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ME MARRIAGES of the Jews, ceremonies of, 160—162. How dis- and successor Astyages reigned thirty-five years, A. M. 3409solved, 162, 163.

3444, B. c. 595—560. No particulars of his reign, however Martha, the sister of that Lazarus who was raised from the are recorded by profane historians, excepting his repulsing an dead by Jesus Christ. (Luke x. 38. 40, 41. John xi. 1, &c. invasion of his territories made by the Babylonian under Evilvii. 2.)

merodah, the son of Nebuchadnezzar. On the death of AstyMARY, the name of several women mentioned in the New ages, the crown devolved on his son Cyaxares II., whom the Testament; viz.

Scriptures call Darius the Mede, A. M. 3444, B. c. 560. Media 1. The Virgin-mother of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ : is now called Irak Adjami, and forms (as it also anciently did she was of the tribe of Judah, and of the royal house of David, form) part of the kingdom of Persia. as also was her husband Joseph. After the crucifixion of Christ, MEDICINE, state of, among the Jews, 194—197. who had commended her to the filial care of John, she found an MEDITERRANEAN SEA, 28. Plain of, 33. asylum in the house of the beloved apostle ; and when the dis- MEGIDDO, a fortified town of the tribe of Manasseh in the ciples and apostles were met together in an upper room, she territory of Issachar: it was formerly a royal city of the Caunited with them in prayer. (John xix. 25. 27. Acts i. 15.) naanites. The Water of Megiddo (Judg. v. 19.) is conjectured The time, place, and circumstances of her death are uncertain.' by Prof. Gesenius to be the river Kishon. Compare Judg. v. 21.

2. A woman of Magdala is supposed to be the same, out of and iv. 13. whom Christ expelled seven demons. (Luke vii. 36, 37.) She MELCHISEDEK, king of Salem (which was afterwards called was one of those who followed him and contributed to his main- Jerusalem), a contemporary of Abraham, whom he met with tenance.

refreshments on his return from the pursuit of Cherdorlaomer 3. One of the sisters of Lazarus. (Luke x. 39–42. John and his allies. (Gen. xiv.) After the manner of the patriarchal xi. 1, &c.)

ages, he appears, as the head of his tribe or family, to have dis4. The mother of James the Less and of Joses: she was charged the functions of priest, and to have offered sacrifices to sister to the mother of Jesus, and was the wife of Alpheus or the true God. By paying him tithes Abraham acknowledged Clopas. (Matt. xxvii. 56. 61. xxviii. 1. Mark xv. 40. 47. xvi. 1. him to be a priest of the Most High God. In Heb. vii. St. Paul John xix. 25.)

exhibits the resemblance between Melchisedek as the type and 5. The mother of the evangelist Mark, at whose house the Jesus Christ the antity pe. Christians in Jerusalem were wont to convene. (Acts xi. 12.) MELCOM, an Ammonitish idol. See p. 137.

6. Mary, an unknown disciple resident at Rome, to whom St. MELITA, or Malta, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, on Paul sent his salutation, with this eulogy-she bestowed much which St. Paul and his companions were wrecked. (Acts labour on us (Rom. xvi. 6.), or, on you, according to the Alex- xxviii. 1.) Mr. Bryant, Dr. Hales, and some other eminent andrian and other MSS., and the Syriac, Ethiopic, Coptic, and critics and commentators, have endeavoured to show that this Arabic versions. It is, therefore, uncertain, whether the apostle island was in the Adriatic Sea, on the coast of Illyricum,-the here speaks of services actually rendered to himself, or to the same which is now called Meleda. That Malta is the island believers at Rome.

intended by St. Luke will be evident from the following con Matthew, also called Levi, the son of Alpheus, was a col- siderations :—The apostle left the island in a ship of Alexandria, lector of the imposts when our Saviour called him to follow him which had wintered there, on her voyage to Italy; and after and be an apostie. He wrote the first Gospel; for an account of touching at Syracuse and Rhegium, landed at Puteoli

, thus sailwhich, see pp. 295–304.

ing in a direct course. The other Melita would be far out of Matthias, one of the disciples who was chosen by lot to fill the usual track from Alexandria to Italy; and, in sailing from it up the vacancy occasioned by the death of the traitorous apostle to Rhegium, Syracuse also would be out of the direct course. Judas Iscariot. (Acts i. 23. 26.) of his subsequent labours The fact that the vessel was tossed all night before the shipand history, nothing certain is known.

wreck in the Adriatic Sea, does not militate against the probaMEASURES of the Jews and other nations mentioned in the bility of its afterwards being driven upon Malta; because the Bible, tables of, 394.

name Adria (see page 403.) was applied to the whole Ionian MEAT-OFFERINGs, notice of, 119.

Sea, which lay between Sicily and Greece. (Robinson's LexiMECHANIC Arts of the Jews, 187.

con, voce MENTA.) MEDEBA, a city in the tribe of Reuben, situated in a plain of MEMORIALS of events, account of, 79, 80. the same name. (Num. xxi. 30. Josh. xiii. 9. 16.) According MEMPuis. See Nopy, p. 440. infra. to Eusebius, it was not far from Heshbon. Here Joab gained a MENAHEM, the sixteenth king of Israel: he murdered the memorable victory over the Ammonites and Syrians. (i Chron. usurper Shallum, and in his turn usurped the throne. He was xix. 7—14.) According to Isa. xv. 2. it afterwards belonged to a wicked and cruel prince, who followed the impious example Moab.

