try (see p. 136.), and changed the order of the Hebrew calendar. He is never mentioned in the Old Testament, but in terms of detestation. He died after a reign of 22 years.

JEROBOAM II., the thirteenth king of Israel, succeeded his father Jehoahash. He reigned 41 years; and is recorded to have done evil in the sight of God, following the example of Jeroboam I.


JERUSALEM (city), situation of, and the name by which it was called, 18, 19. Fortifications and walls, 19, 20. Its state before the war of the Jews with the Romans, 20. Remarkable buildings, 21. Temple, 98-101. Successive captures of this city, 21. Its present state and population, 22.

JESUS, that is, the Saviour, the name of the Messiah, the Son of God, and the Divine Author of the Christian religion, who is constituted by God the Lord of all things. He is called Jesus, because he came to save his people from their sins. (Matt. i. 21. Eph. i. 21, 22. Heb. i. 2.) The history of his life, miracles, doctrine, death, resurrection, and ascension, is related in the four Gospels. In 2 Cor. i. 19. Jesus is, metonymically, put for the Gospel or religion of Jesus.

JETHRO, or Raguel, a priest of Midian, and the father-in-law of Moses, to whom he gave the wise counsel, of instituting inferior judges (from him sometimes termed Jethronian prefects), to hear and determine minor causes; while questions of moment were brought before the Hebrew legislator himself. See p. 42. JEWS.-After the captivity, most of those who returned and rebuilt Jerusalem and the temple, and restored the rites of the Mosaic worship, having sprung from the kingdom of Judah, the term Jews became a general appellation for all the inhabitants of Palestine, and afterwards for those descended from them. (Dan. iii. 8. Esth. iii. 10. 2 Macc. ix. 17.) For the political state of the Jews, from the patriarchal times to their final dispersion, see pp. 40-53. Their courts of judicature, legal proceedings, criminal law and punishments, 54-57. The whole nation why accounted holy, 108. Account of the Jewish church and its members, 108-111. All male Jews required to be at Jerusalem, at the three great annual festivals, 122. Whither they travelled in caravans, ibid. note. Corruptions of religion among them, and their idolatry, 135-143. Their extreme corruption during the time of Christ, 148-150. Their mode of computing time, 72-77. Their private life, manners, customs, occupations, arts, and sciences, 150-187.

Jews of the dispersion, who they were, 109.

In the New Testament, the term "Jew" is employed, (1.) With reference both to nation and religion. (Matt. xxviii. 15. Mark vii. 3.)

(2.) With reference to religion only. (Rom. ii. 28, 29. Rev. ii. 9. iii. 9.)

(3.) With reference to nation only. (Acts xix. 34. xxi. 39. xxii. 3. Gal. ii. 13.) JEZEBEL.

1. The daughter of Ethbaal or Ithobalus king of the Zidonians, and wife of Ahab king of Israel. She was infamous for her idolatries, and for her cruel persecutions of the worshippers of the true God, particularly the prophets. She at length perished miserably, according to a prediction of the prophet Elijah. (1 Kings xvi. 31. xviii. 4. 13. xxi. 23. 2 Kings ix. 30-37.) 2. In Rev. ii. 20. Jezebel is put as a generic term for an idolatrous and infamous woman, the emblem of corrupt teachers. Compare p. 462.

JEZREEL, a celebrated city, situated in a valley of that name, in the canton of the half-tribe of Manasseh, on the west of the river Jordan, and on the confines of the tribe of Issachar. (Josh. xix. 18.) Here Ahab had a palace; and here the retributive justice of God overtook Jezebel. (2 Kings ix. 30—37.) JEZREEL, Plain of, account of, 33. JOAB.

1. JOAB, the son of Seraiah and the grandson of Kenaz (1 Chron. iv. 13, 14.), nephew of Othniel the first judge of the Hebrews, was the founder of a colony of artizans, or "craftsmen," at Ono, in the tribe of Benjamin, not far from the river Jordan. The valley, where he settled, obtained the name of the Valley of Craftsmen, an appellation which shows that the arts practised by them were of the first utility; and Nehemiah gave it the same appellation. (xi. 35.) The establishment of Joab, towards the time of the first judge, from whom he was descended, proves that the Hebrews had not forgotten the arts which they had acquired in Egypt, and shows in what estimation trades were held. The people, who had erected the taber


nacle in the wilderness, we may readily conceive, would, in no long time, form establishments of this kind, after they were settled in Canaan.

2. JOAB, the son of Zeruiah, and nephew of David. With his brothers Abishai and Asahel, he commanded his uncle's troops against Abner. He was one of the greatest generals and most valiant men in David's army, but was of an imperious and revengeful disposition. Having conspired to raise Adonijah to the throne of his father David, Joab was put to death by command of Solomon.

JOANNA, the wife of Chuza, steward of Herod Antipas. She is enumerated among those women, who having been healed by Jesus, followed him out of Galilee, and assisted in supporting him. (Luke viii. 3. xxiv. 10.)

