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EL were contemporary, one reigning in one part of Egypt, another kingdom of Egypt, and made it a province of the Persian empire, in another.

A. M. 3654, B.C. 350. (Calmet, Hist. Profane de l'Orient, & v. Sketch of the History of the Egyptian Empire, as connected Dissert. tom. ii. PP. 341—343.)

Enud, the second judge of the Israelites, whom he delivered with that of the Israelites.

from the oppression of Eglon, king of Moab. (Judg. iii. 15 No intercourse subsisted between the Israelites and Egyp- 26.) tians from the departure of the former out of Egypt until the Ékron, a city and government of the Philistines, allotted to reign of Solomon, who having married a daughter of Pharaoh Judah by Joshua (xv. 45.); but afterwards given to Dan. (Josh. (1 Kings iii. 1. vii. 8.), and established a considerable trade be- xix. 43.) It was near the Mediterranean, between Ashdod and tween Egypt and Palestine, the two kingdoms became intimately Jamnia. Ekron was a powerful city; and it does not appear connected. By way of dowry to his daughter, the king of Egypt that the Jews ever peaceably possessed it: the Ekronites were gave Solomon several cities which he had taken from the Philis- the first who proposed to send back the ark, to be delivered from tines. (1 Kings ix. 16.) Afterwards, however, this intimacy those calamities which it brought on their country. (1 Sam. v. 10.) declined, as Pharaoh afforded shelter, even during the life of Beelzebub was adored at Ekron. (2 Kings i. 2.) Solomon, to Jeroboam the son of Nebat (1 Kings xi. 26. 40.), Ela, the fourth king of Israel, succeeded his father Baasha, and to Hadad the son of the king of Edom or Idumea. (Ibid. and reigned two years at Tirza, where he was assassinated by 18, 19.) The connection was totally broken off in the reign of Zimri, at an entertainment given to him by one of his officers. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon : Shishak king of (1 Kings xvi. 6—10.) Egypt invaded the kingdom of Judah, and despoiled the temple Elan, Valley of, notice of, 32. of its treasures. (xiv. 25, 26.)

Elam, the eldest son of Shem, who settled in a country in the Towards the end of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah the south of Media, called after him Elam. Strictly, Elam denotes sovereigns of those countries, finding themselves too weak to ELYMAIS, a district of Persia, near the bottom of the Persian resist the Assyrian and Babylonian monarchs who pressed them Gulf between Media and Babylonia, and forming part of the closely, had frequent recourse to the kings of Egypt for succour. region of Susiana: but in a wider sense it is used generally for But these applications were always fatal to them. The vain Media itself, as in Dan. viii. 2. Gen. x. 22. xiv. 1. Isa. xi. 11. confidence of the people of God in these heathen princes is a fre- xxii. 6. Jer. xlix. 34—39. Ezek. xxxii. 34. In most of these quent subject of reproof in the writings of the prophets. (Isa. passages, Elam is represented as a contentious people, causing xxx. 2. xxxvi. 6. Ezek. xxix. 6, 7. Hosea, passim, particularly disturbance to the neighbouring nations. Strabo says as much chapters vii. viii. and ix.) Hezekiah derived no advantage from concerning the inhabitants of Elymais. In Jer. xxv. 25. and his alliance with the king of Egypt (2 Kings xviii. 21.); neither Acts ii. 9. the inhabitants of this country are mentioned in conwas Hoshea king of Israel benefited by his alliance with So, junction with the Medes. king of the same country. (Hosea vii. 11. viii. 13. ix. 3. xii. 9. Elatı, Eloth, or Ailath, a town and port of Idumea, situJer. ii. 18. 2 Kings xvii. 4.) Josiah king of Judah was slain in ated on the Red Sea. On the conquest of Edom by David, he the vain attempt to oppose the passage of Pharaoh-Necho through took possession of this place, and there established a trade to all his territories, when marching against the Assyrians. (2 Kings parts of the then known world. Solomon built ships here, and xxiii. 29.). Pharaoh pushed on beyond the Euphrates, and took sent them to Ophir. (2 Sam. viii

. 14. 2 Chron. viii. 17, 18.) Carchemish, which place he garrisoned; and on his return Elath continued in possession of the Israelites about 150 years, through Judæa he deposed Jehoahaz, whom the people had raised until, in the reign of Joram, it was recovered by the Edomites to the throne, and placed Eliakim or Jehoiakim in his stead, on (2 Kings viii. 20.), from whom it was retaken by Azariah. whom he imposed a tribute.

2 Kings xiv. 22.) Under his grandson Ahaz it was recaptured The governor of Syria and Phænicia, who held these pro- by the Edomites (xvi. 6.); from whom, after many changes under vinces in behalf of the king of Babylon, having put them under the Ptolemies, it finally passed into the possession of the Romans. the dominion of the king of Egypt, Nabopolassar, king of Assy- It was anciently a great emporium for the Tyrians. ria, sent his son Nebuchadnezzar against him; who first retook EL-BETHEL (Gen. xxxv. 7.), and El-ELOHE-ISRAEL (Gen. Carchemish, and afterwards reduced the whole of the country xxxii. 20.), the name of two altars erected by Jacob after his between the Euphrates and the Nile to his father's sceptre. (Jer. return to Canaan. The first signifies, that God was still the God xlvi. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. x. c. 6.)