of Jeroboam I. He died after reigning about ten years. Media (Acts ii. 9.) was a vast region of Asia, having on the MENI, or the Moon ; a Syrian idol, worshipped in Palestine north the Caspian Sea, on the west Armenia and Assyria, on during the time of the prophet Isaiah. See p. 137. the south Persia, on the east Hyrcania and Parthia, It had its MEPHILOSHETH, a son of Jonathan, whom David took under name from Madai the son of Japhet, mentioned in Gen. x. 2. his protection, when he was peaceably seated on his throne. In the Babylonian captivity, the Jews were carried captive into MERCURY, in heathen mythology, the son of Jupiter and Assyria, and placed in the cities of the Medes. (2 Kings xvii. Maia. He was the fabled patron of eloquence on which account 6. and xviii

. 11.) Hence we find many of them and their prose- the people of Lystra supposed Paul to be Mercury in disguise, lytes at Jerusalem, when the Holy Ghost fell on the apostles. Acts xiv. 12.), the god of travellers, shepherds, &c. &c., and the The Medes or Medians were subject to the Assyrian monarchs conductor of the souls of the dead into the infernal regions. until the reign of Sardanapalus. Arbaces conspired against him, MERIBAH, the name of a spring in the desert of Sin, where compelled him to burn himself in Nineveh, and restored the the Israelites contended against God. (Num. xx. 13. 24.) See Medes to liberty, A. M. 3257, B. c. 747. He is considered as the REPAIDIM. founder of the Median monarchy, to which Justin assigns a du- MERODACH, the name of an idol of the Babylonians. Lowth ration of three hundred and fifty years, but Herodotus only one and other commentators (on Jer, i. 2.) suppose him to have been hundred and twenty years. (Justin. Hist. lib. i. c. 6. ed. Bipont. an ancient monarch of Babylon, whom his subjects deified and Herod. lib. i. cc. 95–107. ed. Oxon. 1809.) The last-mentioned worshipped. See BALADAN, p. 413. historian has recorded the names of only four Median sovereigns, MEROM, waters or lake of, notice of, 27. viz. Dejoces, Phraortes, Cyaxares, and Astyages. Diodorus Si- MESOPOTAMIA, a region of country, situated between the rivers culus (lib. ii. e. 32. edít. Bipont.) enumerates ten kings; Euse- Tigris and Euphrates, extending from the Persian Gulf to Mount hius and Syncellus, eight. Herodotus, however, acknowledges Taurus. The Hebrews-call it Aram Naharaim, or Aram of the that the Medes had enjoyed their liberty for some time before two rivers, because it was first peopled by Aram, father of the they elected Dejoces to be their king, A. M. 3294, B. c. 710. He Syrians, and is situated between two rivers. This country is caused the city of Ecbataħa to be built, and is said to have celebrated in Scripture as the first dwelling of men after the reigned fifty-three y ars. Phraortes his successor subjugated the deluge; and because it gave birth to Phaleg, Heber, Terah, Persians to the Median empire, and reigned twenty-two years, Abraham, Nahor, Sarah, Rebekah, Rachel, Leah, and to the A, M. 3347–3369, B. c. 657—635. Phraortes was succeeded sons of Jacob. Babylon was in the ancient Mesopotamia, tili by Cyaxares, who took Nineveh, and considerably enlarged the by vast labour and industry the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates Median empire, 4. m. 3369—3409, B. c. 626595. His son were reunited in one channel. The plains of Shinar were in MI

мо this country. It was often called Mesopotamia Syrie, because turah (Gen. xxv. 2.), whence we have reason to believe they still it was inhabited by the Aramæans, or Syrians; and sometimes retained the worship of the true God. It was in Arabia Petræa. Padan-aram (Gen. xxviii. 2.), or the plains of Aram: or Sede- MIDIANITES, commerce of, 187. Account of this people, -15. uram, the fields of Aram; to distinguish them from the barren MIGDOL, a frontier town of Lower Egypt, towards the Red and uncultivated mountains of the same country. Balaam, son Sea, between which and that sea the Israelites encamped. (Exod. of Beor, was of Mesopotamia. (Deut. xxiii. 4.) Chushan- xiv. 1.) It is there rendered by the Septuagint Magdolus; and rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, subdued the Hebrews. (Judg. there also Herodotus represents Nekus, or Pharaoh-Necho, as üü. 8.) Some Jews or proselytes from Mesopotamia were at gaining a great victory over the Jews, when Josiah was killed, mis. Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost. (Acts ii. 9.) For an inte taking Magdolus for Megiddo. Jeremiah represents it as belongresting description of the modern state of this country, see Mr. ing to Egypt Proper (xlvi. 14.), and in the neighbourhood of Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia. London, 1827, 2 vols. Tahpanes, or Daphnæ. 8vo.