JoASH, the eighth king of Judah, was the son of Ahaziah. On the massacre of his family by Athaliah, he was preserved by Jehoiada the high-priest and his wife Jehoshebah, and secreted. for six years in one of the apartments of the temple, where he was brought up. At the age of seven years, the courageous fidelity of the high-priest placed him on the throne of his ancestors. During the life of Jehoiada, he ruled well; but on the death of that wise and pious counsellor, he listened to the advice of some of his courtiers; fell into gross idolatry; and at length put to death the son of his benefactor. From this time, his reign became disastrous; his kingdom was invaded by the Syrians under Hazael; his armies were totally discomfited by very inferior forces; and he could only save his capital, by delivering to the Syrians the treasures which had been consecrated by his predecessors, and those which he had himself offered in the temple. A lingering illness seized him: the blood of Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada, found avengers; and after reigning 40 years, Joash was assassinated by three of his servants. (2 Kings xii. 2 Chron. xxiv.)

JOASH or JEHO ASH, king of Israel, the son and successor of Jehoahaz. Possessed of more talents than virtues, by his fortunate wars he prepared the splendid reign of his son Jeroboam II.; and wanted nothing but piety. He reigned sixteen years, during which he "did evil in the sight of the Lord, and departed not from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin." (2 Kings xii. 10-12. xiv.)

JOB, an inhabitant of the land of Uz or Idumæa, whose piety and afflictions are celebrated in the poetical book which bears his name; for an account of which, and of the patriarch himself, see pp. 227-237. For a notice of the disease with which he was afflicted, see p. 196.

JOEL, the son of Pethuel, and the second of the minor prophets. His history is entirely unknown. See an analysis of his predictions, in p. 270.


1. JOHN the Baptist, the son of Zecharias and Elisabeth, was the kinsman and precursor of Jesus Christ, and distinguished for the simplicity and integrity of his life. Notice of his dress, see p. 395. He was beheaded by order of Herod Antipas, whom he had reproved for his incestuous marriage. (Matt. iii. 1. xiv. 2-4. 8. 10.)

2. JOHN the Apostle and Evangelist, was the son of Zebedee and Salome, brother of James the elder, and originally a fisherman. He seems to have been of a mild and affectionate disposition, and peculiarly dear to his Lord. His name is prefixed to the fourth Gospel, to three Epistles, and to the Apocalypse; for an analysis of which, see pp. 313-318. 364-377, 378-383. 3. JOHN, surnamed MARK, the companion of Paul and Barnabas in their journeys.

4. JOHN, one of the chief men among the Jews, a member of the Sanhedrin, and perhaps related to the high-priest. (Acts iv. 6.)

JOKTAN, the eldest son of Eber, from whom many Arabian tribes were descended. (Gen. x. 25-30.) JOKTHEEL.

1. A city belonging to the tribe of Judah. (Josh. xv. 38.) 2. The name which Amaziah king of Judah gave to Selah, an Arabian city which he took. (2 Kings xiv. 7.) JONAH.

1. JONAH, the son of Amittai, and the fifth of the minor prophets, who was swallowed by a large fish, and continued three days and three nights in the stomach of the monster. See an analysis of his prophecy in p. 259.

2. JONAH or JONAS, the father of the apostle Simon Peter. He was a fisherman. (John i. 42. xxi. 15-17.) JONATHAN, the son of Saul, and the faithfully attached friend

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of David in all his persecutions. Jonathan displayed signal valour in the wars with the Philistines. He perished in battle with his father on Mount Gilboa; and his death is pathetically lamented by David in a funeral elegy which he composed in honour of both. (2 Sam. i.)

JOPPA, a sea-port of Palestine, on the Mediterranean, called also Japha, and now universally Jaffa, owes all the circumstances of its celebrity, as the principal port of Judæa, to its situation with regard to Jerusalem. It is situated on the side of a low hill, over the sea. "As a station for vessels, its harbour is one of the worst in the Mediterranean: ships generally anchor about a mile from the town, to avoid the shoals and rocks of the place. In ancient times it was the only place resorted to as a sea-port in all Judæa. Hither Solomon ordered the materials for the temple to be brought from Mount Libanus, previous to their conveyance by land to Jerusalem." (Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. p. 442. Jolliffe's Letters from Palestine, p. 198. Irby's and Mangles' Travels, pp. 186-188.) It is a place of very great antiquity; and it appears from the Acts of the Apostles (ix. x. xi.) that the Gospel was received here soon after Christ's ascension. Here also St. Peter restored Dorcas to life (Acts ix. 40.), and from this place it was that the prophet Jonah, many centuries before, had embarked for Nineveh. (Jonah i. 3.) The house of the British vice-consul (signor Damiani), in 1831, stood on the reputed site of the house which had been Simon the Tanner's, the host of the apostle Peter; and a portion of an ancient wall therein was pointed out, as a genuine relic of the original mansion. (Three Weeks in Palestine, p. 6. London, 1833.)

JORAM. See JEHоRAM, 2. p. 430.

whom he accompanied to Mount Sinai at the giving of the law In the battle with the Amalekites, he had bravely commanded the Israelites, and had been blessed with victory. He had been one of the twelve spies, whom Moses had sent to explore the land of Canaan; and as Caleb and he were the only persons out of that number who had encouraged the people when intimidated by the report of the other spies, so they were the only Israelites who were more than twenty years of age that survived their forty years' wandering in the desert, and participated in the conquest of Canaan. Joshua died at the age of 110 years, after he had for seventeen years governed the Israelites. His earlier name was Hoshea, which Moses changed to Joshua, or, as it is pronounced in Hebrew, Jehoshuah, the import of which is the Salvation of God. Joshua has been considered as a type of our Saviour. As the Hebrew general vanquished the impious Canaanites by the aid of God, and introduced His people into the rest of the promised land, so Jesus (whose name in Greek is the same as Jehoshuah) will one day subdue and exterminate the enemies of his name and disciples, and will introduce his people into that place of rest, in which they will enjoy perfect and eternal happiness. For an analysis of the book of Joshua, see pp. 214-216; and for an account of the division of the Holy Land by him, see pp. 16, 17. of this volume; and for his government of the Israelites, see p. 42. Observations on the pile of stones raised by Joshua at Gilgal, I. 100, 101.

