “It great number of wells (putei) which were in the neighbourhood. is one of the few places where the observer is persuaded that It is now called Puzzoli or Puzzuolo. Here Saint Paul abode tradition has not erred..... The spot is as wild and solitary as seven days, by the favour of the centurion, on his first journey to can well be conceived ; no palms or cypresses give their shelter Rome. (Acts xxviii. 13.) It appears from Acts xxviii. 11. that from the blast ; not a single tree spreads its shade where the Puteoli was the destination of this vessel from Alexandria ; and beautiful mother (wife) of Israel rests." (Carne's Recollections we learn from the independent testimony of the Jewish historian, of the East, p. 157.) Mr. Maundrell is of opinion that this may Josephus, corroborated by the geographer Strabo, that this was be the true place of Rachel's interment: but the present sepulthe port of Italy to which ships from Egypt and the Levant com- chral monument can be none of that which Jacob erected; for monly sailed. (Antiq. Jud. lib. xviii. c. 7. $ 4. c. 8. § 2. Strabo, it appears to be plainly a modern and Turkish structure. The Geogr. l. xvii. p. 793. ed Casaub.)

graves of the Moslems lie thickly strewn around this tomb.

RAHAB.

1. A woman of Jericho, who received into her house, and Quartus, a Christian resident at Corinth, whose salutations afterwards concealed, the two spies, whom Joshua had sent to Saint Paul transmitted to Rome. He was probably a Roman, explore that city and its contiguous territory. On the capture of whom commercial affairs had led into Greece. (Rom. xvi. 23.). Jericho, Rahab, with her parents, brethren, and all that she had,

Quicksand (Euptus). Two syrtes or sand banks, on the under the conduct of the two spies, quitted her house in safety. northern coast of Africa, were particularly celebrated among the She subsequently married Salmon, one of the chief men in the ancients; one of which, called the Syrtis major, lay between tribe of Judah, and became the mother of Boaz. (Josh. ii. vi. 17. Cyrene and Leptis, and is most probably THN {uptiv

, THE 22, 23. Ruth iv. 21. Matt. i. 5.) Much discussion has taken Quicksand, alluded to in Acts xxvii. 17.; since a vessel bound place respecting Rahab, whether she were a harlot or one who westward, after passing Crete, might casily be driven into it by kept a house of entertainment for strangers. The same word in a strong north-easterly wind. The other (Syrtis minor) lay the Hebrew language denotes persons of both professions: for near Carthage. (Kuinüel on Acts xxvii. 17. Robinson's Lexi- the same reason, the appellation of harlot is given to Rahab in con, voce Euptis.)

the Septuagint version, from which the apostles Paul (Heb. xi. Quirinus or CrrerIUS (Kunvies, in Latin Quirinus), that is, 31.) and James (ii. 25.) make use of the same expression : but Publius Sulpicius Quirinus, a Roman senator ; who, after the the Chaldee paraphrast calls her by a word which signifies a banishment of Archelaus to Vienne in Gaul, and the annexation woman who keeps a public house, without any mark of infamy. of Judæa to the province of Syria, was sent from Rome, as Since those apostles cite her as an eminent example of faith in governor of Syria, to take a census of the whole province with God, and have ranked her with Abraham, we shall be justified a view to taxation. (Compare Acts v. 37.) This census he com- in putting the most charitable construction upon the appellation pleted, A. D. 8. This enrolment is alluded to in Luke ii. 2.; for given to her. an elucidation of which, see Vol. I. pp. 419, 420.

2. A poetical name of Egypt. (Isa. xxx. 7. li. 9. Psal. Lxxxvii. 4. lxxxix. 11.) The Hebrew word signifies proud ; and the

name seems to have been given to Egypt from the pride and inRABBATH.

solence of its princes and inhabitants. 1. RABBATH, RABBATH-Ammon, or RABBATH of the children Rains, early and latter, importance of, in Palestine, 24. of Ammon, afterwards called Philadelphia, the capital of the Rama, Ramah, or RAMATHAIM, was a small town or village Ammonites, was situated beyond Jordan. It was a place of in the tribe of Benjamin, about thirty miles north of Jerusalem : considerable note in the time of Moses. When David declared it is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. As it stopd in war against the Ammonites, his general Joab laid siege to Rab- a pass between the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, Baasha king bath-Ammon, where the brave Uriah lost his life, by a secret of Israel seized it, and began to fortify it, to prevent his subjects order given by this prince, that Uriah should be forsaken in a from passing that way into the kingdom of Judah. (1 Kings xv. place of danger. And when the city was reduced to the last 17. 21.). Here Nebuzaradan, the Chaldean general, disposed of extremity, David himself went thither, that he might have the his Jewish prisoners after their capital was taken, which occahonour of taking it. From this time it became subject to the sioned a great lamentation among the daughters of Rachel. (Jer. kings of Judah. Afterwards the kings of Israel became masters xl. 1–3. xxxi. 15.) Oriental geographers speak of this place of it, with all the rest of the tribes beyond Jordan. But towards as having formerly been the metropolis of Palestine; and Mr. the conclusion of the kingdom of Israel, Tiglath-pileser having Buckingham informs us that every appearance of its ruins even taken away a great part of the Israelites from that country, the now confirms the opinion of its having been once a considerable Ammonites were guilty of many cruelties against those who city. “ Its situation, as lying immediately in the high road from remained, in consequence of which the prophets Jeremiah and Jaifa to Jerusalem, made it necessarily a place of great resort • Ezekiel pronounced very severe prophecies against Rabbath, the land, from the fruitfulness of the country around it, it must have RE

