« ElőzőTovább »
proper manner to the Hebrews: not because they were in them- | Romans as a writing of Paul.": It is often quoted by Eusebius selves abstruse, but because the Hebrews were dull of apprehen- himself as Paul's and as sacred Scripture. This Epistle was sion, through their prejudiced attachment to the Levitical law received by Athanasius without any hesitation. In his enumeraand priesthood.1
tion of Paul's fourteen Epistles, this is placed next after the two The preceding considerations will show that the Epistle to the Thessalonians and before the Epistles to Timothy, Titus, to the Hebrews was the identical letter which Peter had in and Philemon. The same order is observed in the Synopsis of view. We have insisted the more strenuously upon his tes- Scripture ascribed to him. This Epistle is received as Pauls by timony, because, as he was an inspired apostle, we think his Adamantius, author of a dialogue against the Marcionites, in 330, evidence sufficient to determine the controversy respecting and by Cyril of Jerusalem in 348 ; by the council of Laodicea in this Epistle, and to demonstrate (notwithstanding the skep- 363, where Paul's Epistles are enumerated in the same order as tical declaration of Michaelis to the contrary) that it is a in Athanasius, just noticed. This Epistle is also received as genuine and inspired production of the illustrious apostle Paul's by Epiphanius about 368; by the apostolical constitutions Paul. There are, however, many other testimonies to prove about the end of the fourth century; by Basil about 370; by the same point, which we shall now proceed to state ; each Gregory Nazianzen in 370; by Amphilochius also. But he says of them singly outbalancing the weight of the conjectures it was not universally received as Paul's. It was received by advanced against it, but all of which, taken collectively, fur- Gregory Nyssen about 371; by Didymus of Alexandria about nish such a body of evidence in favour of Paul being the the same time; by Ephraim the Syrian in 370, and by the author of this Epistle, as can be adduced for no other ancient churches of Syria: by Diodore of Tarsus in 378; by Hierax, a anonymous writing whatever. We therefore proceed to re- learned Egyptian, about the year 302 ; by Serapion, bishop of mark,
Thmuis in Egypt, about 347; by Titus, bishop of Bostra in [ii.] Secondly, that the Epistle to the Tlebrews is found in Arabia, about 362; by Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia in the most ancient Oriental and Western Versions which are ex- Cilicia, about the year 394 ; by Chrysostom in the year 398 ; by tant.
Severian, bishop of Gabala in Syria, in 401; by Victor of Antioch It is found in the Peschito or Old Syriac Version of the New about 401; by Palladius, author of a life of Chrysostom, about Testament, which was executed at the close of the first, or in the 408 ; by Isidore of Pelusium about 412: by Cyril, bishop of Alexearly part of the second century, and in the Old Latin Versions andria, in 412; by Theodoret in 423 ; by Eutherius, bishop of made during the former part of thc second century. As these Tyana in Cappadocia, in_431 ; by Socrates, the ecclesiastical versions were in common use and authority among the churches historian, about 440; by Euthalius in Egypt about 458; and, of the East and the West, this is a fact of very great importance ; probably, by Dionysius, falsely called the Areopagite; by the because it affords palpable evidence that the Epistle to the author of the Questiones et Responsiones, commonly ascribed Hebrews was widely circulated among Christians a short time to Justin Martyr, but rather written in the fifth century. It is in after the apostolic age.
the Alexandrian manuscript written in the sixth century, and in [iji.] Thirdly, the testimony of ecclesiastica. antiquity de- the Stichometry of Nicephorus about 806; and is received as cidedly ascribes this Epistle to Puul.
