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AL ADULTERY, trial of a woman suspected of, 56.

consideration, to enter into Absalom's conspiracy? The pride ADUMMIM, a town and mountain belonging to the tribe of of overturning a throne, of which he was the support, and the Benjamin. (Josh. xv. 9. xviii. 17.)

hope of reigning himself under the name of Absalom, will, perÅson, or Exon, signifies the place of springs, where John haps, account for the conspiracy, but not for the incest which he haptized. (John iii. 23.) It is uncertain where it was situated, advised Absalom to commit. Ahithophel was the father of Eliam whether in Galilee, Judæa, or Samaria.

the father of Bathsheba (2 Sam. xxxii. 34. xi. 3. i Chron. iii. Æras, or Eras (Jewish), account of, 77.

5.) : and there is every reason to think, that he wished to revenge AGabus, a prophet, who foretold a famine which took place his grand-daughter; particularly when we consider the infamous in the land of Judæa, in the fourth year of the reign of Claudius, advice which he gave, his eagerness for pursuing David, and the A, D. 44. (Acts xi. 28.) This famine is mentioned by Suetonius desire he expressed to smite the king himself

. (2 Sam. xvi. 21. and other profane writers. Agabus also foretold the imprison- xvii, 1, 2.) His suicide was as deliberate as his hatred : he was ment of Paul by the Jews, and his being sent bound to the Gen- one of those men who are as useful friends as they are dangertiles; all which literally came to pass.

ous enemies, equally able in good and evil, who employ their Agat was probably a common appellative for the kings of the talents in the service of their passions, do nothing by halves, and Amalekites. One, of this name, was conquered and taken pri- are models of guilt or of virtue. soner; and, though condemned according to the law of the Aholas and AHOLIBAH, two fictitious names, employed by interdict, he was spared by Saul. He was put to death at Gilgal the prophet Ezekiel (xxiii. 4.) to denote the two kingdoms of by order of Samuel. The fate of Agag has called forth the Judah and Samaria. Aholah and Aholibah are represented as verbose pity of infidels; who, while they have affected to deplore two sisters of Egyptian extraction ; the former, standing for his fate, have forgotten only one thing, viz. that he had been a Jerusalem, the latter for Samaria. Both prostituted themselves cruel and sanguinary tyrant; and that Samuel reproached him to the Egyptians and Assyrians, in imitating their abominations for his cruelty before he commanded him to be put to death. and idolatries; for which reason the LORD abandoned them to (1 Sam. xv.)

those very people, for whom they had evinced so improper an AGED Persons, laws concerning, 82.

attachment, being carried into captivity, and reduced to the seveAGRICULTURE of the Jews, 176—178. Agricultural allu- rest servitude by them. sions, 180.

A1, or Hai, a city of ancient Canaan, near Bethel, which was AGRIPPA (Herod), ? 52.

taken by military stratagem, by the Israelites under Joshua. AGRIPPA (Junior),

(Josh. vii.) Agur, a wise man to whom the thirtieth chapter of the book AJALON, a city in the canton of the tribe of Dan, assigned to of Proverbs is ascribed, otherwise unknown. As the appellative the Levites of Kohath's family. It was situated between TimAgura, in Syriac, signifies one who applies himself to the study nath and Beth-Shemesh, and is probably the city alluded to in of wisdom, Gesenius thinks it possible, that the name may be Josh. x. 12. There were three other cities of this name; one significant and allegorical.

in the canton of Benjamin, another in that of Ephraim, not far AHAB, a king of Israel, who reigned 22 years, and surpassed from Schechem; and the third in the canton of Zebulon; the · all his predecessors in impiety. He was entirely under the influ- situation of which is not known.

ence of his idolatrous wife Jezebel. He died, B. c. 897, of the AJALON, valley of, notice of, 31. wounds which he had received in battle with the Syrians, ac- ALEXANDER.–1. A man whose father Simon was compelled cording to the prediction of Micaiah the son of Imlah. (1 Kings to bear the cross of Jesus Christ. (Mark xv. 21.)—2. Another, xvi.- xxii.)

who had been high-priest, and who was present at the interrogaAwad, or Achad, a Syrian idol, notice of, 137.

tion of the apostles Peter and John, concerning the healing of AHASUERTS, or ARTAXERXES LONGIMANUs, king of Persia, the man who had been lame from his birth. (Acts iv. 6.) Some who married Esther. See p. 226, note.

have imagined, that he was the brother of Philo, the celebrated Ahava, a river of Babylonia, or of Assyria, where Ezra as- Jewish writer, who flourished in the reign of Caligula.—3. A sembled those captives whom he afterwards brought into Judæa. Jew of Ephesus. At the time of the sedition raised in that city (Ezra viii. 15.) It is supposed to be that which ran along the by Demetrius against Paul, the populace in their blind fury seem regions of Adiabene, where a river Diava, or Adiava, is men- to have confounded the Christians with the Jews: and the latter tioned, on which Ptolemy places the city Abane or Aavane. being desirous that the mob should direct their vengeance against This is probably the country called Ava (2 Kings xvii. 24. xviii. the believers in Jesus Christ, commissioned Alexander to ha34. xix. 13.), whence the kings of Assyria translated the people rangue the Ephesians and to plead their cause, but in vain. The called Avites into Palestine ; and where, likewise, in their room Ephesians, as soon as they knew that he was a Jew, refused to they settled some of the captive Israelites. Ezra intending to listen to him. Beza and Bolten have conjectured that this was the collect as many Israelites as he could, to return with him to Alexander ó xraneus (the worker in metals