of Bethel to him in performing the promises there made: the A. m. 3334, B. c. 670. Psammetichus succeeded his father second implies, that the mighty God was still the object of worPharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, and reigned six years. (Hero- ship to him and his offspring. dotus, lib. ii. c. 159—161.) After his death Apries (the Pha- Èldad and MEDAD were two of the seventy elders appointed raoh-Hophra of the Scriptures) ascended the throne. He made by Moses ; who received the temporary gift of prophesying, or an alliance with Zedekiah king of Judah, and with the king of of forming divine hymns, and singing them to Gud. (Num. Ethiopia, against Nebuchadnezzar. The latter marched against xi. 26.) them, and besieged Jerusalem. The king of Egypt came to the ELDERS of the Israelites. See p. 42. Elders of the gate, assistance of Zedekiah, but was repulsed, and obliged to retire p. 54. into his own country, whither he was pursued by Nebuchadnez- ELEAZAR. zar, who, after taking the cities of Jerusalem and Tyre, conquered 1. The third son of Aaron, whom he succeeded in the pontiand ravaged Egypt, whence he carried away great numbers of ficate. Having been born in the desert, he entered the land of captives, agreeably to the predictions of Jeremiah (xliii. xliv. Canaan, in the division of which he assisted Joshua. After xlvi.) and Ezekiel. (xxix.—xxxi.) Apries was put to death, and executing the office of high-priest about 23 years, he died and Amasis, his enemy and rival for the Egyptian sceptre, was ele- was buried in the mountains of Ephraim. vated to the throne, A. M. 3435, B. C. 569.

2. The son of Abinadab : he was sanctified or set apart to Egypt continued subject to Nebuchadnezzar and his succes- keep the ark of God, which was deposited in his father's house, sors until the time of Cyrus the Great. This power rebelled after it had been sent back to the Israelites, by the Philistines. towards the close of his reign. Cambyses, his son and successor, (1 Sam. viii. 1.) conducted an immense army into Egypt. That country was 3. The son of Dodo, the second of David's mighty men, who again subdued, and suffered every excess which the cruel victor distinguished himself by his brave achievements. He was one could possibly inflict upon it, A. M. 3479, B.C. 525. In the reign of the three warriors who forced their way through the Philisof Darius, the son of Hystaspes, the Egyptians once more shook tine forces, to procure water for David from the well of Bethleoff the Persian yoke, but were reduced to a more oppressive hem, at the imminent hazard of their lives. (1 Chron. xi. 17 bondage than before by his son and successor Xerxes. In those --19.) two invasions the predictions of Isaiah (xxix.) and Jeremiah Eléct Lady, more correctly, the Lady Electa, a pious Chris(xliii. 11–13.) were most signally fulfilled.

tian matron, commended by St. John in his second Epistle. ComA. m. 3544, B.C. 460. During the reign of Artaxerxes Longi- pare p. 376. manus, the Egyptians once more took up arms, and with the ELEPHANTIASIS, the disease of Job, 196. assistance of the Greeks, their allies, protracted the war for six ELHANAN. years. Again reduced to the Persian yoke, they continued de- 1. Another son of Dodo, and one of David's warriors. (1 Chron. pendent on the Persian monarchs, though governed by their xi.26.) kings, until the reign of Artaxerxes surnamed Ochus, who, in 2. The son of Jair, or Jaare-oregim, another warrior, who order to punish them for a fourth revolt, totally destroyed the slew the giant Lahmi, the brother of Goliath. (2 Sam. xxi. 19.)

EL

EP Elr.

Elkosa, the birth-place of the prophet Nahum (i. 1.): it is 1. The seventh high-priest of the Israelites, whom he judged either Alkush

in Assyria, where, Gesenius thinks, he might have forty years: he was descended from Ithamar. It is not known been born of Israelitish parents; or, according to Jerome, Elcese, why the pontifical dignity was transferred to him from the family a village in Galilee. of Eleazar. He was severely reproved for his false indulgences Elul, the sixth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and to his profligate sons, Hophni and Phinehas: he died suddenly the twelfth month of the civil year. The etymology of this on hearing tidings of the capture of the ark, and the total dis- word is obscure. For a notice of the festivals in this month, comfiture of the Israelites by the Philistines. (1 Sam. ii. iii.) see p. 76.

2. The name of a man, who was the father of Joseph, the Elymais. See ELAM. husband of Mary. (Luke iii. 23.)

Elymas. See Bar-Jesus, p. 557. ELIAKIM.

EMBALMING, Egyptian and Jewish processes of. See p. 198. 1. A governor of the royal household, under Hezekiah ; by EmiMs, the ancient inhabitants of the land of Canaan, to the whom he was deputed, with others, to receive the proposals of east and north-east of the Dead Sea. They were a numerous, Rabshakeh, on the part of Sennacherib. He succeeded Shebna warlike, and gigantic race, probably descended from Ham. They in this office, agreeably to the prediction of Isaiah ; who highly were defeated by Chedorlaomer in Shaveh Kiriathaim, or the eulogized his character, and, under images borrowed from the Plain of Kiriathaim. (Gen. xiv. 5.) genius of oriental poetry, promised that he should enjoy un- Emmaus, a small village of Judæa, distant sixty furlongs from bounded confidence and authority.