Paul's by Cosmas of Alexandria about 535; by Leontius of Con(1.) Among the fathers of the Greek or Eastern Catech, about 858 ; by Ecumenius about the year 950 ; and by Theo
stantinople about 610; by John Damascen in 730; by Photius who wrote in the Greek language, we find allusions to it in the phylact in 1070. FEpistles of Ignatius, about the year 107. The Epistle to the Hebrews seems to be referred to by Polycarp bishop of Smyrna, we may first cite Clement, who was bishop of Rome, though he
(2.) Among the fathers of the Latix OR WESTERN CHURCH, in his Epistle to the Philippians in the year 108, and in the re-wrote his Epistle to the Corinthians in Greek A.D. 96, or, according lation of his martyrdom, written about the middle of the second to some critics, about the year 70. In this Epistle there are several century. This Epistle is quoted twice hy Justin Martyr in his allusions or references to the Epistle to the Hebrews. Irenæus, bidialogue with Trypho the Jew, A. D. 140. It is often cited as
shop of Lyons about 178, we are assured by Eusebius, cited some Paul's, without any hesitation, by Clement of Alexandria, ahout passages out of this Epistle in a work now lost; nevertheless it the year 194. It is received and quoted as Paul's by Origen does not appear that he received it as Saint Paul's. By Tertulabout 230.2 It was also received as the apostle's by Dionysius, lian, presbyter of Carthage, about the year 200, this Epistle is bishop of Alexandria, in 247. It is plainly referred to by Theo-ascribed to Barnabas. Caius, about 212, supposed to have been gnostus of Alexandria about 282. It appears to have been received presbyter in the church of Rome, reckoning up the Epistles of by Methodius about 292, by Pamphilus about 294, and by Saint Paul, mentioned thirteen only, omitting that to the HeArchelaus bishop of Mesopotamia at the beginning
of the fourth brews. Hippolitus, who flourished about 220, did not receive century, by the Manicheans in the fourth, and by the Paulicians the Epistle to the Hebrews as Saint Paul's
. This Epistle is not in the seventh century. It was received and ascribed to Paul by quoted by Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, about 248 and afterAlexander bishop of Alexandria in the year 313, and by the wards, nor does it appear to have been received by Novatus, or Arians in the fourth century, Eusebius, bishop of Cæsarea, Novatian, presbyter of Rome, about 251; nevertheless, it was in about 315, says, “ There are fourteen Epistles of Paul before the after times received by his followers. It may be thought by some public and well known: but yet there are some who have re- that this Epistle is referred to by Arnobius about 306, and Lacjected (The nderux-201) that to the Hebrews, alleging in behalf tantius about the same time. It is plainly quoted by another Arof their opinion, that it was not received by the church of the nobius in the fifth century. It was received as Paul's by Hilary
of Poictiers about 354; and by Lucifer, bishop of Cagliary in 1 To the preceding argument it has been objected, that the Epistle par. ticularly intended by Peter may be that written to the Roinans, in which Sardinia, about the same time, and by his followers; it was also Saint Paul speaks to the Jews by name (ii. 17.), and in which there is an received as Paul's by C. M. Victorinus. Whether it was received exhortation to account the long-suffering of God to be salvation, or that which leads to repentance. But to this objection Whitby has well replied, 3 Eusehius, Eccl. Hist. lib. iii. c. 3. It does not follow that the tives of (1.) That what is written in the Epistle to the Romans is addressed to the Eusebius were writers; but even if they were, they did not appeal to older unbelieving Jews only, whereas Peter writes to the brethren (2 Pet. iii. Greek writers, but only to the Roman church. This word fiveS-SOME12.), the beloved (verses 1. 14. 17.), to those who had receired like precious indicates inerely an exception to the general opinion of the Greeks, there faith. (i. 1.) He therefore could not mean the Jews, of whom Paul speaks being some who were influenced by respect or prepossession for the Roin the Epistle to the Romans. Nor (2.) can that Epistle
with propriety be mans: and this exception is itself a proof that the Greek church at large said to be written to the dispersed Jews, because it is addressed to those acknowledged this epistle as a production of the apostle Paul, according in at Rome only (Rom. i. 7.), and chiefly to the Gentiles there. (i. 13. xi. 13. the well known principle, exceptio firmat regulam. The fact
that the Arians xv. 15, 16.)-(3). The words of Paul in Rom. ii. are not an exhortation to were the first in the Greek churches, whom history charges with denying count the long-suffering of God salvation, but a reproof for despising this Paul to be the author of this epistle, adds no ordinary degree of weight long-suffering: whereas in the Epistle to the Hebrews (xii.) he commends to the declarations of Eusebius; and recommends his character as a histotheir patience under sufferings, and assures them that it would obtain sal rian, whom no predilection for a party could betray into a departure from vation; and that, if they lived by faith, their Lord would come, and would historical truth. Hug's Introduction, vol. ii. p. 509. Schmucker's Biblical not tarry. To which we may add, that in the
Epistle 10 the Hebrews (iv. Theology, vol. i. p. 9. xii. 14. 18. 24.) mention is made of the introduction of the righteous into • It is a singular circumstance that no book of the New Testament has the heavenly country, which is one of the topics mentioned in the second been so frequently quoted by Clement as the Epistle to the Hebrews. Epistle of Peter.