, or smith), who did Judæa, halted in the country of Ava, or Ahava, whence he sent the apostle “ much evil.” (1 Tim. iv. 14.) As every male Jew agents into the Caspian mountains, to invite such Jews as were was obliged to learn some trade, this is not improbable. Coquewilling to join him. (Ezra viï. 17.)

rel, however, thinks that he was one of those venal orators, AHAZ, king of Judah, son of Jotham, who died, b.c. 726; whose eloquence was always at the command of any that would for his iniquities he was denied a place in the sepulchres of the employ them.-4. A brazier or smith, who made shipwreck conkings his predecessors. (2 Chron. xxviii.)

cerning the faith (1 Tim. i. 19, 20.), and whom Saint Paul Ahaziah, the son and successor of Ahab, king of Israel : he delivered unto Satan ; that is, expelled him from the commuwas as distinguished for his horrid impiety as his father was. nion of the Christian church, to be no longer considered as a He reigned only one year after his father's death. (1 Kings Christian, but as a subject of Satan's kingdom. xxii. 52.).

ALEXANDRIA, a celebrated city of Egypt, built by Alexander Araziah, king of Judah, the son and successor of Jehoram, the Great, A. M. 3673, B. c. 331, and situated between the Mediby Athaliah; he reigned one year, and received his mortal wound terranean Sea and the Lake Moeris. Alexandria at present by command of Jehu, and died at Megiddo. (2 Kings viii. exhibits no vestiges of its former magnificence, except the ruins 2 Chron. xxiii.)

that surround it, and which are of very remote antiquity. Under AHJAH, a prophet in the reign of Jeroboam I., who dwelt at the Arabian dynasty, its splendour gradually declined with its Shiloh, and foretold the death of his son Abijah.

commerce. From the neglect of the canals, which anciently AUIMELECH, a priest of Nob, to whom David went, and whom diffused fertility through the surrounding country, and the enSaul commanded to be put to death with

other priests for assist- croachments of the sand, the city is now insulated in a desert, ing him.-Also a priest, in the reign of David, the son of Abia- and exhibits no vestiges of those delightful gardens and cultivated thar; who is likewise called Abimelech.

fields, which subsisted even to the time of the Arabian conquest. Authorhel, an eminent counsellor in the reign of David, so The commerce of ancient Alexandria was very extensive, espedistinguished for his prudence and wisdom, that his advice equally cially in corn (Egypt being considered the granary of Rome), obtained the confidence of the people and the monarch. He which was exported in vessels of considerable burden; so that joined the conspiracy of the rebel Absalom against David : but, the centurion could easily meet with a ship of Alexandria, laden finding his profligate but crafty counsel disregarded, he went to with corn, sailing into Italy. (Acts xxvii

. 6.) Alexandria was his house at Gillo, hanged himself

, and was buried in the sepul- the native place of Apollos. (Àcts xviii. 24.) chre of his fathers. It has been asked, What motive could in- ALPuÆUS, the father of James the Less (Matt. x. 3. Mark iii. 18. duce a privy counsellor of David, who was held in such high | Luke vi. 15. Acts i. 13.), and the husband of Mary, the sister of

.

AM

AM the mother of Jesus. He is the same person who is called Cleo-thah to deliver them. In the beginning of Saul's reign, A. n. phas in John xix. 25.; but not the same who in Mark ii, 14. is 2909, B. c. 1195, Nahash, king of the Ammonites, having said to be the father of Levi or Matthew.

attacked Jabesh-Gilead, reduced it to a capitulation. (1 Sam. xi. ALMODAD, a people or tribe in Yemen, who sprang from 1.) Nahash offered no other conditions, than their submitting Joktan. (Gen. x. 26.)

to have every man his right eye plucked out, as a reproach upon Amad, a city belonging to the tribe of Asher. (Josh. xxix. 26.) Israel ; but Saul coming seasonably to the succour of Jabesh,

AMALEK, the son of Eliphaz by Timnah his concubine, and delivered the city and people from the intended barbarity of grandson of Esau. (Gen. xxxvi. 12.) He was the father of the Nahash. David, having been a friend of the king of Ammon,

AMALEKITES, the first and most powerful of the nations in the after his death sent compliments of condolence to Hanun his son vicinity of Canaan. They dwelt in Arabia Petræa, living like and successor ; who, regarding these ambassadors as spies, the present Arabs in hamlets, caves, or tents. They were always treated them in a very affronting manner. David avenged the the enemies of the Israelites, whom they attacked in the desert