JOSIAH, the son of Amnon and Jedidah, succeeded his father on the throne of Judah, at the early age of eight years, and during a reign of thirty-one years he endeavoured, with much success, to restore the worship of God to its original purity. Being a tributary or ally of the Assyrians, he refused a passage through

JORDAN, River, account of, pp. 25, 26. Region round about, his dominions to Pharaoh-Necho king of Egypt, who was marchp. 33. Thickets of, p. 36.


1. JOSEPH, the eleventh son of Jacob, born of Rachel. Hated by his brethren, he was sold by them as a slave to some Midianitish merchants, by whom he was carried into Egypt, and again sold to Potiphar. He subsequently became governor over all the land of Egypt, and sent for his father and brethren to Egypt, where he provided for them. On the departure of the Israelites, pursuant to his command, the remains of Joseph, which had been embalmed according to the Egyptian process, were carried into Canaan (Heb. xi. 22.), and, it should seem from Josh. xxiv. 31., after the conquest by Joshua, were interred in Jacob's field near Shechem. (Gen. xxxvii. 1.) Joseph is sometimes, metonymically, put for his descendants, that is, the half-tribe of Ephraim.

2. The husband of Mary, and the reputed father of Jesus. (Matt. i. 16. 18-20. 24. ii. 13. 19. Luke i. 27. ii. 4. 16. 33. 43. iii. 23. iv. 22. John i. 46. vi. 42.)

3. JOSEPH of Arimathea, a member of the Jewish Sanhedrin, and privately a disciple of Jesus Christ. After his death, Joseph requested his body of Pilate, and honourably entombed it in his own new sepulchre. (Matt. xxvii. 57-60. Mark xv. 43-45. Luke xxiii. 50. John xix. 38.)

4. One of the seventy disciples of Jesus, also called Barsabas and Justus. He was nominated as one of the two candidates for the apostleship in place of the traitor Judas. (Acts i. 23.) Joses.

1. A brother of James the Less, and a kinsman of Jesus. (Matt. xiii. 55. xxvii. 56. Mark vi. 3. xv. 40. 47.) He is the only one of the sons of Cleopas and Mary who did not become an apostle; which circumstance has been accounted for by Coquerel, who supposes that Joses was one of those brethren or kinsmen of Jesus Christ who distinguished himself by his want of faith in him (compare John vii. 5.), and therefore was deemed unfit for the apostleship. As it appears from Acts i. 14. that the brethren of Jesus were present at the meetings of his disciples, which were held between the ascension and the day of Pentecost, it is not improbable that Joses was converted after the resurrection.

2. JOSES, surnamed BARNABAS, the companion of St. Paul. (Acts iv. 36.)

ing into Assyria. The two armies met at Megiddo, where Josiah, entering into the battle in disguise, was mortally wounded by an arrow: he died at Jerusalem, deeply regretted by all his subjects. Jeremiah composed Lamentations in his honour. (2 Kings xxii. xxiii. 2 Chron. xxxiv.)

JOTHAM, the eleventh king of Judah, exercised the regal authority during the leprosy which terminated the life of his father Uzziah, whom he succeeded on the throne. He is recorded to have done that which was right in the sight of God, and to have imitated his father's piety. "He became mighty, because he prepared his ways before the LORD his God." He discomfited the Ammonites, and for three years received of them a rich tribute in silver, barley, and corn, which his father had imposed; but which that people had refused to pay. Magnificent erections distinguished his reign. The principal gate of the temple was enlarged and embellished; the hill of Ophel received new fortifications; and various buildings, both for habitation and defence, were erected in the mountains of Judah. After a reign of sixteen years he died, much regretted by his people, and was interred in the sepulchres of the kings, E. c. 742.

JUBAL, the son of Lamech and Adah: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. (Gen. iv. 21.) In other terms, he was the inventor of musical instruments. By comparing his discoveries with those of Jabal, the institutor of the nomadic life, and of Tubal-Cain. the instructor of every artificer in brass and iron, we may perceive how soon the agreeable followed the useful arts.

JUBILEE, Feast of, how celebrated, 128, 129.

1. JUDAH, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, gave his name to the most numerous of the tribes of Israel; for the limits of the canton assigned to which, see p. 17. At the time of the revolution under Rehoboam and Jeroboam, this tribe also gave its name to that part of the kingdom of Israel which continued faithful to the house of David.

2. DESERT OF JUDAH, account of, 34.

3. KINGDOM OF JUDAH, 17. Causes of its duration for a longer time than the kingdom of Israel, 49. 4. LAND OF JUDAH, notice of, 14.

