civil year.

CA tremity to the other; and in the background, stretching beyond Philip the Tetrarch built it, or, at least, embellished and enlarged

he utmost power of vision, are the mountains of Gilead. On a it, and named it Cæsarea, in honour of Tiberius ; afterwards, in clear day the view in that direction must be more than forty compliment to Nero, it was called Neronius. The woman who miles.” (Jowett's Researches in Syria, p. 184.)

was troubled with an issue of blood, and healed by our Saviour BETROTHING in marriage, ceremony of, 160, 161.

(Matt. ix. 20. Luke viii. 43.), is said to have been of Cæsarea Birth of children, and privileges of the first-born, 163. Philippi. The present town of Pancas is small; and the ground

BITAYNIA, a region of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by it stands on is of a triangular form. From this compressed situathe Euxine sea, on the south by Phrygia, on the west by the tion the ancient city could not have been of great extent. (Irby's Propontis, and on the east by Galatia. Saint Peter addressed and Mangles' Travels, p. 289.) his first Epistle (among others) to the Hebrew Christians who Caraphas, also called Joseph, was high-priest of the Jews at were scattered throughout Bithynia. (1 Pet. i. 1.)

the time Jesus was crucified, and was a principal agent in that BLASPHEMY, punishment of, 62.

transaction. (Matt. xxvi. 3. 57. Luke iii. 2. John xi. 49. xviii. Blessing, valley of, notice of, 31.

13, 14. 24. 28. Acts iv. 6.) He was of the sect of the Sadducees. BLINDNESS of Elymas, observations on, 197. Jewish Law Cain, the eldest son of Adam and Eve. He was the first concerning blind persons, 82, 83.

husbandman, and also the first homicide. (Gen. iv.) He slew BLOOD-AVENGER, office of, 67.

Abel, because his own works were evil, and his brother's rightBLOODY-OFFERINGS, account of, 117–119.

eous. (1 John iii. 12.) Bochim, valley of, notice of, 32.

Carran is mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus Christ by St. Books, ancient, form of. See p. 183.

Luke (iii. 35, 36.) as the son of Arphaxad, and father of Salah; BOTTLES, form of, 155, 179.

while in the genealogies preserved in Gen. x. 24. xi. 12. and 1 BOUNDARIES of the Holy Land, 14, 15.

Chron. i. 24. the son of Arphaxad is denominated Salah, and no Bows of the Hebrews, notice of, 88.

mention is made of this Cainan. Various suppositions have BRAZEN Altar and LAVER, 96.

been offered to reconcile the seeming contradiction. The simBRAZEN SERPENT, worship of, 136, 137.

plest solution is always the most certain. St. Luke wrote for BREAD, how prepared. See p. 171.

those Christians who read the Septuagint Greek version more BREAST-PLATE of the high-priest, 114.; and of the Jewish than the original Hebrew; and, consequently, he preferred their soldiers, 87.

version, which adds the name of Cainan to the genealogy of BRICKS; ancient, form of, 151. and note.

Shem. Britons (ancient), writing of, 182. note.

CALAMITIES, with which Palestine was visited, 38—40. Bruising in a mortar, punishment of, 68.

CALER, a celebrated Jewish warrior, of the tribe of Judah ; Bul, a Chaldæan name of the eighth month of the Jewish | who, as a reward for his fidelity, when sent, together with

Joshua, to explore the country of Canaan, was permitted to BURIAL, rites of, 199—201. Not always permitted to capi- enter the promised land, where he obtained possessions. (Josh. tal prisoners by the Romans, 72.

xiv. 6–13.) A district belonging to the tribe of Judah was Burning to death, punishment of, 68.

called after his name. (1 Sam. xxx. 14.) Burning of the dead, 198, 199.

CALENDAR, Jewish, 75, 76. BURNT-OFFERINGS, account of, 118.

Calf, golden, worshipped by the Israelites, 136. Account of the golden calves of Jeroboam I., 136.

CALVARY, notice of, 19. Cæsar, originally the surname of the Julian family. After CAMELS, notice of, 175. being dignified in the person of Julius Cæsar, it became the Camps of the Hebrews, form of, 86, 87. usual appellation of those of his family who ascended the impe- Cana, a small town of Galilee, situated on a gentle eminence rial throne. The last of these was Nero; but the name was to the west of Capernaum. This circumstance distinctly proves still retained by his successors, as a sort of title belonging to the how accurately the writings of the evangelists correspond with imperial dignity. In the New Testament the reigning emperor the geography and present appearance of the country. The is called Cæsar, without any other distinguishing appellation. ruler of Capernaum, whose child was dangerously ill, besought The persons mentioned or alluded to by this title are Augustus Jesus to come down and heal his son. (John iv. 47–51.) (Luke ii. 1.), Tiberius (Luke fi. 1. xx. 22. 24, 25.), Claudius About a quarter of a mile from the small and poor village (for (Acts xi. 8.), and Nero (Acts xxv. 8. Phil. iv. 22.)