RE peen equally important as a military station or a depôt for sup- Every one knows the celebrated mi acle of the passage over plies, and as a magazine for the collection of such articles of the Red Sea, when God opened this sea, dried it up, and made commerce as were exported from the coast. In its present state the Israelites pass through it, dry shod, to the number of 600,000, the town of Ramah is about the size of Jaffa, in the extent actu- without reckoning old men, women, or children. The rabbins, ally occupied. The dwellings of the last, however, are crowded and many of the ancient fathers, relying on Psal. cxxxvi. 13. together around the sides of a hill, while those of Ramah are (to him which divided the Red Sea into parts), have maintained scattered widely over the face of the level plain on which it that the Red Sea was so divided as to make twelve passages; stands. The style of building here is that of high square houses, that each of the twelve tribes passed through a different passage. with flattened domes covering them: and some of the old ter- But other authors have advanced that, Moses having lived long raced roofs are fenced around with raised walls, in which are near the Red Sea, in the country of Midian, had observed that seen pyramids of hollow earthenware pipes, as if to give air and it kept its regular ebbing and flowing like the ocean ; so that, light, without destroying the strength of the wall itself. The taking the advantage of the time of the ebb, he led the Hebrews inhabitants are estimated at little more than five thousand per- over; but the Egyptians not knowing the nature of the sea, and sons, of whom about one third are Christians of the Greek and rashly entering it just before the return of the tide, were all Catholic communion, and the remaining two-thirds Mohamme- swallowed up and drowned, as Moses relates. Thus the priests dans, chiefly Arabs; the men of power and the military being of Memphis explained it, and their opinion has been adopted by Turks, and no Jews residing there. The principal occupation a great number of moderns, particularly by the learned critic and of the people is husbandry, for which the surrounding country philologer, John David Michaelis, who in the queries which he is highly favourable; and the staple commodities produced by sent to the Danish traveller M. Niebuhr, while in Egypt, proposed them are corn, olives, oil, and cotton, with some soap and coarse to him to inquire upon the spot, “ Whether there were not some cloth made in the town. There are still remains of some noble ridges of rocks where the water was shallow, so that an army, at subterranean cisterns at Ramah, not inferior either in extent or particular times, may pass over? Secondly, Whether the Etesian execution to many of those at Alexandria : they were intended winds, which blow strongly all summer from the north-west, could for the same purpose, namely, to serve in time of war as reser- not blow so violently against the sea as to keep it back on a heap voirs of water." (Buckingham's Travels in Palestine, p. 168.) so that the Israelites might have passed without a miracle ?” anc

Ramoth, a famous city in the mountains of Gilead, often a copy of these queries was left also for Mr. Bruce, to join his called Ramoth-gilead, sometimes Ramoth, and sometimes Ramoth- inquiries likewise, his observations on which are excellent. “I mizpeh, or the Watch-tower. (Josh. xiii. 26.). This city be- must confess," says he,“ however learned the gentlemen were longed to the tribe of Gad. It was assigned to the Levites, and who proposed these doubts, I did not think they merited any at. was one of the cities of refuge beyond Jordan. (Deut. iv. 43. tention to solve them. This passage is told us by Scripture to Josh. xx. 8. xxi. 38.) It became celebrated during the reigns of be a miraculous one; and, if so, we have nothing to do with the later kings of Ísrael, and was the occasion of several wars natural causes. If we do not believe Moses, we need not believe between these princes and the kings of Damascus, who had con- the transaction at all, seeing that it is from his authority alone quered it, and from whom the kings of Israel endeavoured to we derive it. If we believe in God, that he made the sea, we regain it. (1 Kings xxii. 3–36. 2 Kings viii. 28, 29. 2 Chron. must believe he could divide it when he sees proper reason ; and xxii. 5.) Jehoram, king of Judah, was dangerously wounded at of that he must be the only judge. It is no greater miracle to the siege of this place ; and Jehu, the son of Nimshi, was here divide the Red Sea than to divide the river Jordan. If the Eteanointed king of Israel by a young prophet sent by Elisha. (2 sian winds, blowing from the north-west in summer, could keep Kings ix, 1–10.) Ahab, king of Israel, was killed in battle up the sea as a wall on the right, or to the south, of fifty feet with the Syrians before this place. (2 Chron. xviii. 3, 4, 5. et high, still the difficulty would remain of building the wall on the seq.) It is now called Ramza.

left hand or to the north. Besides, water standing in that posiREADING, oriental mode of, 183,

tion for a day must have lost the nature of fluid. Whence Reaping, notice of, 177.

came that cohesion of particles which hindered that wall to esREBELS' BEATING, what, 67.

cape at the sides? This is as great a miracle as that of Moses. RECEPTION of visiters, 169, 170.