Prof. Stuart has arranged his quotations under four different classes; viz. The words of Origen (who was of opinion that the ideas were those of | 1. Passages in which the exact words, or nearly so, of the epistle, are Paul, though not the style) are very remarkable. He says that "not with cited ;-2. Passages containing the same sentiment, with more or less con. out cause did the ancients transmit this (epistle) as Paul's." (Euseb. Eccl. traction of the expression, or an exchange of the original word for a syno. Hist. lib. vi. c. 25.) Now, it is very certain that the churches and writers, nymous one ;-3. Passages which are a paraphrastic imitation of the Epistle who were ancients with respect to Origen, must have conversed with the to the Hebrews; or in which the style or phraselogy of this epistle is more apostles themselves, or at least with their successors. And since this tra. or less exhibited;-and 4. Passages similar to texts in the Old Testament, dition was ancient in the times of Clement of Alexandria and Origen, about but which Clement probably quoted from the Epistle to the Hebrews. one hundred and thirty years after the Epistle was written, it must have These different classes of quotations Prof. Stuart has elucidated with many had its rise in the days of Paul himself, and so cannot reasonably be con- valuable observations, for which the reader
is necessarily referred to his
Commentary, vol. i. pp. 77–84., or pp. 94-105. of the London edition. VOL. II.
by Optatus of Milevi in Africa, about 370, is doubtful. It was who were so exceedingly dear to him? Knowing their prejudices received as Paul's hy Ambrose, bishop of Milan, about 374; by concerning the Levitical law, what subject could he select more the Priscillianists about 378. About the year 380 was published appropriate for their instruction and edification, than the abroa commentary upon thirteen Epistles of Paul only, ascribed to gation of the Levitical priesthood, and the surpassing excellence Hilary, deacon of Rome. It was received as Paul's by Philaster, of Christ's person and office, especially of his true, spiritual, and bishop of Brescia in Italy, about 380 ; but he takes notice that it eternal priesthood, of which the Levitical priesthood was but a was not then received by all. His successor Gaudentius, about 387, shadow, and of which the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews quotes this Epistle as Paul's; it is also readily received as Paul's has treated so largely ? by Jerome about 392; and he says it was generally received by the Greeks, and the Christians in the East, but not by all the La- together with his manner of reasoning, is a sure mark by which
[ii.] Secondly, If an author's method of treating his subjects, tins. It was received as Paul's by Ruffinus in 397 ; it is also in the he may be ascertained (as all good judges of composition allow); catalogue of the third council of Carthage in 397. It is frequent- we shall without hesitation pronounce Paul to be the author of ly quoted by Augustine as Paul's. In one place he says, “ It is the Epistle to the Hebrews. of doubtful authority with some, but he was inclined to follow the opinion of the churches in the East, who received it among the
(1.) The general arrangement or method pursued in this canonical Scriptures.” It was received as Paul's by Chromatius, Epistle corresponds with that of Paul in his other Epistles. bishop of Aquileia in Italy, about 401 ; by Innocent, bishop of which was also peculiar to hiin. He first lays down the doctrinal
His method of procedure is the same with that of his other Epistles, Rome, about 402; by Paulinus, bishop of Nola in Italy, about ries of the Gospel, vindicating them from oppositions and exceptions; and 403. Pelagius about 405 wrote a commentary upon thirteen then he descends to exhortations to obedience, deduced from them, with Epistles of Paul, omitting that to the Hebrews; nevertheless it was
an enumeration of those inoral duties of which it was necessary to remind
those Christians to whom he wrote. In this respect the Epistle to the He. received by his followers. It was received by Cassian about 424; brews bears the greatest resemblance to the Epistle to the Galatians, and by Prosper of Aquitaine about 434, and by the authors of the especially that addressed to the Romans. Like them, the former half