such it now is) on the road from Nazareth, there is a well of CESAREA OF PALESTINE, so called as being the metropolis delicious water close to the road, whence all the water is taken of Palestine and the residence of the Roman proconsul, was for the supply of the inhabitants. At this well, which is supformerly named the Tower of Strato ; but, its harbour being plied by springs from the mountains about two miles distant, it extremely incommodious, Herod the Great erected a spacious is usual for pilgrims to halt, as being the source of the water, mole, and greatly enlarged and beautified the city, which he de- which our Saviour, by his first public miracle, converted into nominated Cæsarea, in honour of the emperor Augustus, his wine. (John ii. 11.) In consequence of this miracle, both the great patron, to whom he dedicated it in the twenty-eighth year Christian and Turkish inhabitants of Cana cherish the singular of his reign, with games and other ceremonies, in a most solemn notion that, hy drinking copiously of the water of this spring, manner, and with a profusion of expense. It is very frequently intoxication is produced. This place is called Cana of Galilee, mentioned in the New Testament; and is sometimes called, by to distinguish it from Cana of Kanah (Josh. xix. 28.), which way of eminence, Cæsarea. Here Peter converted Cornelius and belonged to the tribe of Asher, and was situated in the vicinity his kinsmen, the first-fruits of the Gentiles (Acts x.); here lived of Sidon. Here are shown the ruins of a church, which is said Philip the Evangelist (Acts xxi. 8.); and here St. Paul so ad- to have been erected by the empress Helena, over the spot where mirably defended himself against the Jews and their orator Ter- the marriage-feast was held. (Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. tullus. (Acts xxiv.) Cæsarea now retains nothing of its former 185—188.) splendour: at present the whole of the surrounding country, on Canaan, the son of Ham and the progenitor of the Canaanthe land side, is a sandy desert: the waves wash the ruins of ites. For an account of the land called after him, see pp. 13. the moles, the towers, and the port, which anciently were both 15. How divided by Joshua among the twelve tribes, 16, 17. its ornament and its defence, towards the sea. Not a creature Populousness of Canaan, 38. Idols worshipped by the Ca(except jackals and beasts of prey) resides within many miles of naanites, 137, 138. Their extirpation considered, Vol. I. pp. this silent desolation : and its ruins, which are very considerable, 409, 410. have long been resorted to as a quarry whenever building mate- Candace, a queen of Ethiopia mentioned in Acts viii. 27. rials were required at Acre. (Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. This name was common to the Ethiopian queens in the time of 446–448. Mr. Buckingham has a long and interesting descrip- Christ; and, according to Eusebius, Ethiopia continued to be tion of the ancient history and present state of Cæsarea. See governed by women, even to his time, the fourth century, his Travels, pp. 126–138.)

(Eccl. Hist. lib. ii. c. 1.) CESAREA PHILIPPI (formerly called Paneas) was situated CANDLESTICK, golden, in the Temple, at Jerusalem, 100. near the springs of the river Jordan. It was first called Laish or CAPERNAUM, a town of Galilee, situated on the coast of the Lechem (Judg. xviii. 7.), and after it was subdued by the Dan- lake of Gennesareth, on the borders of the tract occupied by the ites (v. 29.) it received the appellation of Dan. Cæsarea was tribes of Zebulon and Nephthalim. This place is celebrated for the a day's journey from Sidon ; a day and a half from Damascus. I many mighty works and discourses performed by our Saviour, CH

CL which brought a heavy wo upon the inhabitants for their infi- sius, and empties itself into the Euphrates near Circesiun delity. (Matt. xi. 23.) In the vicinity of this town or city our (2 Kings xvii. 6. xviii. 11. 1 Chron. v. 26.) Lord delivered his admirable sermon; and near it also was the Cremosa, a Moabitish idol, notice of, 138. custom-house, at which Matthew the publican was sitting when CHENEM, or irremissible Vow, account of, 130. Jesus called him to the apostleship. (Matt. ix. 1. 9.) Here the CHERETHITES and Pelethites, who they were, 47. 85. 87. Jews had a synagogue (Mark i. 23. Luke iv. 33.), as the Chris- CHERUBIM. See p. 96. tians afterwards had a church. Mr. Buckingham in 1817 found CHILDREN, birth and education of, 163, 164. Adoption of, various remains of some ancient settlement in its vicinity; but | 164, 165. in 1823 scarcely a relique remained to attest its former existence. CHINNERET , sea of, 26. Recent travellers describe the appearance of the Lake of Genne- Chios (Acts xx. 15.) is an island of the Ægean Sea, between sareth from Capernaum as singularly grand and impressive. Lesbos and Samos, celebrated in ancient and in modern times, This place is now called Tal-hhewn or Tal-hhewm, as it is dif- for its wine, figs, marble, and white earth. ferently pronounced. (Buckingham's Travels in Palestine, pp. Chislev, or Casley, the third month of the Jewish civil 469, 470. Jowett's Researches in Syria, p. 168.)

year; and the ninth month of the ecclesiastical year. For the CAPATOR (Jer. xlvii. 4. Amos ix. 7.) and CAPATORIM (Gen. feasts and fasts in this month, see p. 75. X. 14. Deut. ii, 23.), the name of a country and people whence Chittim.-The land of Chittim, and the isles of Chittim, the Philistines are said to have originated. According to the denote, in general, the maritime countries and islands of the passages above referred to, the Caphtorim came originally from Mediterranean, Greece, Italy, Crete, Cyprus, Corsica, &c. Thus, Egypt and settled in Caphtor, which word most of the ancient Balaam foretold“ that ships should come from the coast of Versions have rendered Cappadocia ; but some have supposed it Chittim, and should afflict Asshur (the Assyrians), and afflict to be Cyprus, or Crete; which last both Calmet and Gesenius Eber" (the Hebrews, or Jews); representing the Grecian and consider to be the place most probably intended. From Caphtor, Roman invasions. And Daniel foretold that “ the ships of Chita colony migrated and settled in the southern part of Canaan. tim should come against the king of the narth (Antiochus