MILETUS, a sea-port of Asia Minor, and a city of Ionia, where Messian, (Heb. ruup, that is, anointed,) the same as Christ Saint Paul delivered to the elders of the church of Ephesus that in Greek, the name given to Jesus our Saviour, by way of ex- affecting discourse which is recorded in Acts xx. 17-35. In cellence; he being anointed by his Father, to execute for us the this city were born Thales, one of the seven wise men, Anaxioffices of Prophet, Priest, and King, for all which offices persons mander his disciple, Timotheus the celebrated musician, and were anointed with oil, as being symbolical of the graces of the Anaximenes the philosopher. There was another Miletus in Holy Spirit, which qualified them for their respective duties. Crete, where St. Paul left Trophimus sick. (2 Tim. iv. 20.) Jesus, indeed, was not anointed with material oil, such as was Military Discipline of the Jews, 83–91. And of the used under the law, but with the Holy Ghost and with power. Romans, 93, 94. Military Sports, 190. A military order estab(Acts x. 38.) For a view of the predictions respecting the lished by David, 92. Messiah, see Vol. I. pp. 126—129. 453—458. As a Prophet, Mills, oriental, notice of, 154. whose office was to teach and reprove, Jesus has perfectly in- Mines of Palestine, 37. structed us in the will of God, and has shown himself to be the MIRAGE, effects of, 34, 35. and notes. teacher of the most sublime religion ever promulgated to man- MIRRORS of the Jews, notice of, 158. and note. kind : and he wrought numerous illustrious miracles in proof of MITYLENE was a large and beautiful city of the island of his divine mission. As a Priest, (whose office it was to offer Lesbos, where Pittacus, one of the wise men, Alcæus the poet, sacrifices for the expiation of the sins of the people, to bless Diophanes the orator, and Theophanes the historian, were born. them, and pray for them,) Jesus, who was both priest and The whole island was also called by that name ; as also Pentavictim, offered himself a sacrifice to God, in order to expiate our polis, from the five cities in it, viz. Issa or Antissa, Pyrrha, Eressins; for in him we have redemption through his blood, even sos, Arisba, Mitylene. If it had that name in St. Luke's time, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace. we may understand either the island or the city, when he says (Eph. i. 3.) He has blessed us, in turning every one of us from (Acts xx. 14.), We came to Mitylene. our sins: and he ever liveth to intercede for us with God as our Mizan, a small hill not far from Zoar, once a place of resort Mediator: for, if any man sin, we have an advocate with the for David ; and where it appears from Psal. xlii. 6. that he Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. (Rom. viii. 34. 1 Tim. ii. 5. experienced some peculiar manifestations of the divine goodness. 1 John ii. 1.) As a King,—not like the earthly sovereign whom Mizpau, a high place affording an extensive prospect. (Isa. xxi. the Jews expected to deliver them from the yoke of the Romans, 8.) Several places in Palestine bore this name, most probably which they detested, and who they believed) would make them from being situated on elevated grounds or hills; of which the the most powerful people upon earth,—Jesus reigns over souls following were the principal :illuminated by the light of his doctrine, and over hearts called 1. Mizpeu, a city in the tribe of Judah, to the south of Jeruto holiness. To his people, whom he hath purchased to himself salem (whence it was distant about eighteen or twenty miles): out of all the nations of the world, he gives for their government and to the north of Hebron. (Josh. xv. 33.) laws which are calculated to make them permanently happy 2. Mizpen, a place in Gilead beyond the Jordan. (Judg. x. 17. both here and hereafter ; he defends them against their spiritual xi. 34.) In Judg. xi. 29. it is called Mizpeh of Gilead, to disenemies, and he will judge them at the last day. His mediatorial tinguish it from other towns or places of the same name. kingdom commenced after his resurrection, when he entered into 3. Mizpen, a city in the tribe of Benjamin, where assemblies his glory (Luke xxiv, 26.): but it will not be eternal. The of the Israelites were often convened: here Samuel dwelt, and authority which he exercises as Mediator and Judge, is only a here Saul was anointed king. (Judg. xxi. 1. 1 Sam. vii. 5—7. x. temporary dispensation referring to the actual state of the church, 1. 17.) King Asa strengthened it for a frontier fortification and which will cease when he shall have fulfilled his office, that against the kingdom of Israel (1 Kings xv. 22. 2 Chron. xvi. 6.): is, after the last judgment. This Saint Paul teaches in a very and afterwards the governor Gadaliah had his residence here. striking and precise manner, which deserves the greatest atten- (Jer. xl. 6. compared with Neh. iii. 7. 19.) tion. See 1 Cor. xv, 24, 25, 28.

4. Mizpeu, a valley in the region of Mount Libanus, which METEMPSYCHOsis, doctrine of, believed by the Pharisees, 144. was inhabited by the Hivites. (Josh. xi. 3. 8.)

Micah, the sixth of the minor prophets, was contemporary Mızraim (Gen. x. 6.), a son of Ham, whose descendants are with Isaiah, Joel, Hosea, and Amos. See an analysis of his supposed to have peopled Egypt, which country derived its Hepredictions in pp. 270, 271.

brew name from him. Josephus makes the name to be of Coptic MICHMASH, a town in the tribe of Ephraim, about nine miles origin (Antiq. 1. i. c. 6. § 2.): but Gesenius observes that nothing from Jerusalem, to the east of Beth-Aven. Contiguous to this resembling it is found in the present remains of the Coptic lanplace was a ledge of sharp rocks, two of which, named Bozez guage, in which this country bears the name of Xnful. and Seneh, faced Michmash and Gibeah; the one north, the MOABites, a people descended from Moab, the incestuous offother south. One of these was ascended by Jonathan and his spring of Lot. Their habitation was beyond Jordan and the armour-bearer, who routed the garrison of the Philistines that Dead Sea, on both sides of the river Arnon. Their capital city defended the pass of Michmash. (1 Sam. xiii. 5. 23. xiv. was situated on that river, and was called Ar, or Rabbath-Moab, 4-13.) In the vicinity of this place were caves, thickets, rocks, that is, the capital of Moab, or Kirheres, that is, a city with brick and pits, in which the Israelites concealed themselves from their walls. This country was originally possessed by a race of giants, enemies. (1 Sam. xiii. 6.) Rocks and pits answer to the pre- called Emim. (Deut. ii. 11, 12.) The Moabites conquered them, sent appearance of the place to which tradition has given the and afterwards the Amorites took a part from the Moabites. name of Michmash; but no thickets or bushes are to be seen. Moses conquered that part which belonged to the Amorites and A succession of low and barren hills leads up to the higher one gave it to the tribe of Reuben. The Moabites were spared by of Michmash, which commands a fine and extensive view. Moses, for God had restricted him (Deut. ii. 9.): but there There are also several caves on the spot. (Carne's Letters, pp. always was a great antipathy between the Moabites and Israel330, 331.) At present, this place is distinguished by the name ites, which occasioned many wars between them. Balaam of Beer, signifying a well; most probably from its containing a seduced the Hebrews to idolatry and uncleanness, by means of very delicious spring of water. (Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. i. p. the daughters of Moab (Num. xxv. 1, 2.): and Balak, king of 364. Third edition.)