, affront, subdued the Ammonites, the Moabites, and the Syrians, but were repulsed. Afterwards they joined with the Midianites their allies. Ammon and Moab continued under the government and Moabites in a design to oppress the Israelites; who were of David and Solomon, and after the separation of the ten tribes, delivered by Ehud from Eglon king of the Moabites (Judg. iii.), were subject to the kings of Israel till the death of Ahab. and by Gideon from the Midianites and Amalekites. (viii.) |(2 Kings i. 1. A. m. 3107, B. c. 897.) Jehoram, son of Ahab, Balaam predicted that they should perish for ever. (Num. xxiv. and successor of Ahaziah, defeated the Moabites, A. M. 3109. 29.) In fact, perpetual wars against their neighbours, and espe-|(2 Kings iii. 4, 5, 6. &c.) But it does not appear, that this cially the Jews, insensibly ruined them. Şaul made a terrible victory reduced them to his obedience. At the same time the slaughter of them, and was not permitted to save Agag their Ammonites, Moabites, and other people, made an irruption into king, who was hewn in pieces by the prophet Samuel : David Judah, but were repulsed and routed by Jehoshaphat. (2 Chron. exterminated those who had escaped the former massacre. After xx. 1, 2. et seq.) this terrible execution, we meet no more with the name of The prophet Isaiah (xv. xvi.) threatens the Moabites with a Amalek but in the history of Esther; in whose time Haman, an misfortune which was to happen three years after his prediction; Amalekite, to revenge an affront he imagined himself to have this probably had reference to the war of Shalmaneser against received from the Jew Mordecai, conceived the design of causing them, about A. m. 3277, B. c. 727.–After the tribes of Reuben, to be cut off, in a single night, not only all the Jews dispersed in Gad, and the half-tribes of Manasseh were carried captive by the states of Ahasuerus king of Babylon, but even those who had Tiglath-pileser, A. m. 3264, B. c. 740, the Ammonites and been left in Judea to mourn over the ruins of their country. This Moabites took possession of the cities belonging to these tribes, dreadful design recoiled on Haman, who was exterminated with for which Jeremiah reproaches them. (Jer. xlix. 1.) The amall his family, and the Jews received permission to pursue and bassadors of the Ammonites were some of those to whom that put to death their enemies wherever they could find them. They prophet presented the cup of the Lord's fury, and whom he made a great slaughter of them; and since this event, nothing directed to make bonds and yokes for themselves, exhorting them more has been certainly known concerning the Amalekites. to submit to Nebuchadnezzar; and threatening them, if they did

Amam, a city in the southern part of the tribe of Judah. not, with captivity and slavery. (Jer. xxvii. 2, 3, 4.) The (Josh. xv. 26.)

prophet Ezekiel (xxv. 4. 10.) denounces their entire destruction, Amana, a mountain mentioned in Sol. Song iv. 8. which, some and tells them, that God would give them up to the people of the have imagined, was in Cilicia, whither the government of Solo- East, who should set their palaces in their country, so that the mon extended: but it was, most probably, a part of Mount Li- Ammonites should be no more mentioned among nations; and banus, as Shenir and Hermon, which are mentioned in the same this as a punishment for insulting the Israelites on their calamipassage, were parts of the same mountainous range.

ties, and the destruction of their temple by the Chaldeans. These Amasa, a nephew of David, whom Absalom appointed general calamities happened to them in the fifth year after the taking of of his army. (2 Sam. xvii. 25.) After the defeat of that prince, Jerusalem, when Nebuchadnezzar- made war against all the David pardoned Amasa, and offered him the command in chief people around Judæa, a. M. 3420 or 3421, B. c. 583. of his forces in the room of Joab, by whom he was treacherously It is probable that Cyrus gave to the Ammonites and Moabites murdered. (2 Sam. xx.)

the liberty of returning into their own country, whence they had AMAZIANI, the eighth king of Judah, who succeeded Joash been removed by Nebuchadnezzar; for we see them, in the lands B.c. 839. The commencement of his reign was auspicious: but, of their former settlement, exposed to those revolutions which after he had subdued the Edomites (2 Kings xiv.), he carried off included the people of Syria and Palestine ; and subject sometheir idol gods, and acknowledged them for his own, by adoration times to the kings of Egypt, and sometimes to the kings of Syria. and offering incense. He then proclaimed war against Joash Antiochus the Great took Rabboth or Philadelphia, their capital, king of Israel, who defeated his forces and took him prisoner. demolished the walls, and put a garrison into it

, A. M. 3806. He reigned ingloriously fifteen years after this event; and at During the persecutions of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Ammonites length, hated by his subjects, and abandoned by the Almighty, manifested their hatred to the Jews, and exercised great cruelties he was assassinated by conspirators at Lachish, whither he against such of them as lived in their parts. (1 Macc. v. 6–45.) had fled.

Justin Martyr says (Dialog. cum Triphone, p. 272.), that in his Ammon. See No-Ammon, infra.

time—the second century—there were still many Ammonites Ammonites, a people descended from Ammon, son of Lot; remaining; but Origen (Comm. on Job) assures us, that in his called sometimes Ammanites. They destroyed the giants Zam- days, they were only known under the general name of Arabians. zummim, and seized their country. (Deat. ii. 19, 20, 21.) God Thus was the prediction of Ezekiel accomplished. See a minute forbad Moses and Israel from attacking the Ammonites, because account of the fulfilment of prophecies concerning the Ammonites he did not intend to give their land to the Hebrews. Neverthe- and their country, in Mr. Keith's Evidence of the Christian Reliless, as, previously to the Israelites entering Canaan, the Amor- gion from Prophecy, pp. 152—160.-Notice of the idols worites had conquered great part of the countries belonging to the shipped by the Ammonites, p. 137. of this volume. Ammonites and Moabites, Moses retook this from the Amorites, Anxox, the son of David and Ahinoam. Having conceived a and divided it between the tribes of Gad and Reuben. Long criminal passion for his sister Tamar, he violated her: and two after this, in the time of Jephthah (Judg. xi. 13.), the Am- years after, when he was intoxicated at a feast made by Absalom monites declared war against Israel, pretending that Israel de- the uterine brother of Tamar, the servants of the latter assastained the country which had been theirs before the Amorites sinated him. (2 Sam. xiii.) possessed it. Jephthah replied, that this territory being acquired Amox, the fourteenth king of Judah, succeeded Manasseh, by Israel in a just war from the Amorites, who had long enjoyed whose impieties he imitated : he was assassinated by his own it by right of conquest, he was under no obligation to restore it. servants after a reign of two years, and in the 24th year of his The Ammonites being dissatisfied with this reply, Jephthah gave age, B. c. 640. them battle and defeated them.