CAPITAL Punishments of the Jews, account of, 66–69. Epiphanes, king of Syria); and that he should therefore be

CAPPADOCIA, a kingdom of Asia, bounded on the east by Ar- grieved, and return" from the south, or Egypt, which he had menia, on the west by Paphlagonia and Galatia, on the north by invaded, when commanded to desist by the Roman ambassathe Euxine Sea, and on the south by that part of Mount Taurus dors. (Dan. xi. 30. Livy, xlv. 10–12.) Perseus, king of which looks towards Cilicia. It was famed for mules and horses, Macedon, is called “king of Chittim.” (í Macc. viii. 5.) of which it gave yearly to the Persians, horses 1500, mules Cuius (Amos v. 26.), the idol Saturn. 2000. The Cappadocians are said to have been a nation so CHORazin, a small town situated on the western coast of the servile, that when the Romans offered them their freedom to Sea of Galilee, at no great distance from Capernaum. It was live by their own laws, they said they could not endure liberty. one of those places where very many of our Saviour's miracles This country is mentioned in Acts ii. 9. and also by the apostle were performed, whose inhabitants he upbraided for their infiPeter, who addresses his first Epistle to the Hebrew Christians delity. (Matt. xi. 21. Luke x. 13.) who were dispersed through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Bi- Christ (Xpistus), a Greek word signifying anointed, and corthynia, and Asia Minor.

responding to the Hebrew word Messian, which see. In the Captain of the Lord's Host, authority of, and influence, 85. New Testament, this appellation is given to Jesus, the anointed Captives, cruel treatment of. See pp. 90, 91.

one, that king of the race of David, promised by God, and long CAPTIVITY (Babylonish), state of the Hebrews during, 49, 50. expected, the Messiah. Caravans, mode of travelling by, 122, note 7. 173.

CHRISTIANS, those who profess to believe and practise the CARCHEMISH, a fortified city on the Euphrates belonging to religion of Jesus Christ. This appellation was first given by the Assyrians, commanding the pass into the northern part of divine appointment to the believers at Antioch. (Acts xi. 26.) Mesopotamia, from Syria. Necho king of Egypt took it

, and See Vol. I. p. 350. left a strong garrison in it; which was taken and cut in pieces, Cucrch (Jewish), account of, and of its various members, in the fourth year of Jehoiachin king of Judah, by Nebuchad- 108–111.; and of its ministers, 111-116. nezzar king of Babylon. (2 Chron. xxxv. 20. 2 Kings xxiii. CHUSHAN-RISKATHAIM, a king of Mesopotamia, who op29.) Isaiah speaks of Carchemish, and seems to say, that pressed the Israelites for eight years. This monarch must have Tiglath-pileser conquered it; perhaps from the Egyptians. Pro- subdued several of the surrounding nations within thirty or fane authors say nothing of this town, or of these wars: it is forty years after the death of Joshua, since his conquests exprobable that Carchemish is the same as Cercusium, or Circe-tended westward as far as Canaan. The Israelites were delivered sium, or Circeium, situated in the angle formed by the conjunc- from his yoke by Othniel. (Judg. iii. 8—10.) tion of the Chaboras (the modern Chebour) and the Euphrates. Cauza, or Causa, the steward or agent of Herod-Antipas, CARMEL, Mount, account of, 30.

whose wife was one of the pious women who ministered to Carving, art of, among the Jews, 183.

Jesus Christ. (Luke viii. 3.) Some critics, however, suppose Caspura (Ezra viii. 17.), the name of a country ; perhaps that he was the treasurer or overseer of Herod's revenue. Caspia, the country on the Caspian Sea.

Cilicia, a country of Asia Minor, between Pamphylia on the CASLUHIM (Gen. x. 14. 1 Chron. i. 12.), a people, spoken of west, and Pieria on the east, Mount Taurus on the north, and as a colony of the Egyptians; according to Bochart (Phaleg. the Cilician Sea on the south, celebrated on the account of Cicero, iv. 31.), the Colchians, whom the Greek writers constantly proconsul there, but more on the account of St. Paul's birth at represent as of Egyptian origin.

Tarsus, a city of Cilicia. (Acts xxii. 3.) Cattle reared in Palestine, notice of, 37. 174—176.

CINNERETA, or CINNEROTH, a city in the canton of the tribe CAVERNS in Palestine, account of, 32, 33. 150.

of Nephtali : it is supposed to be the same which was afterwards CEDARS of Lebanon, account of, 29, 30. 36.

called TIBERIAS; as the Lake of Gennesareth, which in Hebrew Cedrox, or Kedron, Brook, notice of, 26.

is called the Sea of Cinnereth, is unquestionably the Lake or CExcursa, a haven on the east of the isthmus of Corinth, to Sea of Tiberius : for an account of which see pp. 26, 27. which city it was considered as a kind of subsidiary port. It is CIRCUMCIsIon, how and when performed. See p. 110, mentioned in Acts xviii. 18.

Cisley. See CHisLEU. Cephas, a name given by Christ to Simon: it means the Cisterns in Palestine, notice of, 29. same as Tempos, that is, a stone. (John i. 43.)