5. MOUNTAINS OF JUDAH, notice of, 31. JUDEA, Country of, 18.


JOSHUA, the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, called Jesus by the Greeks. He was the minister or servant, and the suc- 1. JUDAS, surnamed Iscariot, (Heb. ww, ISH KARIOTH), cessor of Moses; an office which he deserved to fill on many that is, a man of Karioth or Carioth, one of the apostles of Jesus accounts: for not only had Moses discovered in him distinguished Christ. He seems to have possessed the full confidence of his talents, but God himself had destined Joshua to be the com- fellow-apostles, by whom he was intrusted with all the presents mander-in-chief of his people, in which capacity Moses presented which were made to them, and with all their means of subsisthim to them a short time before his death. Joshua had dis-ence: and, when the twelve were sent out to preach and to work played both knowledge and courage during the life of Moses, miracles, Judas appears to have been among them, and to have

KA received the same powers. He was accustomea, however, even at this time, to appropriate part of the common stock to his own use (John xii. 6.), and at length sealed his infamy by betraying his Lord for money to the Jews. Judas perished miserably, being driven by remorse to hang himself; but the cord broke, and he fell (probably from some elevated place) with such violence as to rupture the abdomen, and dash out his intestines upon the ground. (Matt. xxvii. 5. Acts i. 18.)


Lebanon. (Gen. xv. 19.) They derived their name from their eastern situation.

KANAH, Brook, 26.

KARIOTH OF KERIOTH, a town belonging to the tribe of Judah. (Josh. xv. 25.) Also, a town belonging to the tribe of Benjamin. (Josh. xviii. 28.) Of one or other of these places, the traitor Judas was a native. See JUDAS, 1.

KEDAR, a tribe of Arabian nomades, descended from Kedar, 2. JUDAS, a Christian teacher, also called Barsabas, who was the son of Ishmael. (Gen. xxv. 13.) The habits of the Turcosent from Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas. Judas mans, a nomadic tribe who infest the inland portions of Asia and Silas are termed prophets as well as Agabus: which title is Minor, are precisely those of the wandering hordes of Kedar, as given them in a two-fold sense, as zealous preachers of the Gos- described in the books of the Old Testament; and their black pel, and as ministers of God, who were divinely inspired, accord-tents would fully suit the simile of Solomon (Song i. 5)., while ing to the exigencies of the church, to predict future events. their pastoral traffic is in every respect that adverted to in Ezekiel (Acts xv. 22. 27. 32.) (xxvii. 21.), in his denunciations of destruction against Tyre, (Emerson's Letters from the Ægean, vol. i. p. 192.)

3. JUDAS, surnamed the Galilæan in Acts v. 37. and also by Josephus (Ant. Jud. lib. xviii. c. 1. § 6. xx. c. 5. § 2. Bell. Jud. İ. ii. c. 8. § 1.), who further calls him a Gaulonite (Ant. Jud. l. xviii. c. 1. §1.), was born at Gamala, a city of Lower Gaulonitis, near the south-eastern shore of the lake of Tiberias. In company with one Sadok or Sadducus, he attempted to excite a sedition among the Jews, but was destroyed by Quirinus, at that time governor of Syria and Judæa.

4. JUDAS OF JUDE, one of the apostles, also called Lebbeus and Thaddeus, the son of Alphæus and Mary, own brother of James the Less and cousin of our Lord. He was author of the epistle which bears his name; for an analysis of which, as well as a further account of Jude, see pp. 377, 378.

5. JUDAS MACCAEEUS, son of Mattathias, whom he succeeded in the office of captain of the Jews, during the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes. (1 Macc. iii. 1.) After performing many heroic and glorious actions, he at length fell nobly in the field of battle, in an engagement with the Syrian army under the command of Bacchides, the general of Demetrius, the successor of Antiochus. (1 Macc. ix. 18.)

JUDGES of the Israelites, powers and functions of, 42. Judges appointed by Moses, powers of, ibid.

JUDICATURE (Jewish), courts of, and proceedings therein, 54-57.

JUDICATURE (Roman), account of, 57—60.

JULIA, a female Christian at Rome, who is supposed to have been the wife of Philologus. (Rom. xvi. 15.) It is not improbable that she was a freed-woman of the family of the Cæsars.

JULIUS, a centurion of the Augustan cohort, who conducted Paul to Rome, and treated the apostle with great courtesy and humanity. (Acts xxvii.)

JUNIAS OF JUNIA, a Jewish Christian, who is supposed to have `been the wife of Andronicus. (Rom. xvi. 7.)

JUPITER, the supreme god of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He had a temple in the suburbs of LYSTRA, (which see). JURISDICTION of Moses, 41, 42.; of Joshua and the judges, 42.; of the kings, 42-46.

JUSTICE, seat of, 54.


1. The surname of Joseph-Barsabas, who was one of those nominated to be an apostle. (Acts i. 23.) See BARSABAS. 2. A Christian at Corinth, who hospitably received Saint Paul. (Acts xviii. 7.)

3. JUSTUS, also called JESUS, appears to have been known to the Jews by the former name, and to the Romans by the latter. He was a Jew by descent, and the friend and coadjutor of Saint Paul. (Col. iv. 11.)

JYAR, the eighth month of the civil year of the Jews; and the second of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, &c. occuring in this month, see p. 76.