If the Etesian winds had done this once, they must have repeated RECHABITES, account of, 116.

it many a time before and since, from the same causes.

Yet Recorder, office of, 47.

Diodorus Siculus (lib. iii. p. 122.) says the Troglodytes, the inRECREATIons of the Jews, 189, 190.

digenous inhabitants of that very spot, had a tradition from father Red Sea, that branch of the southern sea which interposes to son, from their very earliest ages, that once this division of itself between Egypt on the west, Arabia Felix and some part the sea did happen there; and that, after leaving its bottom some of Arabia Petræa on the east, while its northern extremities time dry, the sea again came back, and covered it with great touch on the coast of Edom. Edom, it is well known, in the fury.! The words of this author are of the most remarkable Hebrew tongue signifies Rèd, and was the name given to Esau kind: we cannot think this heathen is writing in favour of revefor selling his birthright for a mess of pottage. Both the lation : he knew not Moses, nor says a word about Pharaoh and country which was possessed by his posterity (Gen. xxv. 30. his host; but records the miracle of the division of the sea in xxxvi. 31–40.), and the sea which was contiguous to it, were words nearly as strong as those of Moses, from the mouths of called after his name ; but the Greeks, not understanding the unbiassed, undesigning pagans. Were all these difficulties surreason of the appellation, translated it into their tongue, and mounted, what could we do with the pillar of fire? The answer called it OnL001 Epubpx, whence the Latins termed it Mure is, We should not believe it. Why, then, believe the passage at Rubrum, and we the Red Sea. It is also called Yam Suph, all? We have no authority for the one but what is for the other: “ the weedy sea,” in several passages (Num. xxxiii. 10. Psal. cvi. it is altogether contrary to the ordinary nature of things; and, 9., &c.) which are improperly rendered "the Red Sea.” Some if not a miracle, it must be a fable.” (Vol. ii. pp. 135—137.) learned authors have supposed that it was so named from the Still, such skeptical queries have their use; they lead to a quantity of weeds in it. But Mr. Bruce, who had seen and ex- stricter investigation of facts, and thereby tend strongly to conamined the whole extent of it, states that he never saw a weed firm the veracity of the history they meant to impeach. Thus it of any sort in it; and remarks that a narrow gulf, under the appears, from the accurate observations of Niebuhr and Bruce, immediate influence of monsoons blowing from contrary points that there is no ledge of rocks running across the gulf any where six months each year, would have too much agitation to produce to afford a shallow passage. And the second query, about the such vegetables, seldom found but in stagnant water, and sel- Etesian or northerly wind, is refuted by the express mention of domer, if ever, found in salt water. He is of opinion that the a strong easterly wind blowing across, and scooping out a dry sea derives its name from the large trees, or plants, of white coral, passage, not that it was necessary for Omnipotence to employ it perfectly in imitation of plants on land. One of these, which he there as an instrument, any more than at Jordan ; but it seems saw, from a root nearly central, threw out ramifications measur- to be introduced in the sacred history by way of anticipation, to ing twenty-six feet in diameter every way. (Travels, vol. ii. p. exclude the natural agency that might in after times be employed 138.). This seems to be the most probable solution that has for solving miracles; and it is remarkable that the monsoon in been' hitherto proposed of the name. The tides in this sea are the Red Sea blows the summer half of the year from the north, but moderate." At Suez, the difference between high and low the winter half from the south, neither of which could produce water did not exceed from three to four feet, according to Niebuhr's observations on the tides in that gulf , during the years however, that the ground was bare

to the very bottom of the gulf” jä

1 Diodorus attributes this to an "extraordinary high tide.” The fact, 1762 and 1763. (Voyage en Arabie, p. 363.)

admitted by this curious tradition.