Cities, Jewish, 155. How besieged, 90. Treatment of, when Chains of the Jewish women, 158.

captured, ibid. Gates of, seats of justice, 54. CHALDEA, a country of Asia, lying near the junction of the CITIES OF REFUGE, 16. Tigris and 'Euphrates, the capital of which was Babylon, Citizens of Rome, privileges and treatment of, when prisonwhence it was also denominated BABYLONIA. In ancient times ers. See pp. 57–59. It was known by the names Shinar, Shinaar, &c.—For a sketch Classes of the Jewish priests, 112. of the profane history of the Chaldæan or Babylonian em- Clauda, an island near Crete, situated near the southern and pire, illustrative of the prophetic writings, see p. 412. of this western sea. It is mentioned in Acts xxvii. 16. Index.

CLAUDIUS. CHARIOTS, military, notice of, 85, 86.

1. Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus, the fifth emperor or CacBar a river of Mesopotamia, which rises in Mount Ca. Cæsar of Rome. He was the son of Nero Drusus, and obtained CO

CY the imperial dignity principally through the exertion of Herod of sophists in particular was very great. The knowledge of Agrippa. (Josephus, Ant. Jud. l. xix. c. 4. $1. Bell. Jud. I. ii. these circumstances affords a key to St. Paul's exhortations c. 11. $ 2.) In the fourth year of his reign occurred the famine against fornication, lasciviousness, and covetousness (1 Cor. vi. predicted by Agabus. (Acts xi. 28. and Kuinüel in loc). In the 9, 10.), and also his defence of the Christian doctrine against first part of his reign he was favourable to the Jews (Jos. Ant. the sophists, to whom the fathers attribute all the strifes and conJud. l. xx. c. 1. $ 2.) ; but in his ninth year he banished, by tentions that sprang up in this church. In consequence of the edict, all those who had taken up their residence at Rome. (Acts war between the Greeks and Turks, Corinth has been reduced to xviii

. 2. Suetonius in Claud. c. 25.) He died, a. D. 54, after a a miserable heap of ruined hovels, affording very insufficient weak and inglorious reign of 14 years, of poison administered shelter to some wretched outcasts of the province of Roumelia. by his wife Agrippina, who wished to raise her son Nero to the (Missionary Register, 1828, p. 388.) throne. (Robinson, voce Kaaudios.)

Cory, culture and harvesting of, 177. How threshed out, 178; 2. Claudius Lysias, a Roman tribune, who preserved Paul and ground, ibid. from a conspiracy of the Jews. (Acts xxii. 23–35. xxiv. CORNELIUS, a devout Roman centurion, who was converted 1-9.)

to Christianity by the apostle Peter. Cléopas, one of the two disciples who went to Emmaus. CORPORAL injuries, how punished among the Jews, 63, 64. (Luke xxiv. 18, &c.) The name is of Greek extraction, being CORRUPTION (Mount of), 19. Of the Jews at the time of contracted from Cleopatros, like Antipas from Antipatros. He is Christ's birth, 148—150. sometimes confounded with

Council (Great) of the Jews. See p. 55. Clopas, the husband of Mary, also called Alpheus. (John xix. COUP-DE-SOLEIL in Palestine, effects of, 24, 2525.) By comparing this passage with Luke xxiv. 10., it appears Courts of JUDICATURE (Jewish), and proceedings before that the wife of Clopas is the same as the mother of James the them, 54–57. (Roman), proceedings in, 57–59. Less (compare Matt. xxvii. 56. with Mark xv. 40.) ; but in Courts of Kings, allusions to, 45, 46. Principal officers of, Matt. X. 3. and Mark iii. 18. James is said to be the son of 46, 47. Alpheus.

Courts OF THE TEMPLE, 99, 100. CLIMATE of the Holy Land, 23.

Covenants, how made, 80, 81. Covenant of salt, 81. CLOTHES, leprosy of, 134. See Dress.

Crete, an island in the Mediterranean Sea. A Christian Cnidus (Acts xxvii. 7.) was a city and promontory of Caria, church was planted here, probably by St. Paul, who committed it memorable for the worship of Venus.

to the charge of Titus. (Acts xxvii. 7. 12, 13. 21. Tit. i. 5.) COCK-CROWING, a division of time, 73.

Its inhabitants were celebrated archers, but infamous for their COELO-Syria. See Syria, 9. infra.

falsehood, debaucheries, and piracies. The Cretans of the present COHORTS (Roman), notice of, 92.

day are precisely what they were in the days of St. Paul, Cold Season of Palestine, 24.

always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. They are notoriously, COLOSSE (or Colassæ) was a city of Phrygia Pacatiana in whether Turks or Greeks, the worst characters in the Levant. Asia Minor, situated near the conflux of the Lycus and the (Hartley's Researches in Greece and the Levant, p. 108.) See Meander. It was formerly a large and populous place, but in the the testimonies of profane writers to the immoral character of the time of Saint Paul had lost much of its ancient greatness, and Cretans, in Vol. I. p. 81. stood nearly equidistant from Laodicea and Hierapolis. Accord- Criminal Law of the Jews, principles of the, 61–64. ing to Eusebius, all these cities were destroyed by an earthquakel: CRIMINALS, Jewish mode of treating, and punishing. See pp. in the tenth year of the emperor Nero, about a year after the 55–57. 59. The Roman mode of punishing them, 59, 60. writing of Saint Paul's Epistle to the Colossians. A few ruins Crispus, the chief of a synagogue at Corinth, who embraced identify its site, which is at present called Khóna or Khonas by the Christian faith, and was baptized by St. Paul. (Acts xviii. the Turks of Asia Minor. (See a description of Colosse and its 8. 1 Cor. i. 14.) vicinity, in Mr. Arundell's Visit to the Seven Churches of Asia, Cross, form of, 69. Reproach of, explained, ibid. pp. 92—101.)