AMORITES, a people descended from Amori or Amorrhæus, The Ammonites and Moabites generally united in attacking the fourth son of Canaan. They first peopled the mountains Israel. After the death of Othniel, the Ammonites and Amalek- west of the Dead Sea. They likewise had establishments east ites joined with Eglon, king of Moab, to oppress them. Some of that sea, between the brooks Jabbok and Arnon, whence they years after, about a. M. 2799, the Ammonites greatly oppressed forced the Ammonites and Moabites. (Josh. v. 1. Num. xiii. 29. the Israelites beyond Jordan; but, in 2017, God raised up Jeph- xxi. 29.) Moses wrested this country from their kings, Sihon AN

AN and Og, A. M. 2553, B. C. 1451. The prophet Amos (ii. 9.) ANIM, a city in the mountainous parts of the canton of Judah speaks of their gigantic stature and valour. He compares their (Josh. xv. 50.) height to the cedar; their strength to the oak. The name Amor- ANIMALS, reared by the Jews, 175, 176. Certain animals, ite, is often taken in Scripture for Canaanites in general. The why prohibited to be eaten by them, 171, 172. lands which the Amorites possessed on this side Jordan, were Anna,

a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of given to the tribe of Judah ; and those which they had possessed Asher. This pious widow constantly attended the morning and beyond the Jordan, to the tribes of Reuben and Gad.

evening service at the temple; and, at the advanced age of eightyAmos, or Amoz.-1. The father of the prophet Isaiah; who, four years, when the venerable Simeon was uttering his hymn according to ancient traditions, was the son of Joash and the of thanksgiving at the presentation of Christ in the temple, she brother of Amaziah king of Judah.-2. The third of the Minor coming into the temple began to praise God and to speak of the Prophets, for an account of whom, and an analysis of his pre- Messiah to all those who were waiting for the redemption of dictions, see Vol. II. pp. 259, 260.

Israel. (Luke ü. 36–38.) AMPHIPOLIS, a city between Macedon and Thrace, but depen- Annas, or according to Josephus, Ananus, was a high-priest dent on Macedon, mentioned in Acts xvii. 1. Paul and Silas, of the Jews. He obtained the pontificate under Quirinus, probeing delivered out of prison, left Philippi, went to Thessalonica, consul of Syria, but was deprived of it, during the reign of Tiand passed through Amphipolis. This city had the name like-berius, by Valerius Gratus governor of Judæa. The dignity was wise of Chrysopolis.

transferred, first to Ismael the son of Phabæus, and shortly after AMRAPHEL, king of Shinar, an ally of Chedorlaomer, plun- to Eleazar. He held the office one year, and was then succeeded dered the Pentapolis and took Lot prisoner, who was rescued by by Simon; who, after another year, was followed by Joseph or Abraham and his associates. (Gen. xiv.)

Caiaphas, the son-in-law of Annas, A. D. 26. As Caiaphas conAMUSEMENTS of the Jews, 189, 190.

tinued in office until A. D. 35, Annas appears to have acted as his Anab, a city in the mountainous parts of the canton, belong- substitute or sagan, and enjoyed great influence jointly with him. ing to the tribe of Judah. (Judg. xv. 50.)

(Luke ïïi. 2. John xviii. 13. 24. Acts iv. 6.) ANAKIM, the descendants of Anak, a gigantic tribe who dwelt AntiL-LIBANUS (Mount), account of, 30. in the land of Canaan; on comparison of whom the unbelieving Antioch, the metropolis of Syria, was erected, according to Hebrew spies, that were sent to explore the country, reported that some writers, by Antiochus Epiphanes; according to others, by they were but as grasshoppers. (Num. xiii. 33.) Their capital, Seleucus Nicanor, the first king of Syria after Alexander the Kirjath-Arba or Hebron, was taken, and they were destroyed by Great, in memory of his father Antiochus, and was the royal Caleb, with the assistance of the tribe of Judah. (Josh. xv. 14. seat of the kings of Syria, or the place where their palace was. Judg, i. 20.)

For power and dignity it was little inferior to Seleucia or AlexANAMMELECH, one of the deities in honour of whom the Se- andria ; and the inhabitants were celebrated for their luxury, pharvaites caused their children to pass through the fire. It is effeminacy, and licentiousness. Josephus says, that it was the supposed to have signified the moon.

third great city of all that belonged to the Roman provinces; it ANANLAH, a city of Palestine, where the Benjamites dwelt was called Antiochia apud Daphnem, or Antioch near Daphne, after the captivity. (Neh. xi. 32.)