RE

RH the miracle in question. Wishing to diminish, though not to Region round about Jordan, notice of, 33. deny the miracle, Niebuhr adopts the opinion of those who con- REHOBOAM, the son and successor of Solomon. In his reign tend for a higher passage, near Suez. “For," says he, “the the kingdom of David was divided, the tribes of Judah and Ben. miracle would be less if they crossed the sea there, than near jamin retaining their allegiance to Rehoboam, while the other Bedea. But whosoever should suppose that the multitude of ten tribes became subject to Jeroboam the son of Nebat. Rehothe Israelites could be able to cross it here, without a prodigy, boam died after reigning 17 years, and was succeeded on the would deceive himself; for even in our days no caravan passes throne of Judah by his son ABIJAH or ABIJAM, B.c. 954, that way to go from Cairo to Mount Sinai, although it would RELIGION, corruptions of, among the Jews, 135–143. Parshorten the journey considerably. The passage would have been ticularly in the time of Christ, 148–150. naturally more difficult for the Israelites some thousands of years Rempuan, a Coptic name of Saturn, who was also worshipback, when the gulf was probably larger, deeper, and more ex- ped under the name of Moloch. (Acts vii. 43. Compare tended towards the north ; for in all appearance the water has p. 137.) retired, and the ground near this end has been raised by the sands RENDING of garments, a sign of mourning, 159. of the neighbouring desert.” (p. 354.) But it sufficiently ap- REPharm or Rapharm, the sons of Rapha (2 Sam. xxi. 16. 18. pears, even from Niebuhr's own statement, that the passage of Heb. and marginal rendering), a Canaanitish race of giants that the Israelites could not have taken place near Suez: for, 1. He dwelt beyond the Jordan (Gen. xiv. 5. xv. 20. Josh. xvii. 15.), evidently confounded the town of Kolsum, the ruins of which he from whom the gigantic Og king of Bashan was descended. places near Suez, and where he supposed the passage to be made (Deut. iii. 11.) In a wider sense, this word seems to have inwith the bay of Kolsum, which began about forty-five miles lower cluded all the giant tribes of Canaan. (Deut. ii. 11. 20.) In down; as Mr. Bryant has satisfactorily proved from the astrono- subsequent times, the sons of Rapha appear to have been men mical observations of Ptoleny and Ulug Beigh, made at Heroum, of extraordinary strength among the Philistines. (2 Sam. xxi. the ancient head of the gulf. (See his treatise on the Plagues 16. 18. marg. rend.) The VALLEY OF THE REPHẢIM (for an of Egypt, pp. 371, 372.)

account of which see pp. 31, 32.) derives its name from this 2. Instead of crossing the sea at or near Ethan, their second tribe. station, the Israelites “turned" southwards along the western REPHIDIM, a station or encampment of the Israelites in the shore; and their third station at Pihahiroth, or Bedea, was at desert (Exod. xvii. 1.), where the Israelites were miraculously least a full day's journey below Ethan, as Mr. Bryant has satis- supplied with water out of the rock of MERIBAH. It is an infactorily proved from Scripture. (Exod. xiv. 2.) And it was sulated rock, at the foot of Mount Sinai, about six yards square, this unexpected change in the direction of their march, which according to Dr. Shaw, but Mr. Carne says that it is about five intimated an intention in the Israelites to quit Egypt; and the yards long, five in height, and four yards wide. This rock, apparently disadvantageous situation in which they were then which is of granite, is in Deut. viii

. 15. rightly called a rock of placed, “entangled in the land, and shut in by the wilderness," flint, in consequence of its hardness: it lies, tottering, as it with a deep sea in front, the mountains of Attaka on the sides, were, and loose, near the middle of the valley, and seems forand the enemy in their rear, that tempted the Egyptians to pur- merly to have been a part or cliff of Mount Sinai. The waters sue them through the valley of Bedea, by the direct road from which gushed out, and the stream which fowed withal (Psal. vii. Cairo; who “overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Piha- 8.21.), have hollowed across one corner of this rock a channel hiroth, opposite to Baalzephon.” (Exod. xiv. 249.)

about two inches deep, and twenty inches wide. There are also Niebuhr wonders how the Israelites could suffer themselves to four or five fissures, one above the other, on the face of the rock, he brought into such a disadvantageous situation, or be led blind- each of them about a foot and a half long, and a few inches fold by Moses to their apparent destruction : “ one need only deep, “the lively and demonstrative evidence of their having travel with a caravan,” says he "which meets with the least been formerly so many fountains.” A remarkable circumstance obstacle, viz, a small torrent, to be convinced that the Orientals is, that they run along the breadth of the rock, and are not sent do not let themselves be led, like fools, by their Caravan Baschi," downwards: they are more than a foot asunder. Neither art or leader of the caravan. (p. 350.) But the Israelites went out nor chance could be concerned, says Dr. Shaw, in the contriof Egypt with “ a high hand,” though led by Moses, yet under vance: inasmuch as every circumstance points out to us a mirathe visible guidance and protection of "The Lord God of the cle; and, in the same manner with the rent in the rock of CalHebrews," who went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, vary at Jerusalem, never fails to produce the greatest seriousness and by night in a pillar of fire; and who, for their encourage and devotion in all who see it. (Shaw's Travels, vol. ii. pp. 109, ment to enter the passage of the sea miraculously prepared for 110. Carne's Letters, pp. 198, 199.) them, removed the cloud which went before the camp of Israel Restitution, in what cases enjoined, 65. hitherto, and placed it behind them. (Exod. xiv. 8—20.) “And RETALIATION among the Jews, 64, 65. it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of ReueEx, the eldest son of Jacob and Leah, gave his name to Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to the one, but gave one of the twelve tribes of Israel; for the canton assigned to light by night to the other; so that the one came not near the which, see p. 16. other all the night.” (Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. RETenues of the kings of Israel and Judah, 46. Of the Lei. pp. 388—391.) The preceding elaborate view of this subject vites, 112. And of the priests, 113. furnishes a most clear and satisfactory answer to the cavils of REVERENCE of the Jews for their temple, 100, 101. Of infemodern infidels.