this people, endeavoured to prevail on Balaam to curse Israel. Midian, the land into which Moses fled from the Egyptians. God ordained that the Moabites should not enter into the congre(Acts vii. 29.) Here Jethro lived (Exod. xviii. 1.), and the gation of his people, even to the tenth generation (Deut. xxiii. 3.). jeople were descended from Madian the son of Abraham by Ke- because they had the inhumanity to refuse the Israelites a pas. Ο Ν

PA and rased the city about B. c. 606. (For a copious description cording to Berosus : and well accounts for his scriptural charac of ancient Nineveh, see Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, ter, that “ he was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians.” vol. i. pp. 448—450.) of this once celebrated city there are (Acts vii. 22.) Heliopolis was the Greek translation of Bethliterally no remains. Four mounds, the largest running north shemesh, “the house or city of the Sun," as it was called by and south, and the most southerly called after the prophet Jonah, Jeremiah, “Beth-shemesh, in the land of Egypt” (xliii. 13.), to whose tomb it is supposed to contain, exhibit all that can now distinguish it from another Beth-shemesh, in the land of Canaan. be traced of the metropolis of Asia. (See a description of them It was called Beth Aven, “ the house of vanity," or idolatry, by in Mr. Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. ii. 49–51. the Jews. (Ezek. xxx. 17.) 60.)

ONESIMUS, a Phrygian by birth, and the slave of Philemon, Nisroca, a Babylonish idol, notice of, 139.

from whom he fled; but being converted to Christianity through No, No-Amon, or No-Amun, the Thebes of ancient geogra- the preaching of St. Paul, he was the occasion of the apostle's phers, was the metropolis of Upper Egypt. It is mentioned in writing the admirable Epistle to Philemon. (Col. iv. 9. Philem. Jer. xlvi. 25. Ezek. xxx. 14–16. and Nahum iii. 8. In the '10.) Septuagint version of Ezekiel No is rendered A1.Itons, the city Ophir, a country whither Solomon sent a fleet, aided by the of Jupiter ; in Nahum No Amon is rendered Mepis Aupav. The subjects of Hiram king of Tyre, and from which they brought latter appears to be an etymological explanation of the word after back gold (1 Kings ix. 27, 28. 2 Chron. viii. 17, 18.), and also the Coptic. In that language NOH signifies a cord, or measur- almug trees and precious stones. (1 Kings x. 11.) Not fewer ing line, hence a portion measured out ; and No-Amon portio, than fiften or sixteen countries have been assigned, by various bossessio Amonis, that is, the seat of the god Amon, or the place commentators and critics, as the site of Ophir, but the most prowhere he was principally worshipped. (Jablonski Opuscula, bable is that of M. Huet, bishop of Avranches, who is of opinion tom. i. pp. 163–168. Gibbs's Hebr. Lex. p. 406.)

that it was on the eastern coast of Africa, by the Arabians termed Noal, the son of Lamech, and the father of the post-diluvian Zanguebar; that the name of Ophir was more particularly given world, was born A. m. 1056. Being the only righteous man of to the small country of Sofala on the same coast; and that Solohis time, he was preserved together with his family in the ark mon's fleet went out from the Red Sea, and from the port of during the deluge. (For a refutation of skeptical objections to Ezion-geber entered the Mediterranean by a canal of communiwhich, see Vol. I. pp. 75, 76.) Noah lived 350 years after that cation ; and doubling Cape Guardafui, coasted along Africa to catastrophe, dying at the age of 950 years, A. m. 2006. He left Sofala, where was found in abundance whatever was brought to three sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth, by whom the whole earth the Hebrew monarch by this voyage. The opinion of Huet is was overspread or peopled. (Gen. ix. 18, 19. x. 32.) The seven adopted by Mr. Bruce, who has confirmed it by various additional precepts of Noah, see p. 109. note 2.

considerations. Nopy, or MEMPHIS, a very celebrated city, the same as Thebes ORATORIES of the Jews described, 102, 103. and the capital of Egypt, until the Ptolemies removed the seat of ORATORY cultivated by the Jews, 186. government to Alexandria. By the modern Copts it is called OTHNIEL, the son of Kenaz of the tribe of Judah, and a relaMENO, MENOTD, and Noro: whence we may explain both the tion of Caleb, who gave him his daughter Achsah in marriage, Hebrew forms n (sopa) and np (mempu), and also the Greek on his taking Debir, otherwise called Kiriath-sepher, from the name Mejdis. Plutarch (de Isid. et Osirid. p. 639 ed. Stephani) Canaanites. (Josh. xv. 16—19.) After the Israelites had been interprets the name 'op povågzbav, from the Coptic meh, full, and oppressed for eight years by Chushan-rishathcum, king of Mesonouphi, good ; or TAPOV Oripides, from the Coptic mhau, a grave, potamia, Othniel was excited to levy an army against him. He and onphi, evezetas, a benefactor, as Osiris is called. (Jablonskii

, overcame the Mesopotamians, and delivered his countrymen, who Opusc. tom. i. pp. 137. 150. 179. tom. ii. p. 131. Gibbs’s Hebr. acknowledged him as regent or judge. During the forty years Lex. p. 381.) The prophets often mention this city; and pre- of his administration the Israelites remained faithful to their God dict the calamities which it was to suffer from the kings of Chal- and king, and consequently prospered. (Judg. ii. 8—11.) dæa and Persia, &c. (See Isa. xix. 13. Jer. xliv, 1. Hos. ix. 6. Ovens of the Jews, 154. Ezek. xxx. 13. 16.) Its ruins are very splendid. Jeremiah had foretold, ages before, that Noph should "be waste and desolate, without an inhabitant” (xlvi. 19.), and not a family or cottage is Painting, art of, among the Jews, 183. Painting of the eyesaid to remain.

lids practised by the Jewish women, 158. NosE-JEWELS of he Jewish women, notice of, 158.