i. e. the village where her temple was, to distinguish it from Ananias, the name of several persons mentioned in the Scrip- fourteen other cities of the same name. It was celebrated among tures, of whom the following were the most remarkable :- the Jews, for the jus civitatis, which Seleucus Nicanor had given

i. The son of Nebedæus, who was high-priest A. D. 47. He to them in that city, with the Grecians and Macedonians; and was sent as a prisoner to Rome by Quadratus, governor of Syria, for the wars of the Maccabæans with those kings. Among and Jonathan was appointed in his place; but being discharged Christians it is memorable for being the place where they first by Claudius, in consequence of the protection of Agrippa, he received that name by divine appointment, and where both St. returned to Jerusalem; where, as Jonathan had been murdered Luke and Theophilus were born and inhabited. Modern Antioch through the treachery of Felix the successor of Quadratus, Ana- and its vicinity were completely destroyed by a tremendous earthnias appears to have performed the functions of the high-priest, quake in the autumnal months of the year 1822. as sagan or substitute, until Ismael the son of Phabæus was ap- ANTIOCH, of Pisidia, a city mentioned in Acts xiii. 14. Here pointed to that office by Agrippa. (Compare Vol. I. p. 50.) Paul and Barnabas preached; but the Jews, who were angry at Before this Ananias, Saint Paul was brought; and the apostle's seeing that some of the Gentiles received the Gospel, raised a prediction that God would smite him (Acts xxiii. 3.) was sub- sedition against Paul and Barnabas, and obliged them to leave sequently accomplished, when he was murdered in the royal the city. palace by a body of mutineers, at the head of whom was his Antiochus, a common name of the kings of Syria, after the own son.

time of Alexander the Great; the actions of many of whom are %. A Jew of Jerusalem, the husband of Sapphira, who at- foretold by the prophets, and related in the books of the Maccatempted to join the Christians, but died instantly on being con- bees. victed of falsehood by Peter. (Acts v. 1. 3. 5.).

1. AntiochUS SOTER, or Saviour, son of Seleucus Nicanor, 3. A Christian of Damascus, who restored the sight of Paul, began to reign B. c. 276. He conferred many immunities upon after his vision. (Acts ix. 10–17. xxii. 12.)

the Jews of Asia. He was succeeded by his son, ANATHOTH, a city in the tribe of Benjamin, memorable as - 2. ANTIOCHUS Tacos, or the God, B. c. 257; whose marriage being the birth-place of the prophet Jeremiah. (Josh. xxi. 18. with the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, is Jer. i. 1.) According to Eusebius and Jerome, it was situated foretold by Daniel. (xi. 6.) about three miles to the north of Jerusalem, though Josephus 3. ANTIOCIUS The Great, son of Seleucus Callinicus, began states it to be twenty furlongs. This city, which was assigned to reign b. c. 219. In consequence of the Jews submitting to as a residence to the Levites of the family of Kohath, and also him, he permitted them throughout his dominions to live accordas one of the cities of refuge, has long since been destroyed. ing to their own laws.

ANDREW, one of the twelve apostles. He was a native of 4. ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES, or the Illustrious, son of AntiBethsaida in Galilee, and was at first a follower of John the ochus the Great, was one of the most sanguinary persecutors of Baptist, but afterwards became a disciple of Jesus Christ. Ac- the Jewish nation that ever lived. He is the subject of Daniel's cording to ecclesiastical tradition, after the ascension of Jesus predictions. (Dan. xi. 21—29.) Though his Syrian flatterers Christ, he preached the Gospel to the Scythians, and was cru- gave him the appellation of Epiphunes, the epithet of vile, or cified at Patræ in Achaia. Epiphanius mentions the Acts of despicable, given him by the prophet (ver. 21.), agrees better with Andrew, a spurious book, which was used by the Encratites, his true character; for he disgraced himself by such profligate Apostolics, and Origenians.

conduct that the historian Polybius, his contemporary, and others Andronicus, a Jewish Christian, a kinsman and fellow-pri- after him, instead of Epiphanes, more correctly called him Episoner of St. Paul, who says that he was of note or in reputation manes, or the madman. This Antiochus designed nothing less among the apostles; by which expression we are not to under-than the utter extirpation of Judaism: he commanded the statue stand that he was one of the number of apostles, but that he of Jupiter Olympius to be placed upon the altar of the temple at was one of those early converts who were highly esteemed by the Jerusalem, and a sow to be offered in sacrifice. These profanaapostles, before the dispersion occasioned by the death of Stephen. tions, and his other oppressions, aroused the family of the Mac

Aner, one of the Levitical cities, situated in the canton of the cabees, who bravely resisted the forces of Antiochus: who, filled tribe of Manasseh. (1 Chron. xvi. 70.) Also the brother of with indignation, was hastening into Judæa, to make Jerusalem Mamre, a confederate of the patriarch Ábraham.

(as he menaced) a grave for all the Jews. but divine vengeanco

AP

AR pursued him; and Antiochus, falling from his chariot, bruised led from Rome to Capua, and thence to Brundusium. St. Paul his limbs, and died in the most excruciating tortures, 2.c. 160. passed through this place on his first journey to Rome; whence, He was succeeded by his son,

according to Antoninus's Itinerary, it was distant 43 Roman 5. ANTIOCHUS EUPATOR, who reigned only two years. miles, or about 40 English miles.

6. ANTIOCHUS Trvos, son of Alexander Balas, was treache- APPLE TREES of Palestine, notice of, 36. rously put to death by Tryphon his minister, B. c. 139.