Jerusalem. It is memorable for the very interesting conversation 2. A king of Judah, the son of Josiah, whose name was after between Jesus Christ and two of his disciples in the evening of wards changed by Pharaoh-Necho king of Egypt into JEHOIAKIM the day of his resurrection. (Luke xxiv.) “The mean and tri(which see).

fling village, all that now exists, of Emmaus, stands on an emiELIAS. See ELIJAH.

nence, in the midst of hills. The people, who live here, are poor ELIASHIB, grandson of Joshua, the high-priest, rebuilt part of and wretched; they are chiefly Christians.” (Carne's Recollecthe wall of Jerusalem. He was allied, by marriage, to Tobiah tions of the East, p. 213.) the Ammonite, to whom he gave spacious apartments in the ENCAMPMENTS of the Jews, 86, 87. second temple, to the scandal of his religion, and the great Es-dor, a city belonging to the half-tribe of Manasseh on damage of the country. (Neh. xii. 10. iii. 1. xiii. 4—9.) the west side of the Jordan : according to Eusebius, it was four ELIEZER.

Roman miles to the south of Mount Tabor. Here dwelt the 1. The chief of Abraham's servants, and eminent for the con- sorceress, who was consulted by Saul a short time before the fidence reposed in him by the patriarch, as well as for the piety fatal battle of Gilboa. and prudence with which he executed the commission

pro- Ex-EGLAIM, or the fountain of calves, a place situated on the curing a wife for Isaac. (Gen. xxiv.). Before the birth of Isaac, northern point of the Dead Sea. (Ezek. xlvii. 10.) it should seem that Abraham had designed to make him his heir. Ex-GEDDA, mountains of, 30. (Gen. xv. 2.)

EN-GEDI, or the fountain of the kid, anciently called Haza2. The son of Dodabah, a prophet, who foretold to Jehosha- zon Tamar, was a city in the tribe of Judah, not far from the phat, that the trade-fleet, which he had fitted out in conjunction southern point of the Dead Sea. Its surrounding district with the unworthy Ahaziah, should be wrecked, and prevented abounded with palm trees and vines. (Josh. xv. 62. 2 Chron. from sailing to Tarshish. (2 Chron. xx. 37.).

xx. 2. Song of Sol. i. 14.) In the vicinity of this place was Elinu, one of the interlocutors in the book of Job, was “the the cave of En-gedi; for a notice of which, see p. 32. son of Barachel the Buzite, of the kindred of Ram," or Aram. ENGRAVING, art of, among the Jews, 183. (Job xxxii. 2. Gen. xxii. 21.) He was of the family of the En-MISPHAT, or the fountain of judgment, the same as the patriarch Abraham, and was descended from Buz the son of Na- waters of Meribah, or contention, the name of a fountain in the hor and Milcah: it is most probable that that branch of the desert of Sin, otherwise called Kadesh. patriarchal family settled in Idumea.

EN-ROGEL, or the fountain of the spy, a fountain on the southELIJAH, or Elias, after Moses, was the most celebrated pro- east of Jerusalem : it is supposed to be the same as the fountain phet of the Old Testament, surnamed the Tishbite, from Thisbe of SILOAM; for a notice of which, see p. 28. the place of his birth. He was a strenuous vindicator of the Exoch. worship of the true God, in opposition to the idolatrous kings 1. The son of Cain, in honour of whom the first city menunder whom he lived. (1 Kings xvii.- xix.) He was miracu- tioned in Scripture was called Enoch by his father, who erected lously translated to heaven (2 Kings ii. 1-11.); and many ages it. (Gen. iv. 17.) It is supposed to have been situated on the after a still more distinguished honour awaited him. Elijah and east of Eden. Moses are the only men whose history does not terminate with 2. The father of Methuselah, memorable for his piety. Having their departure out of this world. Elijah appeared, together with lived 365 years, he was translated, and did not see death. (Gen. Moses, on Mount Tabor, at the time of Christ's transfiguration, v. 18. 24. Heb. xi. 5.) The memory of which event is confirmed and conversed with him respecting the great work of redemption, by heathen traditions, Vol. I. p. 71. According to the modern which he was about to accomplish. (Matt. xvii. 1—3. and the Jews, and the Arabians (who call him Idris the learned), he parallel passages in Mark and Luke.) For an illustration of was the inventor of letters, arithmetic, and astronomy; probably the conduct of Elijah towards the prophets of Baal, see p. 141. from the etymology of the name, which signifies initiated or ini

Elim, the seventh encampment of the Hebrews, in the north tiating. For a notice of the apocryphal prophecy of Enoch, see skirt of the desert, where they found twelve fountains and seventy Vol. I. p. 318. palm trees. When this place was visited by Dr. Shaw, in the Enon, a place or fountain, not far from Salim, where John early part of the eighteenth century, he found here nine wells or baptized many persons. According to Eusebius, it was eight fountains, and 2000 palm trees. (Exod. xv. 27.)