PALACE, officers of, 47. Nuptial CEREMONIES of the Jews, 161, 162.

PALèstine, boundaries of, 14. 22. See Holy Land.
NURTURE of children, 163, 164,

PALM TREE, notice of, 36.
PALMYRA. See TADMON.

Palsy, variety of diseases so termed, 197.
Oaks, forest of, 36.

PAMPHYLIA, a province of Asia Minor, having to the south Oatus of the Hebrews, how tak 81, 82.

the Pamphylian Sea, mentioned Acts xxvii. 5., Cilicia to the OBADIAH, the fourth of the minor prophets: he probably was east, and Pisidia to the north (whence we find Saint Paul passcontemporary with Jeremiah. See pp. 281, 282.

ing through Pisidia to Pamphylia, Acts xiv. 24.), and from PamOBLATIONS, different kinds of, 119. Ordinary, ibid. Volun- phylia to Pisidia (Acts xiii. 14.), and Lycia to the west. The tary, ibid. Prescribed, 120, 121,

cities mentioned in the Scriptures as belonging to it are Perga OFFICERS (military) of the Jews, 85. And of the Romans, and Attalia. (Acts xiii. 13.) Here numerous Jews dwelt, and 92, 93.

hence those of Pamphylia are mentioned among those who apOFFICERS of the Palace, notice of, 47.

peared at Jerusalem at the day of Pentecost. (Acts ii. 10.) OFFICERS of the Synagogue, 104.

Paphos, the metropolis of the island of Cyprus (Acts xiii

. 4. OLIVES, Mount of, 19. Culture of Olives, 36. 179, 180. 6.), and the residence of the pro-consul. It was memorable for

OLYMPIC GAMES, allusions to, in the New Testament, 191—the impure worship paid to Venus, the tutelar deity of the island. 194. Qualifications and previous discipline of the candidates, Here Saint Paul struck blind Elymas the sorcerer, and converted 192. Foot-race, ibid. Rewards to the victors, ibid. Games in Sergius the pro-consul. The Jews dwelt here in great numbers. imitation of them instituted among the Jews, 190.

(ver. 6.) Twenty-five or thirty miserable huts are all that remain OMRI, general of the army of Elah, king of Israel, who was as- of this orde most distinguished city of Cyprus. See CYPRUS. sassinated by Zimri at the siege of Gibbethon, and was succeeded PARADISE, a word of Persian original, signifying a park, garby Omri. (1 Kings xvi.) He was a wicked prince, whose den, or inclosure, full of all the valuable productions of the earth. crimes surpassed those of his predecessors : he died at Samaria, The word passed into the Hebrew form p070 (Pardes), which B. c. 914, and was succeeded on the throne by his son Ahab. occurs in Sol. Song iv. 13. Neh. ii. 8. Eccles. ii. 5. ; and in On:

those passages it is rendered lapidsiges in the Septuagint version, 1. A pleasant valley in Syria of Damascus, now called Un, and denotes a garden of trees of various kinds, a pleasure park, and used proverbially for a pleasant vale.

a delightful grove. In the New Testament paradise is applied 2. OK, Aun, or HELIOPOLIS, a city of Egypt. The father-in-to the state of faithful souls between death and the resurrection ; law of Joseph was high-priest of On (Gen. xli. 45.); there ren- where, like Adam in Eden, they are admitted to immediate comdered Heliopolis, by the Septuagint version, and noticed also by munion with God in Christ, or to a participation of the tree of Herodotus; who says that “the Heliopolitans were reckoned life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God. (Luke xxiii. the wisest of the Egyptians.” This was the city of Moses, ac- | 43. Rev, ü. 7.) of this blessed state St. Paul had a foretaste. MI

MO this country. It was often called Mesopotamia Syrie, because turah (Gen. xxv. 2.), whence we have reason to believe they still it was inhabited by the Arameans, or Syrians; and sometimes retained the worship of the true God. It was in Arabia Petræa. Padan-aram (Gen. xxviii. 2.), or the plains of Aram; or Sede- MIDIANITES, commerce of, 187. Account of this people, 15. aram, the fields of Aram; to distinguish them from the barren MIGDOL, a frontier town of Lower Egypt, towards the Red and uncultivated mountains of the same country. Balaam, son Sea, between which and that sea the Israelites encamped. (Exod. of Beor, was of Mesopotamia. (Deut. xxiii. 4.) Chushan- xiv. 1.) It is there rendered by the Septuagint Magdolus; and rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, subdued the Hebrews. (Judg. there also Herodotus represents Nekus, or Pharaoh-Necho, as ii. 8.) Some Jews or proselytes from Mesopotamia were at gaining a great victory over the Jews, when Josiah was killed, mis. Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost. (Acts ii. 9.) For an inte taking Magdolus for Megiddo. Jeremiah represents it as belongresting description of the modern state of this country, see Mr. ing to Egypt Proper (xlvi. 14.), and in the neighbourhood of Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia. London, 1827, 2 vols. Tahpanes, or Daphnæ. 8vo.