riors to superiors, 169. Various ancient traditions among the heathen historians attest Rezin, king of Syria, an able prince who knew how to avail the reality of the miraculous passage of the Red Sea by the Is- himself of the divisions of his neighbours, in order to aggrandize raelites: to which we may add that it is manifest from the text himself. He formed an alliance with Pekah king of Israel against of Moses and other sacred authors, who have mentioned this Ahaz king of Judah, whose dominions he invaded ; and, after miraculous passage, that no other account is supportable but that obtaining considerable advantages, he took a great number of which supposes the Hebrews to cross over the sea from shore to prisoners, whom he sent to Damascus, and then proceeded to lay shore, in a vast space of dry ground which was left void by the siege to Jerusalem, in which he failed. (2 Kings xv. 37. xvi. 5. waters at their retiring. (Exod. xiv. 16, 17, &c.) To omit the 2 Chron. xxxviii. 5.) This check, which had been foretold by numerous allusions in the book of Psalms, Isaiah says (lxiii, 11, Isaiah (vii. 1—8.), frustrated the project formed by the allied &c.) that the Lord divided the waves before his people, that he princes for overthrowing the dynasty of David. Rezin was more conducted them through the bottom of the abyss, as a horse is successful in Idumæa, where he made himself master of the port led through the midst of a field. Habakkuk says (iii

. 15.), that of Elath on the Red Sea; an important conquest which gave the Lord made himself a road to drive his chariot and horses him the command of the neighbouring country and sea (2 Kings across the sea, across the mud of great waters. Lastly, in the xvi. 6.) His successes were of short duration ; in the following apochryphal book of Wisdom we read (xix. 7, 8. x. 17, 18.), that year, agreeably to the predictions of Isaiah (viii

. 4. ix. 10.), Dathe dry land appeared all on a sudden in a place where water mascus was taken by Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, who car was before ; that a free passage was opened in a moment through ried its inhabitants into bondage, and put to death Rezin, with the midst of the Red Sea ; and that a green field was seen in the whom the kingdom of Syria terminated. midst of the abyss.

Rhegium, a maritime city, near the south-western extremity REFUGE, cities of, 16.

of Italy, opposite to Messina in Sicily. Here St. Paul stayed one REGAL GOVERNMENT of the Israelites and Jews, 42–46. Its day, on his first voyage to Rome. (Acts xxviii. 13.) It is now duration, 49,

called Rheggio.

SA

SA Raones, an island and city in the Levant, which is said to the south-east side of the island, and was afterwards called have derived its name from the abundance of roses which grew Constantia. there. When St. Paul went to Jerusalem, A. 1. 58, he went from SALEM Miletus to Coos, from Coos to Rhodes, and thence to Patara in 1. A name of the city of JERUSALEM. (Psal. lxxvi. 2.) Lycia. (Acts xxi. 1.)

2. Or Salim, a place on the banks of the Jordan, where John Rıblar, a city of Syria, in the country of Hamath, which, baptized. (John iji. 23.) Its situation cannot now be ascertained according to Jerome, was the same with what was afterwards SALMONE, a maritime city and promontory, which forms the called Antioch in Syria. It was very pleasantly situated; and eastern extremity of the island of Crete. (Acts xxvii. 7.) here Pharaoh-Necho stopped, on his return from the battle of SALOME, the wife of Zebedee, and the mother of the apostles Megiddo. (2 Kings xxiii. 33.)

James and John. She was one of those who attended Jesus RIMMON signifies a pomegranate tree.

Christ on his journeys, and ministered to him. (Mark xv. 40. 1. An idol of the Syrians, supposed to be the Jupiter of the xvi. 1. Matt. xx. 20. xxvii. 56.) ancients, or, according to some writers, the sun. (2 Kings v. 8.) Salt, covenant of, 81.

2. A city in the tribe of Simeon, on the southern boundary of SALT SEA, account of, 27, 28. Palestine. (Josh. xv. 32. xix. 7. Zech. xiv. 10.)

Salt, Vale of, notice of, 31. 3. A rock not far from Gibeah, whither the children of Benja- SALUTATIONS, forms of, 168, 169. min retreated after their defeat. (Judg. xx. 45. 47. xxi. 13.) Hi- Sam or SAMIEL, wind, notice of, 40. ther also Saul and his men went. (1 Sam. xiv. 2.)

SAMARIA, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Israel, is very 4. RIMMON-METHOAR (a round pomegranate), a city in the frequently mentioned in the Old Testament: it was situated on tribe of Zebulon (Josh. xix. 13), which is supposed to be the same a hill which derived its name from Semer or Shemer, of whom as RIMMOXO, which is mentioned in 1 Chron. vi, 62.

it was purchased by Omri king of Israel, B. c. 921, who made 5. RIMMOS-PAREZ (split pomegranate), the sixteenth encamp-it the seat of his government, and called it Samaria (Heb. Shomment of the Israelites in the wilderness. (Num. xxxiii. 19.) eron), from its former owner. By his successors it was greatly Rings worn by the Jews, 157, 158.

improved and fortified; and, after resisting the repeated attacks Rivers of the Holy Land, 25, 26.

of the kings of Assyria, it was destroyed by Shalmaneser, B. C. ROGEL or Ex-ROGEL, fountain of, 28.