Roman miles from Scythopolis, and fifty-three north-east of JeEliphaz, surnamed the Temanite, one of the friends of Job, rusalem. was most probably descended from Eliphaz the son of Esau, to Enos, the son of Seth and grandson of Adam, was born A. M. whom the city or district of Teman was allotted. (Dr. Good, 235, and died at the age of 905 years : consequently he was on Job ii. 11.)

contemporary with Adam 695 years, and 84 years with Noah. Elisha, the successor of Elijah in the prophetic office: he After the birth of Enos, divine worship, which till that time had wrought numerous miracles in the kingdom of Israel, which are been confined to private families, became public. The descendrelated in 2 Kings ii.-xiii. See Vol. I. p. 412. where the de-ants of Seth separated themselves from the descendants of Cain, struction of forty-two young persons by this prophet is vindicated and invoked the name of God, probably on fixed days, and in from the cavils of skeptics.

assemblies where every one was admitted. (Gen. v. 6. i Chron. ELISHAH, Isles of Elisan, a Grecian province whence purple i. 1. Gen. iv, 26.) was brought to Tyre. (Gen. x. 4. Ezek. xxvii. 7.) According ENTERTAINMENTS of the Jews. See pp. 172, 173. to Prof. Gesenius, the name is most probably akin to Elis, which EPENETUS, the first person in proconsular Asia who emin a wider sense is used for the whole Peloponnesus. According braced the Christian faith. (Rom. xvi. 5.) In which passage, to others, it is Hellas, or Greece. This country most probably many modern versions, and among them our authorized version, derived its name from Elishah the son of Javan, whose descend-read Achaia, which is a mistake in the copy whence they were ants peopled part of Greece.

made: for the Alexandrian and Vatican manuscripts, the Co. GA

GA Gálatja, a province of Asia Minor, bounded on the west by first book of Chronicles, who says, that the sons of Ephraim Phrygia, on the east by the river Halys, on the north by Paphla- being in Egypt, attacked the city of Gath, and were there slain. gonia, and on the south by Lycaonia. This country derived its (1 Chron. vii. 21.) name from the Gauls, two tribes of whom (the Trocmi and Tolis- Jerome says, there was a large town called Gath, in the way toboii) with a tribe of the Celts, or according to Prof. Hug, Ger- from Eleutheropolis to Gaza ; and Eusebius speaks of another mans' (the Tectosages), finding their own country too small to Gath, five miles from Eleutheropolis, toward Lydda (consesupport its redundant population, migrated thither after the sack- quently different from that which Jerome speaks of); also aning of Rome by Brennus; and mingling with the former inhabit- Other Gath, or Gattha, between Jamnia and Antipatris. Jerome ants, and adopting the Greek language, the whole were called likewise, speaking of Gath-Opher, the place of the prophet Gallo-Græci. During the reign of Augustus (A.U.c.529, B. c. 26.), Jonah's birth, says, it was called Gath-Opher, or Gath, in the Galatia was reduced into a Roman province, and was thenceforth district of Opher, to distinguish it from others of the sanie governed by the Roman laws, under the administration of a pro- name. prætor. The Galatians seem to have preserved their native Gath was the most southern city of the Philistines, as Ekron religion, to which they superadded the worship of the great was the most northern ; so that Ekron and Gath are placed as mother of the gods. Their principal cities were Ancyra, Tavium, the boundaries of their land. (1 Sam. vii. 14. xvii. 52.) Gath and Pessinus; the latter of which carried on some commerce. lay near Mareshah (2 Chron. xi. 8. Micah i. 14. Heb.), which Callimachus (Hymn. in Delum. v. 184.) and Hilary (Hymn. nearly agrees with Jerome, who places Gath on the road from Hieron. pref. in. ep. ad Galat.), who was himself a Gaul, repre- Eleutheropolis to Gaza. Gath was a place of strength, in the sent them as a very foolish people; whence St. Paul says, (iii, 1.) time of the prophets Amos and Micah, independent of the kings O FOOLISH Galatians, who hath bewitched you? This church was of Judah (Amos vi. 2. Micah i. 10. 14.); but was taken by so dangerously perverted, and almost overturned, by the Judaizers Uzziah, king of Judah, while Amos was living; and afterwards there, that the apostle, in his epistle to them, does not call them by Hezekiah, in Micah's time. Gethaim (2 Sam. iv. 3. Neh. xi. saints. See an analysis of his epistle to the Galatians in Vol. II. 33.) is Gath. David had a company of Gittite guards. pp. 337, 338. Galatia was also the seat of colonies from various GAULONITIS, District of, 18. nations, among whom were many Jews; and from all of these Gaza, a very celebrated city of the Jews, distant about 60 St. Paul appears to have made many converts to Christianity. miles south-west from Jerusalem : it was one of the five cities (Gal. i. 2. i Cor. xvi. 1. 2 Tim. 4. 10. 1 Pet. i. 1.) According of the Philistines, which fell by lot to the tribe of Judah (Josh. to Josephus (Ant. Jud. lib. xvi. c. 6.), the Jews here enjoyed con- xv. 47.), and which offered their golden emerods to the God of siderable privileges. Robinson, voce Tematia; Hug's Introd. vol. Israel for a trespass-offering. (1 Sam. vi. 17.) Its gates were ii. pp. 363—365.)

carried away by Samson (Judg. xvi. 2.), and hither he was conGALILEE, Upper and Lower, 17, 18. The Galilæans were ducted when taken by the Philistines (v. 21.), three thousand of accounted brave and industrious, though the other Jews affected whom, both men and women, were assembled on the roof of the to consider them as not only stupid and unpolished, but also se temple of their god Dagon (27.), and perished when Samson ditious, and therefore proper objects of contempt. (John i. 47. pulled it down. (30.) “If any one should question the possiviii. 52.) They were easily distinguished from the Jews of Jeru- bility of 3000 people being upon the roof of the temple in quessalem by a pecculiar dialect; for a notice of which, see p. 17. and tion, he may be referred to the accounts of the temples at Thebes note 2.