MILETUS, a sea-port of Asia Minor, and a city of Ionia, where MESSIAH, (Heb. Froup, that is, anointed,) the same as Christ Saint Paul delivered to the elders of the church of Ephesus that in Greek, the name given to Jesus our Saviour, by way of ex- affecting discourse which is recorded in Acts xx. 17–35. In cellence; he being anointed by his Father, to execute for us the this city were born Thales, one of the seven wise men, Anaxioffices of Prophet, Priest, and King, for all which offices persons mander his disciple, Timotheus the celebrated musician, and were anointed with oil, as being symbolical of the graces of the Anaximenes the philosopher. There was another Miletus in Holy Spirit, which qualified them for their respective duties. Crete, where St. Paul left Trophimus sick. (2 Tim. iv. 20.) Jesus, indeed, was not anointed with material oil, such as was Military Discipline of the Jews, 83–91. And of the used under the law, but with the Holy Ghost and with power. Romans, 93, 94. Military Sports, 190. A military order estab(Acts x. 38.) For a view of the predictions respecting the lished by David, 92. Messiah, see Vol. I. pp. 126–129. 453—458. As a Prophet, Mills, oriental, notice of, 154. whose office was to teach and reprove, Jesus has perfectly in- Mines of Palestine, 37. structed us in the will of God, and has shown himself to be the MIRAGE, effects of, 34, 35. and notes. teacher of the most sublime religion ever promulgated to man- MIRRORS of the Jews, notice of, 158. and note. kind: and he wrought numerous illustrious miracles in proof of MITYLENE was a large and beautiful city of the island of his divine mission. As a Priest, (whose office it was to offer Lesbos, where Pittacus, one of the wise men, Alcæus the poet, sacrifices for the expiation of the sins of the people, to bless Diophanes the orator, and Theophanes the historian, were born. them, and pray for them,) Jesus, who was both priest and The whole island was also called by that name; as also Pentavictim, offered himself a sacrifice to God, in order to expiate our polis, from the five cities in it, viz. Issa or Antissa, Pyrrha, Eressins; for in him we have redemption through his blood, even sos, Arisba, Mitylene. If it had that name in St. Luke's time, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace. we may understand either the island or the city, when he says (Eph. i. 3.) He has blessed us, in turning every one of us from (Acts xx. 14.), We came to Mitylene. our sins: and he ever liveth to intercede for us with God as our Mizar, a small hill not far from Zoar, once a place of resort Mediator: for, if any man sin, we have an advocate with the for David ; and where it appears from Psal. xlii. 6. that he Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. (Rom. viii. 34. 1 Tim. ii. 5. experienced some peculiar manifestations of the divine goodness, 1 John ii. 1.) As a King, -not like the earthly sovereign whom Mizpau, a high place affording an extensive prospect. (Isa. xxi. the Jews expected to deliver them from the yoke of the Romans, 8.) Several places in Palestine bore this name, most probably which they detested, and who (they believed) would make them from being situated on elevated grounds or hills; of which the the most powerful people upon earth,- Jesus reigns over souls following were the principal :illuminated by the light of his doctrine, and over hearts called 1. Mizpeu, a city in the tribe of Judah, to the south of Jeruto holiness. 'Ío his people, whom he hath purchased to himself salem (whence it was distant about eighteen or twenty miles): out of all the nations of the world, he gives for their government and to the north of Hebron. (Josh. xv. 33.). laws which are calculated to make them permanently happy 2. Mizpeu, a place in Gilead beyond the Jordan. (Judg. x. 17. both here and hereafter; he defends them against their spiritual xi. 34.) In Judg. xi. 29. it is called Mizpeh of Gilead, to disenemies, and he will judge them at the last day. His mediatorial | tinguish it from other towns or places of the same name. kingdom commenced after his resurrection, when he entered into 3. Mizpah, a city in the tribe of Benjamin, where assemblies his glory (Luke xxiv. 26.): but it will not be eternal. The of the Israelites were often convened: here Samuel dwelt, and authority which he exercises as Mediator and Judge, is only a here Saul was anointed king. (Judg. xxi. 1. 1 Sam. vii. 5–7. x. temporary dispensation referring to the actual state of the church, 1. 17.) King Asa strengthened it for a frontier fortification and which will cease when he shall have fulfilled his office, that against the kingdom of Israel (1 Kings xv. 22. 2 Chron. xvi. 6.): is, after the last judgment. This Saint Paul teaches in a very and afterwards the governor Gadaliah had his residence here. striking and precise manner, which deserves the greatest atten- (Jer. xl. 6. compared with Neh. ii. 7. 19.) tion. See 1 Cor. xv. 24, 25. 28.

4. Mizpau, a valley in the region of Mount Libanus, which METEMPSYCHOsis, doctrine of, believed by the Pharisees, 144. was inhabited by the Hivites. (Josh. xi. 3. 8.)