KADESH, KADESH-BARNEA, or EN-MISHPAT, a city celebrated for several events. Here Miriam, the sister of Moses, died (Num. xx. 1.), and the Israelites murmured against God. (xxvii. 14.) It belonged to the tribe of Judah, and is supposed to have been situated about 25 miles to the south of Hebron. But Dr. Wells is of opinion that the Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin was a different place from Kadesh-Barnea in the wilderness of Paran. (Compare Num. xiii. 26. and Deut. i. 19.) Dr. Lightfoot, however, considers them as one and the same place. In the fourth century, the pretended sepulchre of Miriam was shown.

KADMONITES, ancient inhabitants of the land of Canaan, who dwelt beyond the Jordan, to the east of Phoenicia, about Mount VOL. II. 31

KEDRON, KIDRON, or CEDRON, Brook, account of, 26. KENITES, a Canaanitish people, who, according to 1 Sam. xv. 6., compared with Num. xxiv. 20, 21., dwelt among the Amalekites. According to Judg. i. 16. iv. 11., they appear to have been descended from Hobab the brother-in-law of Moses.

KENIZZITES, an ancient Canaanitish people, who may have been descended from Kenaz, a grandson of Esau. Their place of residence cannot now be determined. (Gen. xv. 19. Num. xxxii. 12.)

KETURAH, the second wife of Abraham, who married her after the death of Sarah; she bore him six sons. (Gen. xxv.) KINGS, person of, sacred, 44. Their powers, functions, and revenues, 43-46.

KINGDOMS of Israel and Judah, 17. Latent causes of the schism between, 48. Causes of the longer duration of the kingdom of Judah, 49.

KIR (or Cyrus), a river to the banks or vicinity of which Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria, sent the principal inhabitants of Syria, whom he had taken captive. (2 Kings xvi. 9.) At present it is called Kur by the Russians, and Kier by the Persians: it unites its waters to the Aras or Araxes, and empties itself into the Caspian Sea, under the 30th degree of north latitude. A people of foreign aspect, called Usbecks, dwell there to this time, who (Prof. Jahn thinks) may be the descendants of these captives. (Hist. of Heb. Commonwealth, vol. i. p. 140.) KIR-HERES. See RABBATH-AMMON.

KIRJATH OF KIRIOTH (), a Hebrew word denoting a city. There was a place of this name in the canton of the tribe of Benjamin. (Josh. xviii. 28.)


The following proper names of cities are compounded of it;

1. KIRJATH-AIM, or the Double City.

(1.) The proper name of a city in the tribe of Reuben. (Num. xxxii. 37. Josh. xiii. 19.) It was afterwards possessed by the Moabites. (Jer. xlviii. 1. 3. Ezek. xxv. 9.) (2.) A city in the canton of the tribe of Naphtali. (1 Chron. vi. 61.)

2. KIRJATH-ARBA, or the City of Arba: an ancient name of HEBRON, which see in p. 427.

3. KIRJATH-HUZOTH, or the City of Streets, a royal city of Balak king of Moab. (Num. xxii. 39.)

4. KIRJATH-JEARIM, or the City of Forests, in the tribe of Judah, on the western boundary of the tribe of Benjamin. Here the ark was lodged for many years in the house of Aminadab, until David removed it to Jerusalem. Urijah the prophet was a native of this place. (Josh. ix. 17. xviii. 5. Judg. xviii. 12. 1 Sam. vi. 21. 1 Chron. xiii. 6.)

5. KIRJATH-SANNAH, or the City of the Law, was a city in the tribe of Judah. (Josh. xv. 49.)

6. KIRJATH-SEPHER, or the City of Writing, otherwise called DEBIR; a city in the tribe of Judah, which was captured from the Canaanites by Othniel. (Josh. xv. 15, 16. Judg. i. 10-13.) Concerning the import of its name there is a difference of opinion; some supposing it to have been a seat of learning, while others, from Debir signifying an oracle, imagine that it was a seminary for the education of priests.

KISH, the son of Abdiel, who was also called Ner, and the father of Saul, of an obscure family in the tribe of Benjamin, was both a shepherd and a warrior, conformably to the custom of those ancient times. The Scripture eulogizes his valour. He sent his son in pursuit of some lost asses, and he returned to his father the first king of Israel. (1 Chron. viii. 30. ix. 39. 1 Sam. xiv. 51. ix. 1. and x. 2.)

KISHON, Brook, notice of, 26.


KNEADING-TROUvens of the Israelites, 154. KOHATH, the son of Levi. (Gen. xlvi. 11.) He was the head of the Kohathites, who were appointed to carry the ark and sacred vessels of the tabernacle, during the marches of the Israelites. (Num. iv. 1-15.)

KORAH, the son of Izhar, and grandson of Levi, who conspired against Moses. (Exod. vi. 21. Num. xvi.) From him were descended the sons of Korah, a Levitical family of singers, whom David appointed to guard the doors of the temple. (1 Chron. ix. 19.) Eleven psalms are i :scribed "for the sons of Korah;" on the probable import of which title, see p. 239.

KORBAN, nature of, 119.

LABAN, the son of Bethuel, grandson of Nahor, brother to Rebekah, and father of Rachel and Leah. (Gen. xxviii.)-Also he name of a place beyond the Jordan, in the plains of Moab; it is otherwise unknown. (Deut. i. 1.)