in Upper Egypt, which have been given by all recent travellers; GALILÆANS, sect of, principles of, 148.

accounts, which, while they come to us authenticated in such a GALILEE OF THE Nations, 18.

manner as to admit of no doubt in regard to their verity and GALILEE, Sea of, account of, 26, 27.

correctness, at the same time present things apparently incredible, Gallio, a proconsul of Achaia, was the elder brother of the and contrary to all the philosophizing of most speculative and philosopher Seneca, and was called Marcus Annæus Novatus; theoretical historians. The ruins of ancient Greece and Rome, but took the name of Gallio, after being adopted into the family so far as vastness and extent are concerned, dwindle into insigniof Lucius Junius Gallio. Before his tribunal Saint Paul was ficance when compared with the astonishing remains of early dragged at Corinth. His conduct on that occasion exhibits him architecture at Thebes. What is most confounding of all to that in the character of a mild and amiable man; and St. Luke's philosophizing, in which historians of a skeptical cast are prone account is confirmed by profane writers. See Vol. I. p. 79. to indulge, is, that these mighty ruins are, beyond all doubt, the

GAMALIEL, a Pharisee and an eminent doctor of the law, under relics of architecture designed and executed in ages, when (as whom St. Paul was educated. (Acts v. 24. xxii. 3.) He possessed some popular writers admonish us to believe) men were not yet great influence among the Jews, and is said by some to have pre-weaned from contending with the beasts of the forest for their sided over the sanhedrin during the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, lairs and for their acorns, nor but very little elevated above them. and Claudius.

The ruins at Thebes present evidences of control over physical, Games, Olympic, allusions to, explained, 191—194. Gym- mechanical power; of skill in architecture on a scale of surprisnastic games in imitation of them among the Jews, 190. ing magnitude; and of art in mixing and laying on colours, that Gardexs of the Hebrews, notice of, 180.

are fresh as if painted but yesterday, after having been laid on GARMENTS of the priests, 113. Of the high-priests, 113, 114. for more than thirty centuries; which confound and put to Rending of, a sign of mourning, 159. Great wardrobes of, shame all that the arts and sciences, and the experience of three ibid.

thousand years, have since been able to accomplish. So much Gates of cities, 155.; were seats of justice, 54. Gates of for the rudeness, and barbarity, and ignorance of the primitive Jerusalem, 19, 20.

ages. The Philistines, the near neighbours of the Egyptians, Gath, a city of the Philistines, one of their five principalities and their hearty coadjutors in polytheism, might well have, and (1 Sam. vi. 17.), famous for having given birth to Goliath. David doubtless had, large temples as well as they ; large enough to conquered it in the beginning of his reign over all Israel (1 Sam. afford room for three thousand, and some of them not improbaxvii. 4.): it continued subject to his successors till the declension bly for many more, to stand upon the roof. As to the strength of the kingdom of Judah. Rehoboam rebuilt or fortified it. of Samson, in tearing away pillars on which such enormous (2 Chron. xi. 8.) Uzziah reconquered it, as did Hezekiah. Jose weight rested ;—those, who disbelieve any thing which is miraphus makes it part of the tribe of Dan; but Joshua takes no culous, will of course regard the whole as a mythos (or fable); notice of it. Calmet thinks, that Mithcah, mentioned by Moses those, who admit the reality of miracles, will doubtless be ready (Num. xxxiii. 29.), is the Metheg in 2 Sam. viii. 1. In our au- to believe, that there was some supernatural aid afforded him in thorized version it is rendered, David took Metheg-Ammah, that the case under consideration. A heavy blow was inflicted upon is, Metheg the Mother, which, in 1 Chron: xviii. 1., is explained polytheism by the event in question, and on its votaries, who by–He took Gath and her daughters (or towns); Gath being were the enemies of God's chosen people.” (Stuart's Hebr. the mother, and Metheg the daughter. But it may be that the Chrestomathy, pp. 189, 190.) district of Gath and its dependencies was called in David's time After destroying Tyre, Alexander the Great besieged Gaza, Metheg-Ammah; but this being unusual, or becoming obsolete, which was at that time held by a Persian garrison, and took it the author of the Chronicles explains it to be Gath and its vil- after a siege of two months. He appears to have left the city lages. According to this idea, Gath of the Philistines, the birth standing; but afterwards, B.c. 96, Alexander Jannæus, reigning place of giants (2 Sam. xxi. 20. 22.), must lie far in Arabia prince of the Jews, took it after a siege of a year and destroyed Petræa, towards Egypt, which is confirmed by the author of the it. Thus was Gaza made desolate agreeably to the prediction of EL

EP Eli.

Elkosh, the birth-place of the prophet Nahum (i. 1.): it is 1. The seventh high-priest of the Israelites, whom he judged either Alkush in Assyria, where, Gesenius thinks, he might have forty years : he was descended from Ithamar. It is not known been born of Israelitish parents; or, according to Jerome, Elcese, why the pontifical dignity was transferred to him from the family a village in Galilee. of Eleazar. He was severely reproved for his false indulgences Elul, the sixth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and to his profligate sons, Hophni and Phinehas: he died suddenly the twelfth month of the civil year. The etymology of this on hearing tidings of the capture of the ark, and the total dis- word is obscure. For a notice of the festivals in this month, comfiture of the Israelites by the Philistines. (1 Sam. ii. iii.) see p. 76.