of works ascribed to him; by Eucherius, bishop of Lyons, in 434; exhortations interinixed, which the strength of the writer's feelings plainly by Sedulius about 818; by Leo, bishop of Rome, in 440 ; by appears to have forced from him. From ch. x. 20. to the end, the Epistle Salvian, preshyter of Marseilles, about 440; by Gelasius, bishop is portatory and practical. “In the Epistle to the Romans, just before the of Rome, about 496 ; by Facundus, an African bishop, about 540 ; the prayers of those whom he addressed, in order that he may be delivered by Junilius, an African bishop, about 566; by Cassiodorus in fron the power of persecution, and
he follows this request with a petition, 556; by the author of the imperfect work upon Matthew, about that the
God of Peace-80s Tüs sienuus-might be with them, and con 560; by Gregory, bishop of Rome, about 590; by Isidore of Se- style, and conclusion, appear, at the close or the Epistle to the Hebrews. ville about 596 ; and by Bede about 701, or the beginning of the wii. 18-21.) The writer begs an interest in their prayers, that he may
be restored to them the sooner; commends them to the God of Peace (an eighth century
expression used no where else but in Saint Paul's writings and in the From the preceding testimonies it is evident, that within Epistle to the Hebrews); and concludes with an Amen."* similar coinciabout thirty years at most after this Epistle was written (for (Professor Stuart adds, to the Philippians and Thessalonians also); which its date, see p. 356. infra) "it had acquired such currency conclude with an Amen before the salutation. and credit, that the church at Rome, the metropolitan of the
(2.) In this letter, we find that overflowing of sentiment world, in a letter addressed by Clement their bishop to the church at Corinth, made repeated appeals to it as a book of briefly expressed, which distinguishes Paul from every other
sacred writer. divine authority, and in such a way as to imply a knowledge and acknowledgment of it by the Corinthian church, similar thing subordinate, but at the same time connected with it ; which, having
"Therein also are abrupt transitions from the subject in hand to some. to their own. Further, Justin Martyr has evidently appealed pursued for a little while, the writer returns to his subject, and illustrates to its contents as sacred, A.D. 140; about which time, or not it by arguments of great force, couched sometimes in a short expression, long after, it was inserted among the canonical books of the and sometimes
in a single word, -all which are peculiar to Paul. In this New Testament by the churches of the East and West: and manner, we meet with many elliptical expressions, which are to be supplied consequently it must have had, a period yery little after the cither from the foregoing or from the following clauses. In it also, as in apostolic age, a currency and a credit not at all or at most Paul's acknowledged Epistles, we find reasonings addressed to the thoughts very little inferior to that of other acknowledged books of the obvious, the writer knew they would naturally occur, and iherefore needed New Testament.”*3 2. INTERNAL EVIDENCE THAT THE EPISTLE TO THE HE- the Hebrews has subjoined to his reasonings many exhortations to piety
and virtue; all which, to persons who are judges of writing, plainly point BREWS IS THE GENUINE PRODUCTION OF SAINT PAUL.
out the apostle Paul as the author of this Epistle." [i.] In the first place, Paul cherished an ardent zeal and affection towards his kinsmen according to the flesh. (Rom. ix.
(3.) Many things in this Epistle (too numerous and indeea 1-1., &c.)
too obvious to require any enumeration) evidently manifest And can we think it likely that he should never write to those exceedingly well skilled in the customs, practices, opinions,
that its author was not only mighty in the Scriptures, but also
traditions, expositions, and applications of Scripture, then 1 The non-recognising of this epistle as St. Paul's production" by all received in the Jewish church. the Latins," according to Jerome, and the circumstance of its being“ of doubtful authority with some" in the Latin church, according to Augus- "In the Epistle to the Hebrews, we find such enlarged views of the divine tine, are thus accounted for hy Hug. The Western church was kept dispensations respecting religion; such an extensive knowledge of the actively employed by the Montanists. In vindication of their tenet, that Jewish Scriptures, according to their ancient and true interpretation, which those guilty of grievous transgressions should be irrevocably cut off Paul, no doubt, learned froin the celebrated doctors under whose tuition from the church, they relier especially on Hebrews vi. 4, 5. as we learn he siudied in his younger years at Jerusalem ; such a deep insight also into from Tertullian (de Pudicitia, c, 20.) and Jerome (adv. Jovinian, 1. ii.c. the most recondite meanings of these Scriptures, and such admirable rea3.); on which accouut the ministers of the Latin church made cautious sonings founded thereon for the confirmation of the Gospel revelation, as, and sparing use of this epistte. Not long probably after the death of without disparagement to the other apostles, seem to have exceeded, not Irenæus, the presbyter Caius assumed the tone of clamorous opposition their