1. The third son of Jacob and Leah. (Gen. xxix. 34.) He is known only as having participated in the revenge of Simeon against the Shechemites, for the violation of Dinah (xxxiv. 25.), and for having given his name to the tribe that was set apart for the priesthood and worship of God. For the functions, &c. of the LEVITES, see pp. 111, 112.

2. One of the twelve apostles, also called MATTHEW. See p. 436. infra.

LEVIES, Military, how raised, 84.

LIBERTINES, account of, 103. 109. I. 80.

LIBYA, among the Greeks, was used as another name for Africa, as it imports a part of it. It was divided into Libya Interior and Exterior: but the Libya mentioned by Saint Luke (Acts ii. 10.) is that by Ptolemy called Libya Cyrenaica: and by Pliny Pentapolitana Regio, from its five chief cities, viz. Berenice, Arsine, Ptolemais, Apollonia, and Cyrene. It is noted in the Old Testament for its chariots and horses used in fight. (2 Chron. xvi. 8.) But it is mentioned by Saint Luke, on account of the Jews, who, living in such vast numbers in Alexanthat 50,000 of them were slain at one time, may well be thought to have had some colonies and proselytes in this neighbouring country.

LIFE-GUARDS of the kings of Israel, 47.

LINUS, a disciple whose salutation Saint Paul addresses to Timothy. (2 Tim. iv. 21.) He is commonly supposed to have been the first bishop of Rome.

LITERATURE of the Jews, 184-187.

LIVER, divination by the inspection of, 143. Locusts, natural history of, and of their devastations, 39. Were eaten by the inhabitants of Palestine, ibid. Lois, a Christian matron, and the grandmother of Timothy, of whose faith the apostle speaks with great commendation. (2 Tim. i. 5.)

LORD'S PRAYER, collected out of Jewish Euchologies, 132. LORD'S SUPPER, points of resemblance between, and the Passover, 123-126. It is a perpetual memorial of the vicarious atonement of Jesus Christ, I. 61.

LAKES in the Holy Land, account of, 26-28. LAMB, Paschal, ceremonies of offering, &c. See pp. 123-126.dria LAMENTATIONS for the dead, account of, 199, 200. LAND-SURVEYING, not unknown to the Jews, 187. LAODICEA, a city of Asia Minor, about forty-two miles to the south of Ephesus, and in the vicinity of Colossæ and Hierapolis. Its earlier name was Diospolis or Cæsarea, but after being enlarged by Antiochus II. it was called Laodicea in honour of his wife Laodice. This city was often damaged by earthquakes, and restored either by the opulence of its inhabitants, or by the. ' munificence of the Roman emperors. From the researches of modern travellers it appears to have been seated on a volcanic nill, of moderate height, but of considerable extent. Its ruins attest that it was large, opulent, and splendid; and there are still to be seen the remains of an amphitheatre, an aqueduct, and many other buildings. In the primitive times of Christianity, as appears from Saint Paul's Epistle to the Colossians, in which the Laodiceans are frequently mentioned, this place possessed a flourishing church. But the doom of Laodicea seems to have been more severe and terrible than that of the other six apocalyptic churches and its present condition is in striking conformity with the rebukes and threatenings of God. Not a single Christian resides at Laodicea! It is even more solitary than Ephesus: the latter has a prospect of a rolling sea, or a whitening sail, to enliven its decay; the former sits in widowed loneliness. Its temples are desolate; the stately edifices of ancient Laodicea are now peopled with wolves and jackals. The prayers of the mosque are the only prayers heard near the still splendid ruins of the city, on which the prophetic denunciation seems to have been fully executed, in its utter rejection as a church. "Its crime was pride; its punishment desolation. The threatening is accomplished: it now stands rejected of God and deserted by men; its glory a ruin; its name a reproach." (Hartley's Visit to the Apocalyptic Churches, in 1826. Mission. Register, July, 1827, p. 296. Arundell's Visit to the Seven Churches, pp. 8490. Emerson's Letters from the Ægean, vol. i. pp. 180. 219.) LASEA, a maritime city of Crete (Acts xxvii. 8.), which is not mentioned by any of the ancient geographers. Its exact site cannot now be ascertained.

LAW and the Prophets, tables of the sections of, as read in the Jewish synagogues, 105. The Mosaic law perverted by the Pharisees, 144, 145.

LAWS, how promulgated, 47, 48.
LAWYERS (Jewish), account of, 146.

1. The brother of Martha and Mary, whom Jesus loved, and miraculously raised him from the dead. For an examination of the circumstances of this miracle, see Vol. I. pp. 105, 106.

2. The name of a person introduced by Jesus into a very instructive narrative or parable, to represent the poor and distressed in this world. (Luke xvi. 19-25.)

LEAN, the daughter of Laban, and the wife of Jacob, on whom her father imposed her in lieu of Rachel. (Gen. xxix.) LEBANON (Mount), account of, 29, 30.

LOT, the son of Haran and nephew of Abraham; after separating from whom, on account of the increase of their cattle, he chose the city of Sodom for his abode. On its destruction Lot and his two daughters escaped with their lives; but his wife, looking back, perished. (Gen. xix. Luke xvii. 28.) The Moabites and Ammonites descended from Lot.

Lors, when used judicially, 122. Notice of the Feast of Lots, 320, 321.