2. The name of a man, who was the father of Joseph, the ELIMAIS. See ELAM. husband of Mary. (Luke iii. 23.)

ELYMAS. See BAR-Jesus, p. 557. ELIAKIN.

EMBALMING, Egyptian and Jewish processes of. See p. 198. 1. A governor of the royal household, under Hezekiah ; by Emins, the ancient inhabitants of the land of Canaan, to the whom he was deputed, with others, to receive the proposals of east and north-east of the Dead Sea. They were a numerous, Rabshakeh, on the part of Sennacherib. He succeeded Shebna warlike, and gigantic race, probably descended from Ham. They in this office, agreeably to the prediction of Isaiah ; who highly were defeated by Chedorlaomer in Shaveh Kiriathaim, or the eulogized his character, and, under images borrowed from the Plain of Kiriathaim. (Gen. xiv. 5.) genius of oriental poetry, promised that he should enjoy un- Emmaus, a small village of Judæa, distant sixty furlongs from bounded confidence and authority.

Jerusalem. It is memorable for the very interesting conversation 2. A king of Judah, the son of Josiah, whose name was after between Jesus Christ and two of his disciples in the evening of wards changed by Pharaoh-Necho king of Egypt into JEHOIAKIM the day of his resurrection. (Luke xxiv.) “The mean and tri(which see).

fling village, all that now exists, of Emmaus, stands on an emiELIAS. See Elijau.

nence, in the midst of hills. The people, who live here, are poor ELIASHIB, grandson of Joshua, the high-priest, rebuilt part of and wretched; they are chiefly Christians." (Carne's Recollecthe wall of Jerusalem. He was allied, by marriage, to Tobiah tions of the East, p. 213.) the Ammonite, to whom he gave spacious apartments in the ExCAMPMENTS of the Jews, 86, 87. second temple, to the scandal of his religion, and the great Es-dor, a city belonging to the half-tribe of Manasseh on damage of the country. (Neh. xii. 10. iii. 1. xiii. 4–9.) the west side of the Jordan : according to Eusebius, it was four ELIEZER.

Roman miles to the south of Mount Tabor. Here dwelt the 1. The chief of Abraham's servants, and eminent for the con- sorceress, who was consulted by Saul a short time before the fidence reposed in him by the patriarch, as well as for the piety fatal battle of Gilboa. and prudence with which he executed the commission of pro- Ex-EGLAIM, or the fountain of calves, a place situated on the curing a wife for Isaac. (Gen. xxiv.). Before the birth of Isaac, northern point of the Dead Sea. (Ezek. xlvii. 10.) it should seem that Abraham had designed to make him his heir. EN-GEDDA, mountains of, 30. (Gen. xv. 2.)

Ex-GEDI, or the fountain of the kid, anciently called Haza2. The son of Dodabah, a prophet, who foretold to Jehosha-zon Tamar

, was a city in the tribe of Judah, not far from the phat, that the trade-fleet, which he had fitted out in conjunction southern point of the Dead Sea. Its surrounding district with the unworthy Ahaziah, should be wrecked, and prevented abounded with palm trees and vines. (Josh. xv. 62. 2 Chron. from sailing to Tarshish. (2 Chron. xx. 37.)

XX. 2. Song of Sol. i. 14.) In the vicinity of this place was Elinu, one of the interlocutors in the book of Job, was "the the cave of En-gedi; for a notice of which, see p. 32. son of Barachel the Buzite, of the kindred of Ram,” or Aram. ENGRAVING, art of, among the Jews, 183. (Job xxxii. 2. Gen. xxii. 21.) He was of the family of the En-MISPHAT, or the fountain of judgment, the same as the patriarch Abraham, and was descended from Buz the son of Na- waters of Meribah, or contention, the name of a fountain in the hor and Milcah: it is most probable that that branch of the desert of Sin, otherwise called Kadesh. patriarchal family settled in Idumæa.

Ex-ROGEL, or the fountain of the spy, a fountain on the southELIJAH, or Elias, after Moses, was the most celebrated pro- east of Jerusalem : it is supposed to be the same as the fountain phet of the Old Testament, surnamed the Tishbite, from Thisbe of Siloam; for a notice of which, see p. 28. the place of his birth. He was a strenuous vindicator of the Exoch. worship of the true God, in opposition to the idolatrous kings 1. The son of Cain, in honour of whom the first city menunder whom he lived. (1 Kings xvii.-xix.) He was miracu- tioned in Scripture was called Enoch by his father, who erected lously translated to heaven (2 Kings ii. 1–11.); and many ages it. (Gen. iv. 17.) It is supposed to have been situated on the after a still more distinguished honour awaited him. Elijah and east of Eden. Moses are the only men whose history does not terminate with 2. The father of Methuselah, memorable for his piety. Having their departure out of this world. Elijah appeared, together with lived 365 years, he was translated, and did not see death. (Gen. Moses, on Mount Tabor, at the time of Christ's transfiguration, v. 18. 24. Heb. xi. 5.) The memory of which event is confirmed and conversed with him respecting the great work of redemption, by heathen traditions, Vol. I. p. 71. According to the modern which he was about to accomplish. (Matt. xvii. 1—3. and the Jews, and the Arabians (who call him Idris the learned), he parallel passages in Mark and Luke.) For an illustration of was the inventor of letters, arithmetic, and astronomy; probably the conduct of Elijah towards the prophets of Baal, see p. 141. from the etymology of the name, which signifies initiated or ini

Elim, the seventh encampment of the Hebrews, in the north tiating. For a notice of the apocryphal prophecy of Enoch, see skirt of the desert, where they found twelve fountains and seventy Vol. I. p. 318. palm trees. When this place was visited by Dr. Shaw, in the Eson, a place or fountain, not far from Salim, where John early part of the eighteenth century, he found here nine wells or baptized many persons. According to Eusebius, it was eight fountains, and 2000 palm trees. (Exod. xv. 27.)