Crucifixion, mode of, 69. Prevalence of, among ancient COMMERCE of the Midianites, Phoenicians, and Egyptians, 187. nations, ibid. Lingering nature of this punishment, ibid. The Of the Hebrews, particularly under Solomon and his successors, circumstances of our Saviour's crucifixion considered and illus187, 188. Of Babylon, 411.

trated, 70—72. Solution of supposed difficulties as to the hour COMPENSATION, in what cases allowed, 65.

when he was crucified. Vol. I. pp. 403, 404. CoxCUBINES, condition of, 160.

Cup, Divination by, 142. Contracts for disposing of property, how made, 81. Con- Cutting asunder, punishment of, 68. tracts of marriage, 160.

Cust, or Ethiopia, usually rendered Ethiopia in our English CONVERSATION of the Orientals, 169, 170.

Bible, has a very extensive signification. It comprehends all the Coos, an island in the Ægean or Icarian Sea, near Myndos southern and eastern borders of Egypt, In some parts of the and Cnidus, which had a city of the same name, from which prophecies of Ezekiel, it plainly denotes African Ethiopia, or Hippocrates the celebrated physician, and Apelles the famous Nubia and Abyssinia, and in many other passages. (Isa. xviii

. 1. painter, were called Coi. Here was a large temple of Æscula- xx. 3. Ezek. xxx. 5, &c.) But in others it must signify Asiatic pius, and another of Juno. It abounded in rich wines, and here Ethiopia, or Arabia, as in the description of the garden of Eden. were made those Coæ vestes, which were transparent, and are (Gen. ii

. 13.) The wife of Moses was contemptuously styled a so often noticed by the classic poets. It is mentioned in Acts - Cushite," or Ethiopian of Arabia. (Num. xii. 1.) And where xxi. 1.

“Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya," are recited in order, the second Corban, nature of, explained, 119.

must denote Arabia. (Ezek. xxxviii. 5.) Herodotus, in his Corinth, the metropolis of Achaia Proper, and the ornament curious catalogue of the various nations composing the army of of Greece, was situated on an isthmus between the Ægean and Xerxes, distinguishes the long-haired Eastern or Asiatic EthioIonian Seas. From the convenience of its situation for com- pians from the woolly-headed Western or African ; both being merce, it abounded in riches, and was furnished with all the descendants of Cush, a roving and enterprising race, who graduaccommodations, elegances, and superfluities of life. In the ally extended their settlements from Chusistan, " the land of Achæan war, it was destroyed by the Romans under the consul Cush,” or Susiana, on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, through Memmius, about 146 years before the Christian æra, and was Arabia, to the Red Sea; and thence crossed over to Africa, and rebuilt about one hundred years afterwards by Julius Cæsar, who occupied its eastern coast, and gradually penetrated into the inteplanted a Roman colony here, and made this city the residence rior of Abyssinia. (Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. of the proconsul of Achaia. Favoured by its situation between p. 379.) two seas, the new city soon regained its ancient splendour: com- CYPRUS, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, situated between merce produced an influx of riches, and the luxury and voluptu- Cilicia and Syria, and anciently celebrated for the profligacy of ousness which followed in consequence corrupted the manners its inhabitants, whose principal deity was the impure goddess of its inhabitants, who became infamous to a proverb. In the Venus. Here Paul and Barnabas landed, A. D. 44. and successvicinity of this city were celebrated the Isthmian games, to which fully preached the Gospel. (Acts xiii. 4. et seq. xxi. 3.) Cyprus Saint Paul alludes in different parts of his Epistles. Corinth proved to have been a proconsulate, Vol. I. p. 90. also possessed numerous schools, in which philosophy and rhe- CYMBAL, a musical instrument, notice of, 184. toric were taught by able masters, and strangers resorted thither CYRENE, the principal city of the province of Libya in Africa, from all quarters to be instructed in the sciences. The number, which was thence sometimes denominated Cyrenaica, and which Vol. II.



DI by the evangelist Luke is called Libya about Cyrene. (Acts ii. man after God's own heart," see Vol. I. pp. 411, 412.; and for the 10.) Simon, whom the Jews compelled to bear our Saviour's Psalms ascribed to him, see Vol. II. pp. 239, 240, 241. cross (Matt. xxvii. 32. Luke xxii. 26.), was a native of this David, city of, 19. place. At Cyrene resided many Jews, who had a synagogue at Dar, how reckoned by the Jews and Romans, 72. Jerusalem. Among the Christians who were scattered abroad. Day of atonement, how solemnized, 127. in consequence of the persecution that arose about Stephen, DEAD, law of Moses concerning, 198. Preparation of, foi Luke enumerates those of Cyrene. (Acts xi. 20.)

interment, 198, 199. Funeral rites of, 199—202. Duration of CrRenius, in Latin Quirinus. (Luke ii. 2.) Publius Sulpi- mourning for the dead, 202. cius Quirinus was sent from Rome as governor of Syria, with DEAD SEA, description of, 27, 28. which province Judæa was connected after the banishment of DEAF persons, law concerning, 82. Archelaus to Vienne in Gaul, in order to take a census of the Deatu, Jewish notions of, 197, 198. whole province. For the various opinions of commentators con- DEBORAH. cerning that census, see Vol. I. pp. 419, 420.