Micah, the sixth of the minor prophets, was contemporary Mızraim (Gen. x. 6.), a son of Ham, whose descendants are with Isaiah, Joel, Hosea, and Amos. See an analysis of his supposed to have peopled Egypt, which country derived its Hepredictions in pp. 270, 271.

brew name from him. Josephus makes the name to be of Coptic Michmasa, a town in the tribe of Ephraim, about nine miles origin (Antiq. I. i. c. 6. $ 2.): but Gesenius observes that nothing from Jerusalem, to the east of Beth-Aven. Contiguous to this resembling it is found in the present remains of the Coptic lanplace was a ledge of sharp rocks, two of which, named Bozez guage, in which this country bears the name of Xnpil. and Seneh, faced Michmash and Gibeah; the one north, the Moabites, a people descended from Moab, the incestuous offother south. One of these was ascended by Jonathan and his spring of Lot. Their habitation was beyond Jordan and the armour-bearer, who routed the garrison of the Philistines that Dead Sea, on both sides of the river Amon. Their capital city defended the pass of Michmash. (1 Sam. xiii. 5. 23. xiv. was situated on that river, and was called Ar, or Rabbath-Moab, 4–13.) In the vicinity of this place were caves, thickets, rocks, that is, the capital of Moab, or Kirheres, that is, a city with brick and pits, in which the Israelites concealed themselves from their walls. This country was originally possessed by a race of giants, enemies. (1 Sam. xiii. 6.) Rocks and pits answer to the pre-called Emim. (Deut. ii. 11, 12.) The Moabites conquered them, sent appearance of the place to which tradition has given the and afterwards the Amorites took a part from the Moabites. name of Michmash; but no thickets or bushes are to be seen. Moses conquered that part which belonged to the Amorites and A succession of low and barren hills leads up to the higher one gave it to the tribe of Reuben. The Moabites were spared by of Michmash, which commands a fine and extensive view. Moses, for God had restricted him (Deut. ii. 9.): but there There are also several caves on the spot. (Carne's Letters, pp. always was a great antipathy between the Moabites and Israel330, 331.) At present, this place is distinguished by the name ites, which occasioned many wars between them. Balaam of Beer, signifying a well; most probably from its containing a seduced the Hebrews to idolatry and uncleanness, by means of very delicious spring of water. (Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. i. p. the daughters of Moab (Num. xxv. 1, 2.): and Balak, king of 364. Third edition.)

this people, endeavoured to prevail on Balaam to curse Israel. Midian, the land into which Moses fled from the Egyptians. God ordained that the Moabites should not enter into the congre(Acts vii. 29.) Here Jethro lived (Exod. xviii. 1.), and the gation of his people, even to the tenth generation (Deut. xxiii. 3.), people were descended from Madian the son of Abraham by Ke- because they had the inhumanity to refuse the Israelites a pas. ON

PA and rased the city about 3.c. 606. (For a copious description cording to Berosus : and well accounts for his scriptural charac of ancient Nineveh, see Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, ter, that "he was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians." vol. i. pp. 448—450.) of this once celebrated city there are (Acts vii. 22.) Heliopolis was the Greek translation of Bethliterally no remains. Four mounds, the largest running north shemesh, "the house or city of the Sun," as it was called by and south, and the most southerly called after the prophet Jonah, Jeremiah, “ Beth-shemesh, in the land of Egypt” (xliii. 13.), to whose tomb it is supposed to contain, exhibit all that can now distinguish it from another Beth-shemesh, in the land of Canaan. be traced of the metropolis of Asia. (See a description of them It was called Beth Aven, “the house of vanity," or idolatry, by in Mr. Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. ii. 49–51. the Jews. (Ezek. xxx. 17.) 60.)

ONESIMUS, a Phrygian by birth, and the slave of Philemon, Nisroch, a Babylonish idol, notice of, 139.

from whom he fled; but being converted to Christianity through No, No-Amon, or No-Anun, the Thebes of ancient geogra- the preaching of St. Paul, he was the occasion of the apostle's phers, was the metropolis of Upper Egypt. It is mentioned in writing the admirable Epistle to Philemon. (Col. iv. 9. Philem. Jer. xlvi. 25. Ezek. xxx. 14–16. and Nahum iii. 8. In the '10.) Septuagint version of Ezekiel No is rendered Asomons, the city Ophir, a country whither Solomon sent a fleet, aided by the of Jupiter ; in Nahum No Amon is rendered Mepes Ajuar. The subjects of Hiram king of Tyre, and from which they brought latter appears to be an etymological explanation of the word after back gold (1 Kings ix, 27, 28. 2 Chron. viii. 17, 18.), and also the Coptic. In that language NO signifies a cord, or measur- almug trees and precious stones. (1 Kings x. 11.). Not fewer ing line, hence a portion measured out; and No-Amon portio, than fiften or sixteen countries have been assigned, by various bossessio Amonis, that is, the seat of the god Amon, or the place commentators and critics, as the site of Ophir, but the most prowhere he was principally worshipped. (Jablonskii Opuscula, bable is that of M. Huet, bishop of Avranches, who is of opinion tom. i. pp. 163–168. Gibbs's Hebr. Lex. p. 406.)

that it was on the eastern coast of Africa, by the Arabians termed Noall, the son of Lamech, and the father of the post-diluvian Zanguebar ; that the name of Ophir was more particularly given world, was born a. M. 1056. Being the only righteous man of to the small country of Sofala on the same coast; and that Solohis time, he was preserved together with his family in the ark mon's fleet went out from the Red Sea, and from the port of during the deluge. (For a refutation of skeptical objections to Ezion-geber entered the Mediterranean by a canal of communiwhich, see Vol. I. pp. 75, 76.) Noah lived 350 years after that cation, and doubling Cape Guardafui, coasted along Africa to catastrophe, dying at the age of 950 years, A. m. 2006. He left Sofala, where was found in abundance whatever was brought to three sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth, by whom the whole earth the Hebrew monarch by this voyage. The opinion of Huet is was overspread or peopled. (Gen. ix. 18, 19. x. 32.) The seven adopted by Mr. Bruce, who has confirmed it by various additional precepts of Noah, see p. 109. note 2.