natural abilities and education only, but even that degree of inspiraagainst this epistle, in a work which he published against the Monta- tion with which they were endowed. None of them but Paul, who was nists: and from that time this opinion was adopted by the greater part brought up at the feet of Gamaliel, and who profited in the Jewish religion
Even the Montanists themselves receded from and learning above many of his fellow-students, and who in his riper their original position on this subject, and in their polemical works re
years, was intiinately acquainted with the learned men of his own nation ceived this epistle only as far as its anthority was acknowledged by their (Acts ix. 1, 2. 14. xxvi. 4, 5.), and who was called to the apostleship by Christ opponents, namely, as a production of an apostolical teacher, Barnabas, himself, when for that purpose he appeared to him from heaven, -nay, who or Clement,&c. About forty years after Caius's attack, arose the Nova- was caught up by Christ into the third heaven,-was equal to the subjects tians; who, as we learn from Jerome, Augustine, Epiphanius, Theodoret, treated of in this most admirable Epistle." and others, also used the passage Heb. vi?4, 5. as the principal defence of their tenets. While the Greeks were calm spectators of the contest, and
[iii.). In the third place, Not only does the general scope of evaded the argument from Ileb. vi. by their interpretations, the Latin this Epistle tend to the same point, on which Saint Paul lays churches were led by the pressure of circumstances to deny the authority so much stress in his other Epistles, namely, that we are justia of the book, whose contents they were unable to refute. But the Latin fied and obtain salvation only through Jesus Christ, and that to which they could appeal: the whole controversy proceeded on the the Mosaic institutions cannot effect this object ; but there are ground of internal evidence. It was for this reason that Jerome and Allgustine could not adopt the opinion of the church to which they belonged; because they were convinced of the contrary by the testimony of the an
of the Latin church.
Stuart's Commentary on the Epistle to the IIebrews, vol. i. pp. 152, cients: and their influence tended to give, at a subsequent day, a differ 153.; or pp. 185–187. of the
London edition. Schmidii Hist, et Vindient turn to the opinion of the Latin church. Schmucker's Biblical The- catio Canonis, pp. 665, 666. Owen on the IIebrews, vol. i. Exercitation 2. ology, vol. i. pp. 115, 116. Hug's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 516—525.
Of these parenthesis see an example in leb. i. 2-4., in which the 2 Lardner's Works, 8vo. vol. vi. pp. 391–395.; 40. vol. iii. pp. 329–331. truth of the Gospel is argued from the dignity of Christ's person; in In his notes there are references to the various parts of the preceding verse 5. the discourse is continued from the first verse. See other involumes, in which the extracts from the above named fathers are to be stances in Fleb. iii. 7-11. 14. and iv, 2, &c. found.
6 Macknight's Preface to the Epistle to the Hebrew's, Sect. I. iii. • Stuart's Commentary, vol. i. p. 109.
various DOCTRINAL PROPOSITIONs in this Epistle, which are Christ was offered to bear the sins of many. (Heb. ix. 28.) He tasted found in the other acknowledged Epistles of Paul
death for every man. (Heb. ii. 9.) He put away sin by the sacrifice of him.
self. (Heb. ix. 26.) The Jewish offerings being altogether insufficient to Professor Stuart and M. De Groot have discussed this subject inake expiation, Christ has by his own blood once for all made expiation at length, especially the former: our limits will only permit a cix. 15. xii. 24.), which is better than the ancient one. (vii. 22. vii.) Exalted very few examples to be given, showing the superiority of the to the throne of the universe (ii. 6—10.), he appears in the presence of God Gospel over the Mosaic dispensation :
for us (ix. 24.); he ever lives to make intercession for all that come unto
God by him (vii. 25.); and he is ever able and ready to assist us. (iv. 141. As to the superior degree of RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE 16.) Many of the doctrines explained in this Epistle, particularly those imparted by the Gospel.