717, who reduced it to a heap of stones. (Micah i. 6. 2 Kings ROME, the metropolis of the world during the period comprised xvii. 6.) Samaria seems to have arisen again from its ruins in the New Testament history. According to the chronology of during the reign of Alexander, B. c. 549, after whose death it Archbishop Usher, this city was founded by Remus and Romu- was subject to the Egyptian and Syrian kings, until it was lus, A. M. 3966 of the Julian period, in A. m. 3256, B.c. 748, besieged, taken, and rased to the ground by the high-priest Hyrtowards the close of the reign of Hezekiah, king of Judah. This canus, B. c. 129 or 130. It was afterwards wholly rebuilt

, and city is so well known, that it is needless to give any account of considerably enlarged by Herod, surnamed the Great, who gave it here. The later sacred authors of the Old Testament have it the name of Sebaste, and erected a temple there in honour of not mentioned it; but it frequently occurs in the books of the the emperor Augustus (Sebastos) Cæsar. The situation is exMaccabees and in the New Testament. Saint Peter (1 Ep. v. tremely beautiful and strong by nature. It stands on a fine, 13.) has denoted it by the figurative name of Babylon. The large, insulated hill, surrounded by a broad deep valley; which church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth is environed by four hills, one on each side, that are cultivated you. Saint John, in his Revelation (xiv. 8. xvi. 19.

xvii. 5. xviii. with terraces up to the top, sown with grain, and (as the valley 2. 10. 21.), points it out by the same name, and describes it in also is) planted with fig and olive trees. The hill of Samaria such a manner as can only agree to Rome: 1. By its command likewise rises in terraces to a height equal to any of the adjoining over all nations; 2. By its cruelty towards the saints; and, 3. mountains. The population of Samaria, in 1819, was computed By its situation upon seven hills. (Rev. xvii. 9.) St. Paul came by Mr. Rae Wilson at nearly 10,000 souls, composed of Turks, twice to Rome: first, A. D. 61, when he appealed to Cæsar; and, Arabs, and Greeks, and a few Jews of the Samaritan sect

. secondly, A. D. 65, a year before his martyrdom, which happened (Travels, vol. i. p. 377. Third edition.) For a notice of the in A. n. 66. Account of the judicature of the Romans, 57–59. idols worshipped in Samaria during the captivity, see p. 139. Roman tribunals, 60. Powers of the Roman procurators, 52. And for an account of the tenets, &c. of the Samaritans, see Roman mode of computing time, 72, 73. Discipline and military pp. 147, 148. triumphs, 93—95. Tribute reluctantly paid to the Romans by SAMARIA, Mountains of, p. 29. Region of, 18. the Jews, 60.

Samos, an island of the Archipelago on the coast of Asia Roofs of houses, 153.

Minor. The Romans wrote to the governor of Samos in favour RUDDER-BANDS, nature of, 188.

of the Jews, in the time of Simon Maccabæus, A. M. 3685, Rural AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY of the Jews, 174–180. B. C. 139. (1 Macc. xv. 23.) St. Paul went ashore on the same

Ruth, a Moabitish woman, who returned with her mother-in- island, as he was going to Jerusalem, A. D. 58. (Acts xx. 15.) law Naomi to the land of Israel, and became the wife of Boaz. SAMOTHRACIA, an island of the Ægean Sea. St. Paul depart(Matt. i. 5.) See an analysis of the Book of Ruth, p. 218. ing from Troas for Macedonia, arrived first at Samothracia, and

then landed in Macedonia. (Acts xvi. 11.) It was anciently

called Dardana and Leucania, and afterwards Samos; and in SABBATH of the Jews, how observed, 121, 122.

order to distinguish it from the other Samos, the epithet Thracian SABBATICAL YEAR, account of, 128.

was added, which passed into the name Samothrace. SABTECHAI, a people or country of the Cushites ; most pro- Samson or SAMPSON, the thirteenth judge of Israel, the son of bably Sabatha or Sabota, a considerable city of Arabia Felix, Manoah, of the tribe of Dan. Before his birth he was conseaccording to Pliny (Nat. Aist. I. vi. c. 28. $ 32.), the principal crated to be a Nazarite, and was chosen to deliver the Israelites city of the Atramites, a tribe of Sabæans, on the Red Sea. from the yoke of the Philistines. He was celebrated for his vast

SACKBUT, an ancient musical instrument, used in Chaldæa, physical strength, and for the bravery and success with which he supposed to consist of four strings, and to emit a shrill sound. defended his country against its enemies. (Judg. xiii. xvi.)