1. The name of Sarah's nurse, who attended her into Canaan, Crrus, king of Persia, the son of Cambyses a Persian satrap and continued to reside in the family of Isaac, until her death or grandee, and Mandane, was the liberator of the Jews from the in the vicinity of Bethel, where she was interred with much Babylonish captivity. The prophet Isaiah (xliv. 28.) mentioned lamentation, under an oak, from that circumstance termed Allon him by name two hundred years before he was born. See Bachuth, or the Oak of Weeping. (Gen. xxiv. 57. xxxv. 8.) Persia, infra.

2. A prophetess, the wifo of Lapidoth, and the fourth judge of Israel. She was the only woman who ever filled that high office.

(Judg. iv. v.) Dagon, a Phænician idol, notice of, 138.

Debtors, laws concerning, 63. DALMANUTHA. See MAGDALA.

DECAPITATION, punishment of, 68. DALMATIA, a province of Europe on the cast of the Adriatic DECAPOLIS, district of, 18. Sea, and forming part of the ancient Illyricum. In this province, DEDICATION, Feast of, 128. Vow of Dedication, 141. Titus preached the Gospel. (2 Tim. iv. 10.)

DEGREES, Academical, conferred in Jewish seminaries, 185, Damascus, a most ancient city, where Eliezer the servant of note 3. Abraham dwelt, was built, according to Josephus (Antiq. I. i. c. 7. DEMAS, for some time, was a companion of St. Paul, in propa$15.), by Uz, the son of Aram, mentioned in Gen. x. 23., and gating the Gospel; but he afterwards deserted him when a prisituated in the valley between Libanus and Antilibanus, watered soner at Rome, and returned to Thessalonica, which was at that by the rivers Abana and Pharpar. (2 Kings v. 12.) It was time a very flourishing commercial city. (Col. iv. 14. Philem. 24. made tributary to David (2 Sam. viii. 6.); afterwards it was the 2 Tim. iv. 10.) capital city of the kings of Syria. (Isa. vii. 8.) It is celebrated DEMETRIUS. for its antiquity, and for being still one of the richest and most 1. A silversmith at Ephesus, whose chief business consisted in magnificent cities of the Levant, but most of all for being the making little models of the temple in that city, with the image of place of the miraculous conversion of St. Paul. It is situated in Diana included in them. He excited a tumult against St. Paul. a beautiful plain. The street, still called Straight, where St. (Acts xix.) Paul dwelt, is entered from the road by Jerusalem ; it is as 2. A Christian, and it should seem a Christian teacher, who straight as an arrow, a mile in length, broad and well paved. is mentioned with much commendation in 3 John, 12. (Irby's and Mangles' Travels, pp. 281, 282. Carne's Letters, DEMONIACAL possessions, reality of, 197. p. 375.) The region around this city is in the Old Testament DERBE, a city of Lycaonia, near Isauria, not far from the called Syria of Damascus.

Cilician range of Mount Taurus. It was the country of Timothy, Dan.

and is mentioned in Acts xiv. 6. Various ruins of this place are 1. The son of Jacob and Bilhah, gave his name to one of the said still to exist, but they have not been described by any tribes of Israel. For the limits of the district assigned to this modern traveller. (Col. Leake's Tour in Asia Minor, pp. 100,tribe, see p. 17.

101.) 2. The name of a city in the northern extremity of Judæa, Deserts in Palestine, account of, 33, 34. Horrors of the in the tribe of Nephtali; it was situated at the foot of Mount Great Arabian Desert described, 34, 35. Libanus, not far from the source of the river Jordan. Here Jero- “Devout Men," who they were, 110. boam I. set up one of the golden calves. In Rev, vii. 6. the name Dews, heavy, in Palestine, 25. of the tribe of Dan is omitted, either through the mistake of the Diana (Apteu), a heathen goddess, the fabled daughter of transcribers, who mistook aan for MAN, and so wrote Ma- Jupiter and Latona, and the twin sister of Apollo. She presided nasseh ; or because the tribe had become extinct; or, by its early over forests and hunting, and also over child-birth; and was apostasy, had become the common receptacle of idols and cor- especially worshipped at EPHESUS, where a temple was erected rupter of the rest. (See Judg. xviii.) Dr. Robinson thinks that in her honour, which, for its extent and magnificence, was the first opinion is the most probable, because the tribe of Joseph anciently reputed to be one of the wonders of the world. (Acts is afterwards mentioned, which included Manasseh and Ephraim. xix. 24. 27, 28. 34, 35.) There appears to have been an ancient tradition in the church, Dichotomy, a Jewish punishment, 68. that, when Antichrist should come, he should be a Jew, and of Dinah was the daughter of Jacob and Léah, at the time the the tribe of Dan. (Woodhouse on Rev. vii. 6.)

patriarch dwelt not far from the country occupied by the Hivites. Dancing of the Jews, 184.

Prompted by curiosity, she went out to see the daughters of the DANIEL, a distinguished Jewish prophet, who lived and wrote land, most probably to a festival, when she was ravished by at Babylon during the captivity. For a further account of Shechem, a prince of the Hivites. It is not known what became Daniel and his predictions, see pp. 277–282.

of her, after the extermination of the Shechemites (Gen. xxxiv.); Darius, the common name of several Persian kings, three of but it appears from Gen. xlvi. 15. that she was living in the whom are mentioned in the Old Testament; viz.

patriarch's family, and accompanied him into Egypt. 1. Darius the Mede, or Cyaxares. (Dan. vi. 1.)