concerning the mediation and intercession of Jesus Christ, are not men
tioned by any of the inspired writers, except Paul. "In his acknowledged Epistles, Paul calls Judaism T# OTOX=TZ TOU XOG. pou (Gal. iv. 3.), the elements or rudiments of the world, that is, the ele- [iv.] Fourthly, There is such a similarity between the modes ments or principles of a religion accommodated to the ignorant and imbecile men of the present age or world ; and again, Ta Activ 42171004 OTO Cea of quotation, and style of phraseology of this Epistle, and (Gal. iv. 9.), weak and beggarly elements, to denote its imperfection. Here those which occur in the apostle's acknowledged Epistles, as presents it as adapted to children, vnt. (Gal
. 3.), who are in a state of clearly shows that the Epistle to the Hebrews is his undoubted. nonage and pupilage, or in the condition of servants rather than that of heirs. (Gal. iv. 1.) On the other hand, Christians attain to a higher know.
production. ledge of God (Gal. iv. 9.): they are no more as servants, but become sons, Braunius, Carpzov, Langius, Schmidt, Lardner, Macknight, and obtain the privileges of adoption. (Gal. iv. 5, 6.) They are represented De Groot, and above all Professor Stuart, have adduced numerous to make them xvdpus Tandvous. (Eph. iv. 11-13.) Christianity leads inein instances at considerable length, from which the following have to see the glorious displays of himself which God has made, with an been abridged : unveiled face, that is, clearly (2 Cor. iii. 18.); while Judaisin threw a veil over these things. (2 Cor. ii. 13.) Christianity is engraven on the hearts of (1.) Modes of quotation and interpretations of some pasits votaries, Sexov** TOU TVEULL%tas (2 Cor. iii. 8.), while Judaism was sages of the Hebrew Scriptures which are peculiarly Pauline, point, as contained in his acknowledged Epistles, with those which are Paul.
Let us now compare the preceding sketch of the apostle's views on this because they are to be found only in the writings of Saint developed in the Epistle to the Hebrews. “This Epistle commences with the declaration, that God, who in times out of the Old Testament in this than his other epistles, is nothing more
That the apostle should more abound with testimonies and quotations past spake to the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken to than the subject of which he treats, and the persons to whom he wrote, us by his Son. (Heb. i. 1. ii. 1.) Judaisın was revealed only by the media necessarily required. Thus, Psal. ii. 7. " Thou art my Son: to-day I haré tion of angels (ii. 2.), while Christianity was revealed by the Son of God, begotten thee;"> is quoted and applied to Jesus (Heb. 1. 5.) just as Paul, in and abundantly confirmed by miraculous gifts of the Holy Ghost. (ii. 3, 4.) bis discourse to the Jews in the synagogue of Antinch in Pisidia, cited and The ancient covenant was imperfect with respect to the means which it applied the saine passage of Scripture to him. (Acts xiii. 33.) In like furnished for the diffusion of knowledge; but the new covenant provides manner, the quotation and explanation of Psal. viii
. 1. and of Psal. cx. l., that all shall know the Lord from the least to the greatest. (viii. 9-11.) given by Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 25. 27. are found in Heb. ji. 7, 8. So also the ex: The law was only a sketch or imperfect representation of religious bless-planation of the covenant with Abraham (IIeb. vi. 14. 18.) is nowhere found ings; while the Gospel proffers the blessings themselves. (x. 1.) The worthies of ancient times had only imperfect
views of spiritual blessings,
but in Paul's Epistle to the Galatians. (iii. 3.9. 14. 19.)3 while Christians enjoy them in full measure. (xi. 39, 40.5"!!
(2.) Instances of agreement in the style and phraseology 2. As to the views which the Gospel displays concerning of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and in the acknowledged EpisGod the Father, in the bestowment of the gifts of the Holy tles of Paul. Spirit.
i. PARTICULAR WORDS, PECULIAR TO PAUL, OR WHICH ARE MOST FREQUENT
IN HIS WRITINGS.