considerations. Nops, or MEMPHIS, a very celebrated city, the same as Thebes ORATORIES of the Jews described, 102, 103. and the capital of Egypt, until the Ptolemies removed the seat of ORATORY cultivated by the Jews, 186. government to Alexandria. By the modern Copts it is called OTHNIEL, the son of Kenaz of the tribe of Judah, and a relaMEND, MENOT), and Noro: whence we may explain both the tion of Caleb, who gave him his daughter Achsah in marriage, Hebrew forms n (sopa) and 90 (mempu), and also the Greek on his taking Debir, otherwise called Kiriath-sepher, from the name Mejos. Plutarch (de Isid. et Osirid. p. 639 ed. Stephani) Canaanites. (Josh. xv. 16—19.) After the Israelites had been interprets the name 'op por ágybav, from the Coptic meh, full, and oppressed for eight years by Chushan-rishathcum, king of Mesonouphi, good; or TAPOV Ooipides, from the Coptic mhau, a grave, potamia, Othniel was excited to levy an army against him. He and onphi, svegetais, a benefactor, as Osiris is called. (Jablonskii

, overcame the Mesopotamians, and delivered his countrymen, who Opusc. tom. i. pp. 137. 150. 179. tom. ii. p. 131. Gibbs's Hebr. acknowledged him as regent or judge. During the forty years Lex. p. 381.) The prophets often mention this city; and pre- of his administration the Israelites remained faithful to their God dict the calamities which it was to suffer from the kings of Chal- and king, and consequently prospered. (Judg. ii. 8—11.) dæa and Persia, &c. (See Isa. xix. 13. Jer, xliv. 1. Hos, ix. 6. Ovens of the Jews, 154. Ezek. xxx. 13. 16.) Its ruins are very splendid. Jeremiah had foretold, ages before, that Noph should be waste and desolate, without an inhabitant” (xlvi. 19.), and not a family or cottage is Painting, art of, among the Jews, 183. Painting of the eyesaid to remain.

lids practised by the Jewish women, 158. Nose-Jewels of he Jewish women, notice of, 158.

Palace, officers of, 47. NOPTIAL CEREMONIES of the Jews, 161, 162.

PalÈstine, boundaries of, 14. 22. See Holy Land.
NURTURE of children, 163, 164.

PALM TREE, notice of, 36.
PALMYRA. See Tadmor.

Palsy, variety of diseases so termed, 197.
Oaks, forest of, 36.

PAMPHYLIA, a province of Asia Minor, having to the south Oaths of the Hebrews, how taken, 81, 82.

the Pamphylian Sea, mentioned Acts xxvii. 5., Cilicia to the OBADIAD, the fourth of the minor prophets: he probably was east, and Pisidia to the north (whence we find Saint Paul passcontemporary with Jeremiah. See pp. 281, 282.

ing through Pisidia to Pamphylia, Acts xiv. 24.), and from PamOBLATIONS, different kinds of, 119. Ordinary, ibid. Volun- phylia to Pisidia (Acts xiii. 14.), and Lycia to the west. The tary, ibid. Prescribed, 120, 121,

cities mentioned in the Scriptures as belonging to it are Perga OFFICERS (military) of the Jews, 85. And of the Romans, and Attalia. (Acts xiii. 13.) Here numerous Jews dwelt, and 92, 93.

hence those of Pamphylia are mentioned among those who apOFFICERS of the Palace, notice of, 47.

peared at Jerusalem at the day of Pentecost. (Acts ii. 10.) OFFICERS of the Synagogue, 104.

Paphos, the metropolis of the island of Cyprus (Acts xiii

. 4. OLIVES, Mount of, 19. Culture of Olives, 36. 179, 180. 6.), and the residence of the pro-consul. It was memorable for

OLYMPIC GAMES, allusions to, in the New Testament, 191- the impure worship paid to Venus, the tutelar deity of the island. 194. Qualifications and previous discipline of the candidates, Here Saint Paul struck blind Elymas the sorcerer, and converted 192. Foot-race, ibid. Rewards to the victors, ibid. Games in Sergius the pro-consul. The Jews dwelt here in great numbers. imitation of them instituted among the Jews, 190.

(ver. 6.) Twenty-five or thirty miserable huts are all that remain OMRI, general of the army of Elah, king of Israel, who was as- of this orde most distinguished city of Cyprus. See CYPRUS. sassinated by Zimri at the siege of Gibbethon, and was succeeded PARADISE, a word of Persian original, signifying a park, garby Omri. (1 Kings xvi.) He was a wicked prince, whose den, or inclosure, full of all the valuable productions of the earth. crimes surpassed those of his predecessors : he died at Samaria, The word passed into the Hebrew form 0770 (Pardes), which B. c. 914, and was succeeded on the throne by his son Ahab. occurs in Sol. Song iv. 13. Neh. ii. 8. Eccles. ii. 5.; and in On

those passages it is rendered IIapadecus in the Septuagint version, 1. A pleasant valley in Syria of Damascus, now called Un, and denotes a garden of trees of various kinds, a pleasure park, and used proverbially for a pleasant vale.

a delightful grove. In the New Testament paradise is applied 2. OŃ, Aun, or HELIOPOLIS, a city of Egypt. The father-in-to the state of faithful souls between death and the resurrection; law of Joseph was high-priest of On (Gen. xli. 45.); there ren- where, like Adam in Eden, they are admitted to immediate comdered Heliopolis, by the Septuagint version, and noticed also by munion with God in Christ, or to a participation of the tree of Herodotus; who says that “the Heliopolitans were reckoned life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God. (Luke xxii. the wisest of the Egyptians." This was the city of Moses, ac- | 43. Rev. ii. 7.) of this blessed state St. Paul had a foretaste.

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