Dionysius, a member of the tribunal of the Areopagus at 2. Darius the son of Hystaspes, whom Archbishop Usher sup- Athens, who was induced by the preaching of St. Paul to embrace poses to be the Ahasuerus that married Esther.

the Christian religion. (Acts xvii. 34.) 3. Durius Codomannus, who is mentioned in Neh. xii. 22. Dioscuri, or the Twins (ALOFxcUpce), Castor and Pollux, the See PERSIA, infra.

fabled sons of Jupiter and Leda, were supposed to have some DARTS, fiery, explained, 93, note 1.

peculiar power over storms: hence they became the patron deiDatuan, one of those who, with Korah, Abiram, and On, con- ties of seamen. (Acts xxviii. 11.) spired against Moses; and, with his accomplices, was swallowed DIOTREPHES, a professing Christian, who it appears) did not up in the earth. (Num. xvi.)

receive with hospitality those whom the apostle John sent to him, DAUGHTERS, education of, 164. Portions of, ibid.

or permit others to do so. (3 John 9.) David, the second king of Israel, was the son of Jesse, of the DISEASES mentioned in the Scriptures, and their treatment, tribe of Judah, and the town of Bethlehem. He was the founder see pp. 195–197. of the Jewish dynasty; and from him, in the fulness of the time DIVINATION, by the cup, 142. By inspecting the liver of appointed by God, descended the Messiah, of whom he is con- victims, 143. By arrows, ibid. By ihe staff, ibid. How pu sidexed ho an illustrious type. In what sense David was the nished among the Jews, 62.


EG DIVORCES, Jewish account of, 162, 163.

14–16. Deut. ii. 23. Jer. xlvii. 4.) This country seems to have Dodanim, the youngest son of Javan. (Gen. x. 4.) The attained an earlier and a higher degree of civilization and refinecountry peopled by his descendants cannot be exactly ascertained. ment than any other in the world. Even in Abraham's days we The Samaritan text and Septuagint version of Gen. x. 4. read find it the seat of a royal government, and a princely court, Rhodanim, which some interpret of the island of Rhodes; but abounding with provisions, while the neighbouring countries, Bochart refers it to the river Rhodanus, or Rhone.

and even the fertile regions of Palestine, were exposed to freDoeg, an Idamæan proselyte who was Saul's chief herdsman: quent famines. (Gen. xii. 10.) In his grandson Jacob's time he put to death the priests at Nob, whom Saul imagined to be in there was a settled caravan trade carried on through Palestine conspiracy with David, and to supply him with provisions. from Arabia and the East, for spicery, balm, and myrrh, and pro (1 Sam. xxii. 9—19.)

bably also for slaves. (Gen. xxxvii. 25.) Its superior fertility, Dor, or Dora, the capital of Nephet-Dora, a district in Ca- indeed, was occasioned by the annual inundation of the Nile, naan which was conquered by Joshua, (Judg. xii. 23.) It is sup- the rising of which has furnished the prophet Jeremiah (xlvi. posed to have been situated on the coast, not far from Mount 7, 8.) with a fine image, and by the irrigation of their lands Carmel.

(Deut. xi. 10.); and wherever this is still practised the land Dorcas, a charitable and pious Christian widow of Joppa, now literally brings forth by handfuls, as it did in the time of the whom Peter restored to life. (Acts ix. 36–41.) Like the Syriac patriarch Joseph. (Gen. xli. 47.) In every age of the world name Tabitha, it signifies, a gazelle.

Egypt has been celebrated for those stupendous monuments of Dress, of the Priests, 113. Of the High-priest, 113, 114. ancient art—the pyramids; several of which have been successOf the Jews, description of, 155—159. Allusions to theatrical fully explored by the enterprising traveller, M. Belzoni. The dresses, 159.

countless multitude of date trees, which form even forests about Drink, medicated, given to Christ, nature of, 71.

some of the villages, furnish a great source of subsistence to the Drink-OFFERINGS, account of, 119.

people. To cut these down (as it is said the French were proDROWNING, a Jewish punishment, 68.

ceeding to do, and would have done, but that the people surrenDRUSILLA, notice of, 52.

dered at the prospect of this utter ruin) would be to cut off the Dura, a plain in the Babylonian empire, mentioned in Dan. support of the present and the hopes of a future generation. iii. According to the historian Polybius, with whom Professor Nothing could be more terrible than this denunciation of JereGesenius agrees, it was situated in Mesopotamia, at the mouth miah (xlvi. 22, 23.) against Egypt :-They shull march with of the river Chaboras.

an army, and come against her with axes as hewers of wood : DWELLINGS of the Jews, account of, 150—155.

they shall cut down her forest, saith the Lord, though it cannot be searched ; because they are more than the grasshoppers,

and are innumerable. (Jowett's Christian Researches in the EAR-RINGS of the Jewish women, 158.

Mediterranean, pp. 167. 170.) On the prophecies concerning EARTH, frequently denotes the land of Judæa, 13.

Egypt, and their fulfilment, see Vol. I. p. 125. EARTHQUAKES, frequent in Palestine, 38.