AQUILA, a native of Pontus, in Asia Minor, was a Jew by 7. Antiochus Pius, SOTER, or SIDETES (that is, the fisher birth, and a tent-maker by occupation ; who, with his wife Prisor hunter), reigned ten years, B. c. 137 to 127; in which last cilla, was converted by St. Paul to the Christian faith. When year he was put to death by the Parthians.

the Jews were banished from Rome by the emperor Claudius ANTIPAS, a faithful martyr, mentioned in Rev. ii. 13. is said (the Christian and Jewish religions being confounded by the to have been put to death in a tumult at Pergamos by the priests Romans), Aquila and his wife retired to Corinth, and afterwards of Æsculapius, who had a celebrated temple in that city. became the companions of St. Paul in his labours, by whom they Antipas (Herod). See pp. 52, 53.

are mentioned with much commendation. (Acts xviii. 2. 18. 26. ANTIPATRIS, a small town which was situated in the road Rom. xvi. 3. 1 Cor. xvi. 19. 2 Tim. iv. 19.) The most cordial from Jerusalem to Cæsarea. It was formerly called Capharsalma: friendship appears to have subsisted between them: Aquila and but being rebuilt and beautified by Herod the Great, it was by Priscilla had even saved Paul's life at the risk of their own; which him named Antipatris, in honour of his father Antipater. Hi- instance of devotedness to the apostle has been referred to the ther St. Paul was brought after his apprehension at Jerusalem. accusation preferred against the apostle before Gallio at Corinth, (Acts xxiii. 31.)

or to the tumult excited by Demetrius at Ephesus. (Acts xviii. Antonia, (Tower of ), 20.

12. xix. 24.) APHARSITES, and APHARSACHTHITEs, were two tribes or na. Ar, or ARIEL, OF Moab. See RARBATH-MOAB. tions in subjection to the king of Assyria, by whom colonies of ARABIA, the name of a large region, including the peninsula, them were sent to inhabit the country of Samaria in place of which lies between Syria, Palestine, the Arabian and Persian the Israelites, who had been removed beyond the river Euphrates. Gulfs, and the Indian Ocean or Sea of Arabia. Its inhabitants They greatly opposed the building of Jerusalem. (Ezra v. 6. are supposed to be principally descended from Ishmael, and in iv. 9.) Some have supposed the Apharsites to be the Parrhasii the earlier books of Scripture are termed op 2 (BENI kedem) in the east of Media ; others, the Persians; and the Apharsach- or children of the east (Judg. vi. 3. 1 Kings v. 10. Isa. xi. 14. thites have been compared with Parasitaceni, Paretaceni, a Jer. xlix. 28.); and in the later books Duay (Arabim), or Arapeople of Media.

bians. (2 Chron. xxii. 1. Neh. ii. 19.) The Greek geographers APHEK.—There are several cities of this name mentioned in divided this country into three parts, Arabia Evdepæv or Felix, Scripture, as,

Πετρωδης or Petrea, and Σκηνιτις or Ερημος, Deserta : but these 1. Aphex, in the tribe of Judah. Here the Philistines en- divisions were not anciently known to the inhabitants of the camped, when the ark was brought from Shiloh, which was East, nor are they recognised in any part of the Old or New taken in battle by the Philistines. (1 Sam. iv.) Probably this is Testament. the Aphekah, mentioned in Josh. xv. 53.

1. Arabia Felix lies between the ocean on the south-east, 2. APHEK, in the valley of Jezreel. Here the Philistines and the Arabian and Persian gulfs. It is a fertile region, espeencamped, while Saul and his army lay near Jezreel, on the cially in the interior, producing various species of odoriferous mountains of Gilboa. (1 Sam. xxix. 1, &c.)

shrubs and fragrant gums, as frankincense, myrrh, cassia, &c 3. Apnek, a city belonging to the tribe of Asher, near the The queen of Sheba is supposed to have reigned over part of this country of the Sidonians. (Josh. xix. 30. xiii. 4.) Perhaps this region. was the

2. ARABIA PETRÆA received its name from the city Petra : 4. APAEK, a city of Syria, one of the principal in Ben-Hadad's it lies on the south and south-east of Palestine, extending to kingdom, in the vicinity of which the battle was fought between Egypt, and including the peninsula of Mount Sinai. It is Ahab and Ben-Hadad, when the Syrians were beaten (1 Kings remarkable for its mountains and sandy plains. XX. 26, &c.), and as they retreated with precipitation into the 3. ARABIA DESERTA lies between the other two, and extends city, the city wall fell upon them, and crushed 27,000. Probably, northward along the confines of Palestine, Syria, Babylonia, and in this city Aphek, or Aphaca, situated in Libanus, on the river Mesopotamia ; including the vast deserts which lie between these Adonis, stood the famous temple of Venus, the Aphacite. This limits, and which are inhabited only by wandering tribes of city lay between Heliopolis and Biblos.

savage Arabs. For a description of the horrors of a journey APOLLONIA, a city of Macedonia Prima, situated between Am- across the great desert of Arabia, see pp. 34, 35. phipolis and Thessalonica, about a day's journey from the former The Scriptures frequently mention the Arabians (meaning place. St. Paul passed through this city on his way to Thessa- those adjoining Judæa) as a powerful people, who valued themJonica. (Acts xvii. 1.)