Roman miles from Scythopolis, and fifty-three north-east of JeEliphaz, surnamed the Temanite, one of the friends of Job, rusalem. was most probably descended from Eliphaz the son of Esau, to Enos, the son of Seth and grandson of Adam, was born a. M. whom the city or district of Teman was allotted. (Dr. Good, 235, and died at the age of 905 years : consequently he was on Job ii. 11.)

contemporary with Adam 695 years, and 84 years with Noah. Elisha, the successor of Elijah in the prophetic office: he After the birth of Enos, divine worship, which till that time had wrought numerous miracles in the kingdom of Israel

, which are been confined to private families, became public. The descendrelated in 2 Kings ii.-xiii. See Vol. I. p. 412. where the de-ants of Seth separated themselves from the descendants of Cain, struction of forty-two young persons by this prophet is vindicated and invoked the name of God, probably on fixed days, and in from the cavils of skeptics.

assemblies where every one was admitted. (Gen. v. 6. i Chron. ELISHAH, Isles of ÈLISHAH, a Grecian province whence purple i. 1. Gen. iv. 26.) was brought to Tyre. (Gen. x. 4. Ezek. xxvii. 7.) According ENTERTAINMENTs of the Jews. See pp. 172, 173. to Prof. Gesenius, the name is most probably akin to Elis, which EPENETUS, the first person in proconsular Asia who emin a wider sense is used for the whole Peloponnesus. According braced the Christian faith. (Rom. xvi. 5.) In which passage, to others, it is Hellas, or Greece. This country most probably many modern versions, and among them our authorized version, derived its name from Elishah the son of Javan, whose descend-read Achaia, which is a mistake in the copy whence they were ants peopled part of Greece.

made: for the Alexandrian and Vatican manuscripts, the Co

EP

EU dices Ephrem, Claromontanus, Augiensis, and Boernerianus, rous. He gave his name to one of the tribes of Israel; for the and the readings in the Codex Vindobonensis Lambecianus 34. limits allotted to which, see p. 17. The Ephraimites were un(No. 37. of Griesbach's notation), together with the Memphitic, able to utter the sound sh, to which they gave the sound of s. Armenian, Ethiopic, and Vulgate versions, besides many Latin (Judg. xii. 6.) It is a singular circumstance, that the modern fathers,—all read Agius instead of 'Axalasi which lection Gries- Greeks have not the sound of sh in their language. Hence bach considers as certainly equal, if not preferable, to the re- they are liable to be detected like the Ephraimites. (Hartley's ceived reading. That it is preferable to that reading is clear Researches in Greece, p. 232.) from 1 Cor. xvi

. 15., where the family of Stephanas is said to 2. A considerable city of Judæa, eight Roman miles north of be the first-fruits of Achaia."

Jerusalem, according to Eusebius, and near a desert of the same EPAParas, the coadjutor of St. Paul in his labours, was re- name ; to which Jesus Christ retired after he had raised Lazarus puted to be the first bishop of the church at Colossæ, to which from the dead. (John xi. 54.) he was affectionately attached. (Col. i. 17. iv. 12. Philem. 23.) 3. Ephraim, Forest of, 36. He was with St. Paul during his first imprisonment; and has 4. Ephraim, Mountains of, 30. sometimes, but without proof, been confounded with

EPARATAH. EPAPHRODITUS, whom that apostle styles a fellow-labourer 1. Another name for the town of Bethlehem. (Mic. v. 2.) and fellow-soldier, as having participated in his labours and 2. The lot of Ephraim. (Psal. cxxxii. 6.) dangers. He appears to have been the minister of the Philip- EPICUREANS, the followers of Epicurus, celebrated Athepian church, by which he was sent to carry pecuniary aid to St. nian philosopher: they acknowledged no gods, except in name Paul, who speaks of him in terms of great respect. (Phil. iv. only, and absolutely denied that they exercised any providence 18. ii. 25—30.)

over the world. For an illustration of Saint Paul's masterly EPHESDAMMIM, a place between Shochoh and Azekah on the address to them at Athens, see p. 326, 327. west of the valley of Elah. Here the army of the Philistines EPISTLES, Ancient, form of, 183. was encamped, when Goliath insulted the hosts of Israel : and Epochas of the Jews, account of, 77. here also they were found after David's coronation, and suffered ERASTUS, treasurer of the city of Corinth, who embraced a great slaughter.