The Egyptians boasted of being the most ancient people in Ebal, the northern peak of Mount Ephraim, a naked, unfruit- the world; the inventors of arts and sciences: they communiful rock near Shechem, and over against Mount Gerizim. cated to the Greeks the names of the gods, and their theology: These two mountains are separated by a narrow valley. From they exceeded in superstition and idolatry, worshipping stars, Ebal the curses were pronounced. (Deut. xi. 29. Josh. viii. 30.) men, animals, and even plants. Moses informs us that the He

ECPATANA, the Achmetha of Ezra (vi. 2.), was the principal brews sacrificed beasts whose slaughter was considered by the city of Media, on the site of which stands the modern Hamadan. Egyptians as an abomination (Exod. viii. 26.), likewise that It was remarkable for the coolness of its temperature : on which they would not eat with the Hebrews, because they abhorred all account it was chosen to be the summer residence of Cyrus and shepherds. - Concerning the motives of this aversion opinions the succeeding kings of Persia. It was built and fortified by are divided. Some believe it to be founded on the invasion of Dioces, king of the Medes. The tombs of Esther and Mordecai Egypt by the shepherd kings from Arabia, who reigned here a are said to be still preserved here; and a colony of Jews, who long time, according to Manetho. Others think that the Egyp. have been resident at Hamadan from time immemorial, protect tians, after their king Sesostris, being accustomed to a soft and their remains. (Alcock's (unpublished] Travels in Russia, Persia, idle life, detested shepherds, whose profession was more active and Greece, in 1828–29, p. 80. London, 1831. 8vo.)

and laborious. Others, that the Egyptians were so averse to Eden.

shepherds because of their killing and eating sheep, kids, and 1. The name of the country in which the Garden of our first goats, which were objects of their worship. parents was placed. (Gen. ii. 8. 15. iii. 23, 24. iv. 16.) It has The antiquity of the Egyptian empire is indisputable, though been variously supposed to have been situated in Syria, in Baby- its origin is involved in impenetrable obscurity; The common lonia, near the mouth of the Euphrates, and in Armenia, whence name of the Egyptian kings was Pharaoh, which signified soveissue the heads of the Euphrates and Tigris, two of the paradi- reign power

, though each had another name peculiar to himself

, saical rivers well ascertained ; and two others, whose springs are History has preserved the names of several kings of Egypt, and in the neighbourhood, agree in many respects with the third and a succession of their dynasties : but the inclination of these hisfourth rivers mentioned by Moses. The last opinion has been torians to magnify the great antiquity of their nation has injured chiefly adopted.

their credibility. It is certain that the Egyptian dynasties were 2. A pleasant valley near Damascus. (Amos i. 5.)

not all successive, but many of them were collateral : and the 3. A country of Mesopotamia or Assyria, under the power of greatest part of the kings, who are placed one after the other, the Assyrians. (2 Kings xix. 12. Isa. xxxvii. 12.) In Ezek. xxvii. 23. it is joined with Asshur. Prof. Gesenius conjectures that it

1 At Molubis, on the banks of the Nile, Mr. Jowett observed a cattle may be Maedon in Diarbekir, towards the Tigris.

fair. Several buffaloes were swimming from the opposite side across the EDOMITES, country of. See p. 15., and Idumea, p. 18. water. Their unwieldy body sinks deep into the water, so that only a part EDUCATION of children among the Jews, 163, 164.

of the neck is level with the surface : while their uplifted head just raises

the snorting nostrils above the water. Often a little Arab boy takes his Ealor, a king of the Moabites, who oppressed the Israelites passage across the Nile upon the back of this animal; setting his feet on for eighteen years. (Judg. iii. 12.) At length Ehud, a Benja- the shoulders, holding fast by the horns, and thus keeping his balance. mite, was raised up tò deliver them from their oppression, who As the buffaloes rose out of the water on the bank I was struck with their slew him in the manner related in Judg. ii. 15—26.

large bony size, compared with the little that had appeared of them while

in the water. Their emerging brought to mind the passage, Gen. xli. 1, 2. Egypt (in Hebrew called Mizraim, after Mizraim the son of Behold he stood by the river and behold, there came up out of the river Ham), a country of Africa, the length of which was very dispro- seven well-favoured kine and fat fleshed; and they fed in a meadow. It portionate to its breadth : its extent from the mouths of the Nile in the Mediterranean, p. 166.) Mr. J., speaking of the boat in which he to Syene, the border of Nubia, under the tropic of Cancer, was crossed the river Nile, says that it " was ballasted with earth taken from about 500 miles ; but it was little wider than the valley through mud the sides of the boat were plastered, at those parts in the fore-half of

the river-banks--very stiff and rich soil, without stones. which the Nile ran in Upper Egypt, until it reached the Lower the vessel where moveable planks were placed in order to raise the gunEgypt, at some distance above the head or vertex of the Delta, nel higher: the mud filled up the crevices, and prevented the water from where the valley expanded itself. The Upper Egypt or Thebaid Slimy, and when dry so firm and impervious, that, together with the strong seems to be called Pathros in Scripture, as distinguished from reed that grows on the banks, it is easy to conceive how the mother of the Lower, properly called Caphtor, or Egypt. (Compare Isa. Moses constructed a little ark which would float: she then placed It ainong

the flags, in order that the stream might not carry it down, Exod. u. 37 xi. 11. with Ezek. xxix. 14. ; and Jer. xliv. 1. with Ezek. xxx. (Ibid. p. 167.)

With this same

This mud was so rich and

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