LUBIM, the Libyans. (2 Chron. xii. 3. xvi. 8. Nah. iii. 9.) LUCIUS, a Cyrenian, one of the prophets or teachers of the Christian church at Antioch. (Acts iii. 1. Rom. xvi. 21.) By some he has been erroneously confounded with the evangelist LUKE. LUD, the fourth son of Shem, whose descendants peopled the province of LYDIA. (Gen. x. 22.)

LUDIM, a people of Africa, frequently mentioned in Scripture; probably the Ethiopians or Abyssinians.

LUKE (Acuxas, contracted from the Latin Lucanus), was a Gentile proselyte who had embraced Christianity. He was the friend and companion of St. Paul in most of his journeys, and wrote the Gospel that bears his name, and the Acts of the Apos tles; for analyses of which, see pp. 307-313.318-321.

LYCANTHROPY, the malady of Nebuchadnezzar, 196, 197. LYCAONIA (Acts xiv. 6.), a province in Asia Minor, accounted the southern part of Cappadocia, having Isauria on the west, Armenia Minor on the east, and Cilicia on the south. Its chief cities are all mentioned in this chapter, viz. Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. They spake (ver. 11.) in the Lycaonian tongue, which is generally understood to have been a corrupt Greek, intermingled with many Syriac words: but Jablonski supposes it to have been derived from the Assyrian tongue. Why they were disposed to worship Paul and Barnabas, 140. Paul's address to them illustrated, 326.

LYDDA, which in later times was called Diospolis, and is now known by the name of Loudd, was a large village, and, according to Josephus, little inferior to a city for its size. This place

LEBBEUS, a proper name of the apostle JUDE, who was also is celebrated in the Acts of the Apostles for the miraculous cure called Thaddeus. (Matt. x. 3.)

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS of the Jews, account of, 55-57.
LEGIONS (Roman), notice of, 92.

LEPROSY (Disease of). Symptoms and treatment of, 195, 196
Purification of lepers, 134. Leprosy of clothes and houses, ibid.
LETTERS or Epistles, form of, 183.

of Eneas by the apostle Peter (Acts ix. 32. 34.): it was situated at no great distance from Joppa (ix. 38.), on the way from the latter place to Jerusalem. The soil of the surrounding country is said to be very rich.

LYDIA, a woman of Thyatira, who traded in purple cloths, for which that place was celebrated. She was a Jewish prose


lyte, of a sincere and pious character, and prompt in' acknowledging and professing the truth. She was converted to the Christian faith in consequence of the preaching of Saint Paul. (Acts xvi. 14. 40.) Coquerel and others suppose that Lydia, in this place, is merely a patronymic appellation, that is, a Lydian woman; most probably from the circumstance of Thyatira being situated on the confines of Lydia, a province on the western coast of Asia Minor.

LYSTRA, a city of Lycaonia, chiefly celebrated for the miraculous cure there wrought upon the lame man, which made the Lycaonians think the gods were come down to them in the likeness of men (Acts xiv. 10, 11.), and also for the circumcision of Timothy. (xvi. 1.)



MACCABEES, government of, 50. Origin of their name, 50.


MACEDONIA, a province of Greece, formerly called mathia; and from the kings of Macedon, Macedonia. It was bounded on the north by the mountains of Hamus, on the south by Epirus and Achaia, on the east by the Egean, on the west by the Ionian and Adriatic Seas; and it is celebrated in all histories for being the third kingdom, which, under Alexander the Great, obtained the empire of the world, and had under it 150 nations. To this country, whose metropolis was then Thessalonica, Saint Paul was called by a vision (Acts xvi. 9.); and the churches, by him planted in it, are celebrated for their great charity, and ready contribution to the distressed Jews in Judæa (2 Cor. viii. ix.), when they themselves lay under the extremest poverty. MACHERUS, a city and fortress east of the Jordan, between six and nine miles from that river, and not far from its mouth. Here John the Baptist was imprisoned, and subsequently put to death by order of Herod Antipas. (Matt. ix. 2. xiv. 3-12.) This place is not mentioned by name in the New Testament.

MACHPELAH, the name of the cave purchased by Abraham of Ephron the Hittite, for a burial place for his wife Sarah. (Gen. xxxiii. 8.) This cave has been covered by the Turks, "by a large and ancient mosque; and all around the soil is held inviolable. The cave is in the middle of the interior of the edifice; its dark and deep entrance only is visible, and it is rarely entered. ...... The cave is said by the Turks to be deep and very spacious, cut out of the solid rock, and that the resting-places of the patriarchs still exist, and are plainly to be discerned." (Carne's Recollections of the East, pp. 158, 159.)


goodness; and could not fail to convince the apostles of the truth of our Lord's declaration, that no man could take his life from him, and that he could lay it down and resume it again. (John x. 17.) It has indeed been asked, how such a miracle made so little impression upon the company which Judas conducted. The reply is easy. The whole transaction took place in an instant. Peter struck Malchus with a sword. Jesus stood still, with one hand stopped the apostle, and with the other healed the servant; while those who were present, in the middle of the night and by the pale light of torches, scarcely had time to perceive what was passing.

MALICE, crimes of, how punished; 64.
MALTA. See MELITA, p. 436. infra.
MAMRE, Valley of, notice of, 31.