Christianity and became the fellow-labourer of Saint Paul. Ephesus was the metropolis of proconsular Asia. (On the ESAR-HADDON, the son and successor of Sennacherib king of powers of the “ assembly” held in this city, see pp. 135, 136.) Assyria ; for a notice of whose reign, see Assyria, p. 410. This celebrated city, the remains of which give a high idea of col. 2. its former beauty, extent, and magnificence, was situated in that Esau, or EDOM, the eldest son of Isaac, and the twin brother part of Asia which was anciently called Ionia (but now Natolia), of Jacob. He delighted much in hunting ; while Jacob, being about five miles from the Ægean Sea, on the sides and at the of a more domestic turn, became the favourite of his mother foot of a range of mountains overlooking a tine plain that was Rebekah, by whose counsel and direction he surreptitiously obwatered and fertilized by the river Cayster. Ephesus was par- tained his father's blessing in preference to Esau ; who found no ticularly celebrated for the temple of Diana, a most magnificent place or scope for a change of purpose in his father, though he and stately edifice, which had been erected at the common sought it carefully with tears. (Gen. xxvii. 1—34. Heb. xii. expense of the inhabitants of Asia Proper, and was reputed one 17.) On Jacob's return into Canaan from Mesopotamia, whither of the seven wonders of the world ; but the very site of this he had fled to avoid his brother's resentment, Esau received him stupendous and celebrated edifice is now undetermined. Widely with great kindness; and on Isaac's death he returned to Mount scattered and noble ruins attest the splendour of the theatre Seir. Concerning the remainder of his life or the manner of mentioned in Acts xix. 31.; the elevated situation of which, on his death the Scriptures are silent. In the historical and proMount Prion, accounts for the case with which an immense phetical books, Esau and Edom respectively denote Idumæa and multitude was collected, the loud shouts of whose voices, rever- the Idumean tribes. In Rom. ix. 13. where St. Paul cites Mal. berated from the neighbouring Mount Corissus, would not a i. 2, 3., the apostle is evidently treating only of the posterities little augment the uproar which was occasioned by the populace of Jacob and Esau. rushing into the theatre. In the time of Saint Paul, this city ESDRAELON, Plain of, account of, 33. abounded with orators and philosophers; and its inftabitants, in Esacol, Valley of, a fertile vale in the land of Canaan and their Gentile state, were celebrated for their idolatry and skill in in the southern part of Judah. Here the Hebrew spies, while magic, as well as for their luxury and lasciviousness. The pre- exploring the country, cut a very large cluster of grapes, which sent state of Ephesus affords a striking illustration of the ac- was carried back by two men, as a specimen of the delicious complishment of prophecy. Ephesus is the first of the apoca fruit produced by the country. lyptic churches addressed by the evangelist in the name of Jesus ESPOUSALS, Jewish, form of, 160, 161. Christ. “His charge against her is a declension in religious ESSENES, sect of, account of, 146. fervour (Rev. ii. 4.), and his threat in consequence (Rev. ii. 5.), Esther, or HADAssah, the great niece of Mordecai, by whom a total extinction of her ecclesiastical brightness. After a pro- she was adopted. On the divorce of Vashti, she became the tracted struggle with the sword of Rome, and the sophisms of queen consort of Ahasuerus : her history is related in the book the Gnostics, Ephesus at last gave way. The incipient indif- of Esther; for an analysis of which, see pp. 225, 226. ference, censured by the warning voice of the prophet, increased ETAM. to a total forgetfulness; till, at length, the threatenings of the 1. A city in the tribe of Judah between Bethlehem and TeApocalypse were fulfilled, and Ephesus sunk with the general koah. (2 Chron. xi. 6.) overthrow of the Greek empire in the fourteenth century.” 2. A rock, to which Samson retired after he had burned tha (Emerson's Letters from the Ægean, vol. i. pp. 212, 213.) harvest of the Philistines. (Judg. xv. 8.) From a celebrated Èphesus is now under the dominion of the Turks, and is in a spring near this place, Pilate (and probably Solomon before state of almost total ruin. The plough has passed over the city; him) brought water by an aqueduct into Jerusalem. and in March, 1826, when visited by the Rev. Messrs. Hartley ETHAM, the third station of the Israelites after their departure and Arundell, green corn was growing, in all directions, amidst from Egypt. (Num. xxiii. 6. Exod. xiii. 20.) It is now called the forsaken ruins: and one solitary individual only was found Etti. who bore the name of Christ, instead of its once flourishing Etuan, the Ezrahite, was one of the philosophers, to whom church. Where once assembled thousands exclaimed, “Great Solomon was compared for wisdom in 1 Kings iv. 31. and i Chron. is Diana of the Ephesians," now the eagle yells and the jackal ii. 6. The 89th psalm is ascribed to him. moans. In the time of the Romans, Ephesus was the metropolis ETHANIM, the ancient name of the first month of the Jewish of Asia Minor. (Hartley's Journal, in Missionary Register, civil year. For a notice of the festivals, &c. in this month, see 1827, pp. 290—292. Arundell's Visit to the Seven Churches, p. 75. pp. 27–56.)

Ethics cultivated by the Jews, 186. EPuod of Gideon, 137; and of the High-priests, 113, 114. ETHIOPIA. See Cush, p. 417. col. 2. On the prophecy conEPHRAIM,

cerning Ethiopia, and its fulfilment, see Vol. I. p. 125. 1. The youngest son of Joseph by Asenath, was adopted and EUNICE, the mother of Timothy, and the wife of a Greek problessed by Jacob; who laid his right hand on Ephraim, and his selyte. She was early converted to the Christian faith. St. Paul left on the head of Manasseh, to intimate that the youngest son has pronounced a high eulogium on her piety. (Acts xvi. 1 should be greater than the eldest, and his posterity more nume- 1 2 Tim. i. 5.)

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