selves on their wisdom. Their riches consisted principally in APOLLOS, a Jewish Christian, born at Alexandria, and distin- flocks and cattle ; they paid king Jehoshaphat an annual tribute guished for his cloquence and success in propagating the Gospel. of 7700 sheep, and as many goats. (2 Chron. xvii, 11.) The His history and character are given in Acts xviii. 24—28. xix. 1. kings of Arabia furnished Solomon with a great quantity of gold He preached at Corinth with such eloquence, that the Corin- and silver. (2 Chron. ix. 14.) They loved war, but made it thians, divided in their affections, boasted that they were the rather like thieves and plunderers, than like soldiers. They disciples of Paul, or of Cepbās, or of Apollos. From these vain lived at liberty in the field, or the desert, concerned themselves disputes St. Paul, certain of the humility of his friend, took occa- little about cultivating the earth, and were not very obedient to sion to write those admirable passages, in which he requires the established governments. This is the idea which the Scripture Corinthian Christians to forget both Paul and Apollos, and to gives of them (Isa. xiii. 20.), and the same is their character at refer every thing to Christ. (1 Cor. i. 12. iii. 4. iv. 6.) It is this day. Since the promulgation of the Gospel, many Arabians uncertain whether the apostle alludes in 2 Cor. iii. 1. to the have embraced Christianity; though by far the greater part conletters of recommendation which Apollos took with him on his tinue to profess the faith of Mohammed. departure from Ephesus for Corinth: but it is clear, that the ARAD, a Canaanitish royal city in the southern part of Palessuccess of the latter in Achaia, and the admiration felt by the tine. Its king having opposed the passage of the Israelites, they Corinthians for his eloquence, excited no envious emotions in afterwards took it with its dependencies. (Num.xxi. 1-3.) In the mind of St. Paul, since he earnestly pressed him to return to later times, Arad was rebuilt; and is placed by Eusebius in the Corinth (1 Cor. xvi. 12.), and subsequently recommended him vicinity of the desert of Kades, at the distance of 20 Řoman miles in a very particular manner to the friendly attentions of Titus. from Hebron. (Tit. iii. 13.)

ARAM, fifth son of Shem, was father of the people of Syria, APPAREL, royal, notice of, 44.

who, from him, are called Aramæans. The region, which in the APPHIA, a Christian woman, whom the ancient fathers sup- Old Testament is denominated Aram, is a vast tract extending posed to be the wife of Philemon: a conjecture which is rendered from Mount Taurus south as far as Damascus, and from the not improbable by the circumstance that in the inscription of his Mediterranean Sea in an eastern direction beyond the Tigris into epistle to Philemon in favour of Onesimus, St. Paul mentions Assyria. Different parts of this region are called by different Apphia before Archippus. (Philem. 2.)

names; as-Aram Naharaïm, or Syria of the Two Rivers, Appii Forum, a small town on the celebrated Appian Way, that is, Mesopotamia ; Aram of Damascus ; Aram of Soba ; constructed by the Roman censor Appius Claudius, and which | Aram Bethrehob; and Aram of Maacha; because the cities

AR

AS of Damascus, Soba, Bethrehob, and Maacha, were in Syria; or deemed to be the abode of unclean spirits. This meaning of the at least, because Syria contained the provinces of Soba, Maacha, word accords with what is said in Rev. xvi. 12–14. Rehob, &c. Homer and Hesiod call Aramæans those whom ARMIES of the Hebrews, levies, divisions, officers, and disci the more modern Greeks call Syrians. The prophet Amos pline of, 83–87., and of the Romans, 93, 94. (ix. 7.) seems to say, that the first Aramæans dwelt in the ARMs of the Hebrews, 87. Defensive arms, 87, 88. Offen country of Kir, in Iberia, where the river Cyrus runs; and that sive arms, 88. Allusions to the Greek and Roman armour in God brought them from thence, as he did the Hebrews out of the New Testament, 93. Egypt; but at what time this happened is not known. Moses Annon, a brook and valley of the same name, forming the always calls the Syrians, and inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Aram- northern boundary of the country of Moab. (Num. xxi. 13. ites.' The Aramæans often warred against the Hebrews; David Deut. iii. 8. 12. 16. iv. 28.) According to the observations of the subdued them, and obliged them to pay him tribute. Solomon traveller Seetzen, its present name is Mujeb. preserved the same authority; but, after the separation of the ten AROER.-1. The proper name of a city of the Gadites, on the tribes, it does not appear that the Syrians were generally subject river Arnon. (Num. xxxii

. 34. Deut. ii. 36. iii

. 12. Josh. xii. 2. to the kings of Israel ; unless, perhaps, under Jeroboam II., who xiii. 25.) The cities of, or about Aroer, mentioned in Isa. xvii. restored the kingdom of Israel to its ancient boundaries. (2 Kings 2., Prof. Gesenius is of opinion, may mean the cities beyond xiv. 25.)

Jordan generally.—2. The name of a place in the canton of the Ararat, a celebrated mountain in the Greater Armenia, on tribe of Judah. (1 Sam. xxx. 28.) which Noah's ark rested after the deluge. (Gen. viii. 4.) It is of ARPAD, a city and country in Syria, near Hamath, with which stupendous height, and inaccessible to the summit, which is it is often joined, and which for a time had its own kings. (2 covered with perpetually frozen snow; and the magnitude of the Kings xviii. 34. xix. 13. Isa. x. 9. Jer. xlix. 23.) peak is annually increasing in consequence of the continual ARPHAXAD, the son of Shem, who is mentioned in the geneaccession of ice. Agridagh is the name given to this sublime alogy of Mary, was born two years after the deluge. (Gen. x. mountain by the Turks; the Armenians call it Macis ; and the 22—24. xi. 12, 13.) The names of his brethren are most of Persians in the neighbourhood, Kuhi Nuach, “the mountain of them the names of countries. If this be the case with Arphaxad, Noah ;' but all unite in reverencing it as the haven of the great the most probable supposition is that of Josephus, viz. that it ship, which preserved the father of mankind from the waters of denotes Chaldæa. the deluge. (Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Persia, vol. i. pp. 183, Arrows used by the Hebrews, notice of, 88. Divination by 184. Stuart's Hebrew Chrestomathy, p. 150.)

arrows, 143. ARBA. See HEBRON.