SACRAMENT of the Lord's Supper, points of resemblance be- He judged the Israelites twenty years. tween and the Jewish Passover, 125.

SAMUEL, a celebrated Hebrew prophet, the son of Elkanah SACRED OBLIGATIOxs and Duties of the Jew 129—134. and Hannah, of the tribe of Levi. Having been consecrated to SACRED Persons, among them, account of, 108–116. God from his birth, he received divine communications even in SACRED PLACES, account of, 95—107.

his childhood : he was the fifteenth and last judge of the IsraelSACRED Tungs, account of, 116–120.

ites. By divine direction, he converted the Hebrew commonSacred TIMES and Seasons, account of, 121-129.

wealth into a kingdom; and anointed Saul as the first king, and SACRIFICES of the Jews, divine origin of, 117. Selection of, afterwards David. He is supposed to have been the first instiand how offered, 117, 118. Different kinds of, 118-120. tutor of schools for the education of the sons of the prophets. Their fitness and propriety, 120, 121. Unbloody sacrifices, 119. He died at the age of ninety-eight years, about two years before Allusions to the sacrifices of the heathens explained, 139–142. the death of Saul. For an analysis of the two books of Samuel, SADDUCEES, sect of, tenets of, 145, 146.

see pp. 218–220.; and on the appearance of Samuel to Saul at Sagan, or substitute of the high priest, 113.

Endor, see Vol. I. p. 95.
Salamis, the chief city of the island of Cyprus, where the SANCTUARY of the temple described, 100
Gospel was early preached. (Acts xiii. 5.) It was situated on SANDALS of the Hebrews, notice of, 157.

SE

SH SANHEDRIN, or great council of the Hebrews, powers and 2. A mountain upon the frontiers of the tribes of Judah and functions of, 54, 55.

Dan. SAPPhina, the wife of Ananias, who, together with him, was SEIRATH, the place where Ehud stopped after the death of struck with instant death, for attempting to deceive God the Holy Eglon king of Moab. It is supposed to have been near Bethel. Spirit. (Acts v. 1. 3. 9, 10.)

(Judg. iii. 26.) Sarah, the wife of Abraham, and the mother of Isaac, whom SELAI, the capital of the Edomites, which Amaziah captured, she bore at an age when she could little expect such a blessing. and changed its name into Joktheel. It is supposed to have de(Gen. xxi.). She died at the advanced age of 127 years, at Kir- rived its name (which signifies a rock) from its rocky situation, jath-arba, afterwards called Hebron. (Gen. xxiii. 1. 9.) and to have been the city afterwards called Petra in Arabia.

Sardis, the metropolis of the region of Lydia, in Asia Minor, (2 Kings xiv. 7.) was situated at the foot of Mount Tmolus, which commands an Seleucia, a fortified city of Syria, situated on the sea-coast, extensive view over the surrounding country. It was celebrated a little north of the mouth of the river Orontes: it derived its for the great opulence and for the voluptuous and debauched name from Seleucus Nicator, and was sometimes called Seleucia manners of its inhabitants. Considerable ruins still attest the ad mare, to distinguish it from seven or eight other cities in ancient splendour of this once celebrated capital of Cresus and Syria of the same name. (Acts xiii, 4.) the Lydian kings, which is now reduced to a wretched village SELEUCIDE, area of, 77, and note 4. called Sart, consisting of a few mud huts occupied by Turkish Self-INTERDICTIon, vows of, 130. herdsmen.“ A great portion of the ground once occupied by the Senate of Seventy in the wilderness, notice of, 42. imperial city is now a smooth grassy plain, browsed over by the SENNACHERIB, a king of Assyria, who invaded the kingdom sheep of the peasants, or trodden by the camels of the caravan; of Judah in the reign of Hezekiah. See Assyria, p. 410. col. 2. and all that remains to point out the site of its glory are a few Sentences (Judicial), how performed among the Jews, 57. disjointed pillars, and the crumbling rock of the Acropolis.” No SEPharad, a country or place where some of the Jewish capChristians reside on the spot : two Greek servants of a Turkish tives dwelt. In the Latin Vulgate, it is rendered Bosphorus ; miller, in 1826, were the only representatives of the church at in the Syriac and Chaldee versions, and by modern Hebrew Sardis, the present state of which affords a most striking illus- commentators, it is rendered Spain. Both these explanations, tration of the accomplishment of the prophetic denunciations says Gesenius, are undoubtedly false; but nothing more certain against the church in that city. (Emerson's Letters from the can be substituted in their place. Ægean, vol. i. pp. 201, 216–218; Hartley's Visit, Miss. Regis- SEPuanvin, a city under the government of the Assyrians, ter, 1827, p. 326.; Arundell's Visit, pp. 176—182.)

probably situated in Mesopotamia ; whence colonists were sent SAREPTA, or ZAREPHATA (Luke iv. 26.), was a city in the into the country of Samaria. (2 Kings xvii. 24.) territory of Sidon, between that city and Tyre. It was the place SEPULCHRES of the Jews, account of, 200, 201. where the widow dwelt to whom the prophet Elijah was sent, SEPULTURE, rights of, 199, 200. and was preserved by her cruise of oil and barrel of meal that SERAB, nature of, 35, and note 3. wasted not. (1 Kings xvii. 9.) It is now a small village called Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul or governor of CyZarfa.

prus, who was led by the preaching of Paul and Barnabas to SARGON (Isa. xx. 1.), a king of Assyria, whom some critics embrace the Christian faith. (Acts xiii. 7.) and expositors have supposed to have been the predecessor of SERPENT, Brazen, worshipped by the Jews, 136, 137. Sennacherib; while others have conceived him to have been Servants, different kinds of, mentioned in the Scriptures, Sennacherib himself.