MANAEN, the name of a person who was educated with Herod Agrippa I. (Acts xiii. 1.) Perhaps he was the son of that Manaem (Mavancs) mentioned by Josephus, who predicted the future greatness of Herod. (Ant. Jud. l. xv. c. 10. § 5.) MANASSEH.

1. The eldest son of Joseph; who, being adopted by his grand father, inherited equally with the sons of Jacob. (Gen. xlviii.) For the limits of the territory allotted to the tribe of Manasseh, see pp. 16, 17.

2. MANASSE, the fourteenth king of Judah, succeeded his father Hezekiah, at the early age of twelve years. In the early part of his reign, most probably misled by the profligate counsels of those who detested the reformation introduced by the pious Hezekiah, Manasseh was a most wicked and idolatrous prince; and for his various crimes was carried captive into Babylon, about the twenty-second year of his reign. But, upon his penitent confession of his sins, he was delivered out of captivity and restored to his country (it has been conjectured after about a year's absence), perhaps in consequence of some revolution in the Assyrian empire. The remainder of his life and reign was as exemplary as its commencement had been inauspicious and profligate. The worship of God was restored; the fortifications of Jerusalem were repaired and strengthened; and military officers were placed in all the fenced cities of Judah. (2 Chron. xxxiii.) MAN-SLAUGHTER, punishment of, 63. MAN-STEALING, punishment of, 63.

MANURES of the Jews, notice of, 176, 177.

MARAH, a place in the desert of Arabia, so called from the bitterness of its waters. When the Israelites came out of Egypt, on their arrival in the wilderness of Etham, they found the water so bitter that neither themselves nor their cattle could drink it: on which account they gave the name of Marah or bitterness to MAGDALA, a city and territory on the western side of the lake this encampment. (Exod. xv. 23. Num. xxxiii. 8.) Most traof Gennesaret, not far from Capernaum and Gamala; it is sup-vellers attest that there are several bitter fountains not far from posed to have contained within its precincts Dalmanutha; hence, while Matthew says (xv. 39), Christ came into the coasts of Magdala, St. Mark says more particularly (viii. 10.), that he came into the parts of Dalmanutha.

MAGI, an appellation given among the Persians to priests, wise men, philosophers, and others who devoted themselves to the study of the moral and physical sciences, and who particularly cultivated astrology and medicine. They enjoyed the highest consideration. The wise men from the east, who came to worship the infant Messiah, were philosophers of this description; according to some, they came from Persia, or, in the opinion of others, from Arabia, as the precious gums which they offered were the productions of Arabia.

MAGIC, prevalence of, 143.

MAGISTRATES, persons of, sacred, 44. Crimes against them, how punished among the Jews, 62. Magistrates under the Jewish monarchy, 47.

MAGOG. See Goa, p. 426.

MAHANAIM, a city beyond the Jordan in the tribe of Gad, near the tribe of Manasseh; it was assigned to the Levites. (Josh. xiii. 26. 30. xxi. 38.) Here two hosts or camps of angels met Jacob (Gen. xxxii. 2.), whence the name is derived.

MALACHI, the last of the twelve minor prophets. For an account of him, and an analysis of his predictions, see pp. 288, 289. MALCHUS, a servant of Caiaphas the high-priest, whose name St. John has very naturally preserved, since he was acquainted with Caiaphas. Malchus was one of the company that was commanded to seize Christ in the garden of Gethsemane: Peter cut off his right ear, which was instantly restored and the wound healed by the omnipotent touch of Jesus, who thus conferred upon him a signal benefit at a most critical time. The miraculous healing of Malchus presents a union of justice, power, and

the Red Sea; and Dr. Shaw fixes these waters at Corondel, a place where there is still a small rill, which, unless it be diluted by dews and rain, still continues to be brackish. (Travels, vol. i. p. 104.) A later traveller, who visited this region a century after Dr. S., describing these waters, says, that "the Pool of Marah is of a circular form, about sixty feet round: it gushes forth from a rock at the foot of a barren mountain, and one or two palm trees spread their shade over it. This pool, the only one found for a great distance around, in spite of its clear and tempting appearance, is brackish and bitter to the taste, offering one of the greatest disappointments to the weary traveller, whose thirst indeed may be quenched, though the hope of a sweet and delicious draught is baffled." (Carne's Recollections of the East, p. 348.)

MARESHA, a fenced city in the plain of the tribe of Judah. (Josh. xv. 44.) Jerome and Eusebius call it Morasthi. The prophet Micah was a native of this city, near which was fought the memorable battle between Zerah king of Cush or Ethiopia, and Asa king of Judah, who obtained a most signal victory. (2 Chron. xiv. 8-10.)

MARK, or John-Mark, the author of the second Gospel, was the nephew of Barnabas, and also the companion of Paul and Barnabas in their journey through Greece (Acts xiii. 5. Col. iv. 11.), and afterwards of Barnabas alone. (Acts xv. 37. 39.) He afterwards accompanied Peter. (1 Pet. v. 13.) As he was the son of that Mary, at whose house in Jerusalem the apostles were accustomed to meet, it has been conjectured, with great probability, that he was particularly instructed in the doctrines of the Gospel by Peter, who therefore terms him his son. (1 Tim. v. 13. compared with 1 Tim. i. 2., and 2 Tim. i. 2.) For a further ac count of Mark and of his Gospel, see pp. 304-307. MARKETS, where held, 155.

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