ARTAXERXES (NovunOX ARTACASCHASCHTRA), a title of ARCHELAUS, the son and successor of Herod the Great in several Persian kings. Professor Gesenius derives it from the the government of part of his dominions. See an account of ancient Persian word Artahshetr, which is found upon the him in p. 51.

inscriptions of Nachschi Roustam. The latter part of this word ARCHippus, a Christian, who was either a teacher or a deacon is the Zendish Khshethro (also sheruo), a king. But the sylof the church at Colossæ. (Col. iv. 17.)

lable art (which is found in several Persian names, as Artabanus, ApXlouvazayos, or ruler of the synagogue, powers and functions Artaphernes, Artabasus), appears to have signified to be great or of, 104.

mighty. At least the Greeks gave it this interpretation. This AREOPAGUs, tribunal of, 60, 61.

signification is now lost in the Persian. From the original ARETAS, the third of the name, a king of Arabia, was the Artahshetr, the modern Persians formed Ardeshir (a.name father-in-law of Herod Antipas, against whom he declared war in borne by three kings of the dynasty of the Sassanides); the revenge for repudiating his daughter. Antipas called the Romans Armenians, Artashir ; the Greeks, Artaxerxes; and the Heto his assistance ; but some unaccountable delay in the marching brews, Artachschaschtha. Two Persian sovereigns who bore of their forces, and the death of the emperor Tiberius, put an end this name, are mentioned in the Old Testament; viz. to the expedition, and saved Aretas. It is supposed that he 1. ARTAXERXES, who at the instigation of the enemies of the availed himself of this favourable opportunity to make an incur- Jews issued an edict, prohibiting them from rebuilding Jerusalem. sion into Syria, and obtain possession of Damascus, where he ap- (Ezra iv. 7-22.) This Artaxerxes is generally considered to pointed an ethnarch, whose jurisdiction probably extended only be the pseudo-Smerdis, one of the Persian Magi, who assumed over the Jews who dwelt there. Some learned men have sup- that name, and pretending to be Smerdis the son of Cyrus posed this name to have been of Greek origin, and to be derived and the brother of Cambyses, occupied the throne between the from åpern, excellence or pre-eminence, but Dr. Pococke is of reigns of Cambyses and Darius the son of Hystaspes. opinion, that it is an Arabic name (from al-hareth) which was 2. ARTAXERXES, who issued a decree extremely favourable to common to many of the Arabian kings.

the Jews, which was carried by Ezra to Jerusalem. (Ezra vii. 1. ARGOB, the capital city of a region of the same name, which | viii. 1.) This sovereign is the Artaxerxes surnamed Longimanus, was situated beyond the Jordan, in Bashan, the most fruitful or the Long-handed, from a trifling deformity. Nehemiah was country on the other side of that river: it belonged to the half- his cup-bearer, and was permitted by him to return to Jerusalem, tribe of Manasseh.

with a commission to rebuild its walls, and to be the governor of ARIMATHEA, a small town to which Joseph belonged who Judæa. begged the body of Jesus from Pilate. (Matt. xxvii. 57.) It was "Aptejis. See Diaxa. about thirty-six or thirty-seven miles distant from Jerusalem, and Arts, origin of, 180. State of them from the deluge, until is now called Ramla. At present it is a wretched dilapidated after the captivity, 181. Account of some of the arts practised place, but exhibits the marks of having once been an extensive by the Jews, 183, 184. and flourishing town. (Three Weeks in Palestine, p. 14.) Its ARUPOTH, or ARABOTH, a city or country belonging to the environs are said to be very beautiful.

tribe of Judah. (1 Kings iv. 10.) Its true situation is unknown. ARISTARCHUS, a native of Thessalonica, a city of Macedonia, Arvad, or Arapus, a small island at the mouth of the river who embraced Christianity, and accompanied St. Paul in several Eleutherus, on the coast of Phænicia, opposite to Tyre. (Ezek. of his journeys. He was seized in the tumult at Ephesus, and xxvii. 8.) The ARVADITE is mentioned in Gen. x. 18. The was afterwards carried with the apostle as a prisoner to Rome, Arvadites were employed as mariners by the Tyrians. where he shared his imprisonment. (Acts xix. 29. xx. 4. xxvii. Asa, king of Judah, succeeded his father Abijam, B. c. 951, 2. Col. iv, 20. Philem. 24.)

He was distinguished for his success in war, and his zeal for the ARITHMETIC of the Jews, 186.

worship of the true God. In the latter part of his reign, the ARK, See Noal.

prophet Hanani having reproved him for his distrust in God in ARMAGEDDON, the name of a place mentioned in Rev. xvi. 16., forming an alliance with Ben-hadad king of Syria, he was so the position and nature of which are unknown. According to exasperated that he put the prophet in chains, and at the same some expositors, it is compounded of two words, signifying the time gave order for the execution of many of his friends. He mountain of Mageddo or Megiddo ; a place situated at the foot is supposed to have died of a severe fit of the gout, B. c. 886. of Mount Carmel

, and celebrated in the history of God's people Asapo, Heman, and Jepututy, of the tribe of Levi, were for two memorable slaughters, first of the Canaanites (Judg. v. constituted by David, chiefs of the sacred singers, of whom their 19.), and afterwards of the Israelites. (2 Kings xxiii. 29.) families formed a part. (1 Chron. xxi. 1.) They are all three Others, however, conjecture that the name Armageddon means a termed prophets or seers (1 Chron. xxv. 5. 2 Chron. xxix. 30. dry barren, mountainous, and desert country, such as the Jews xxxv. 15.), which appellation is supposed to refer rather to their

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