168. How hired and paid in Judæa, 167. Saror or Sharox, a town adjoining to Lydda, which gave name Seti, the son of Adam and Eve, and father of Enos, was to the spacious and fruitful valley between Cæsarea and Joppa. born after the death of Abel. He lived 912 years. His posterity, Peter's miraculous healing of the paralytic Eneas at Lydda was who were distinguished from the descendants of Cain by the apthe means of bringing the inhabitants of Saron to the knowledge pellation of the sons of God, preserved the patriarchal religion of the Gospel. (Acts ix. 35.)

in its purity until the time of the deluge, after which it was Saul.

transmitted by the race of Shem. (1 Chron. i. 1. Luke iii. 1. 1. The son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, and the first Gen. iv. 25. v. 3. vi. 2.) king of Israel. In consequence of his disregarding the divine Shadow of Deata, Valley of, notice of, 34. note 3. commands, he was rejected by God, and David the son of Jesse SHALMANESER or SALMANESER king of Assyria. See Asanointed to be sovereign in his stead. Saul, after persecuting SYRIA, 410. col. 1. David for many years, was slain, together with his two sons, on Sharon, Vale of, notice of, 32. Mount Gilboa, fighting against the Philistines. (2 Sam. i.) On Shavey, Valley of, notice of, 31. the nature of his malady, see p. 196.

SHECHEM. See SICHEM, infra. 2. The Jewish name of the apostle Paul.

SHEEP-HUSBANDRY of the Jews, 175, 176. SCAPE-GOAT, typical reference of, 127.

SHEM or Sem, the second son of Noah. (Gen. v. 32.) ACSCEPTRÈ of the kings of Israel, 44.

cording to the genealogical table in Gen. x. the nations in southSceva, a Jew, one of the chief priests, whose seven sons went western Asia, as the Persians, Assyrians, Syrians, Hebrews, and from city to city, as many Jews did, to exorcise those who were part of the Arabians, were descended from him. possessed by demons. At Ephesus pretending to invoke the SIEMER, the name of the possessor of the mountain on which name of Jesus over the possessed, they were so severely treated the city of SAMARIA was erected by Omri king of Israel, to by these spirits for their presumption, that they were forced to flee whom he sold that territory for two talents of silver. From the out of the house naked and wounded. (Acts xix. 14–17.) circumstance of that city being called after his name, as well as

Schools of the Jews, particularly of the prophets, 184, 185. from the very small sum given by way of purchase money, it Military schools, 87.

has been conjectured that Shemer made it one of the conditions SCIENCES cultivated by the Jews, account of, 184–187. of sale that his name should be given to the new city. As the Scorpions of the desert, 34. note 2.

law of Moses prohibited the irredeemable cession of estates, and SCOURGING, punishment of, how inflicted among the Jews, 64, as Shemer's name is mentioned without any notice of his geneand among the Romans, ibid. Could not be inflicted on a Roman alogy, it is not improbable that he was descended from the Cacitizen, 58, 59.

naanites, whom the Israelites had not been able to expel. SCRIBES, account of, in the time of Moses, 42; and in the SHEMONE, ESRAH, or Jewish Prayers, 107, 108. time of Christ, 146. Royal scribes, 47.

SAENIR, Mount, 30. SCRIPTURES, reading of, in the Synagogues, 104, 105.

SHEPHERDS, duties of, 176. SEALS or SIGNETS of the Jews, 157, 158.

SHESHACA, another name for Babylon. (Jer. xxv. 26. li. 41.; Seas mentioned in the Scriptures. See pp. 26–28; and RED This is evident from the connection; but the derivation of the SEA, p. 446.

word is obscure. Calmet supposed Sheshach to be a pagan idol, Seasons of Palestine, 23—25.

worshipped at Babylon; and that Jeremiah gave to that city the Sects of the Jews, account of, 144-146.

name of its tutelar deity. SEED-TIME, notice of, 23.

SHIELDS of the Hebrews, and of the Romans, 87, 88. SEIR.

Shiloh, a celebrated city in the tribe of Ephraim, where the 1. Mountains of Seir, a ridge to the south of the Dead Sea, people assembled (Josh. xviii. 1.) to set up the tabernacle of the inclining towards Elath and Ezion-geber upon the Red Sea. congregation, which continued there until the time of Eli. Vol. II.

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