list, which he
Wetstein enumerates eleven instances, to which Schmidt has added Holy Spirit as an argument for the truth of the Gospel, besides Saint Paul
refers io certain classes; as also does Professor Stuart, who has given and the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. (See 1 Cor. xiv. 22, &c.) upwards of sixty examples. Our limits will allow a few only to be subThe apostle expressly uses the word usposw, to distribute, with regard to
joined. these gifts in Rom. xii. 3. and 2 Cor. vii. 17.; and in Heb. ii. 4. he says, that the mission of the apostles was confirmed by God with divers miracles,
The word of God, in Panl, is a sword, rese%xipe. (Eph. vi. 17. Heb.iv. 12.) and Ilvev uztos Agiou jaspoo qoos, distributions or gifts of the Holy Spirit. uninformed, are terined vytvo in 1 Cor. iii. 1. Eph. iv. 14. Roun. ii. 20. Gal
Children in religion, that is, those who are comparatively ignorant and These gifts, Saint Paul exclusively affirms, are variously imparted accord. iv. 3. and Heb. v. 13.; and instruction for such persons is termed milk, and ing to the
will of God (Rom. xii. 3—6. Eph. iv. 7. and especially I Cor. xii. 4.7–11. 28.); and in the Epistle to the Hebrews these gifts are conferred meat, and oispus tpeen, or strong meat, in 1 Cor. iii, 2 and Heb. v. 14.
for strong persons (TE1101), or those who are well taught, it is spwez, κατα την αυτου θέλησιν, according to his will.
and their advanced or mature state of Christian knowledge is called 3. Concerning the person and mediatorial office of the LORD
Miritns or Mediator, to denote Jesus Christ, is exclusively Pavline. JESUS CHRIST.
(Gal. iii. 19, 20. 1 Tim. ii. 5. Heb. viii. 6.) He is the Creator of all things (Col. i. 16. Eph. iii. 9. 1 Cor. viii. 6.), and imputation of sin, to render God propitious, occurs in Eph. v. 26. Heb. ii
'Agoussiv, to cleanse from sin, that is, to expiate, to liberate from the by Him all things subsist. (Col i. 17.) He is the image or likeness of God, 11. x. 10. and xiii
. 12. siXWY TOV sou (2 Cor. iv. 4.); the image of the invisible Gud, six wv TCŮ OU TOÙ pzTov. (Col. i. 15.) He being in the form of God, in nopen sou,
Exos, a shadow, that is, a shadowing forth, or adumbration, as opposed --that is, in the condition of God-humbled himself, assumed an inferior or
to the perfect image, or delineation (Col. ii. 17. IIeb. viii. 5. X. 1.) humble station,-taking the condition of a servant, being made after the Heb. iii. 1. iv. 14. X. 23.)
oublogot, religion, religious or Christian profession. (2 Cor. ix. 13. similitude of men, and being found in fashion as a man, he exhibited his humility by obedience, even to the death of the cross, wherefore God
Orxos osou, the house of God, that is, the church. (1 Tim. iii. 15. IIeb. iij. 6.) highly exalted him to supreme dignity; and he must reign till he hath put
Kauporomos, Lord or possessor. (Heb. i. 2. Rom. viii. 17.) all things under his feet." (Phil. ii. 6–9. 1 Cor. xv. 25–27.)
KxTapytiv, to annul, abolish, or abrogate. (Rom. iii. 3. 31. vi. 6. 1 Cor. Correspondent to these representations are the declarations in the i. 28. Gal
. v. 11. Heb. ii, 14.) Epistle to the Hebrews. The Son of God is affirmed to be the reflected iii. 29. and Ileb. ii. 6.
ETERMA TOU A Speck, the seed of Abraham, or Christians, occurs in Gal. splendour of the glory of God, that is, one in whom the divine majesty is
ii. AGONISTIC EXPRESSIONS OR ALLUSIONS TO THE GAMES AND EXERCISES conspicuous, the %%pzxTMP UTOPTZTES TOU II: Tp95, the exact image, rep. resentation, or counterpart of the Father (i. 3.), by whom God made all GREECE AND OTHER PARTS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, AND PARTICULARLY AT
WHICH WERE THEN IN GREAT REPUTE, AND WERE FREQUENTLY SOLEMNIZED IN things (i. 2.), and upholds the universe by his word. Yet he was in a state of humiliation, being made a little lower than the angels (ii. 9.); he ii. 5. iv. 6–8. compared with Heb. vi. 18. and xii. 1-2, 4. 12.)
JERUSALEM AND CÆSAREA BY HEROD. (1 Cor. ix. 24. Phil. iii. 12-14. 2 Tim. assumed flesh and blood, " in order that he might by his own death render null and void the destructive power of the devil. (ii. 14.) On account of the suffering of death he is exalted to a state of glory and honour. (ii.
(3.) Coincidences between the exhortations in this Epistle 9.) He endured the suffering of the cross, making no account of its dis and those in Paul's other letters. grace, but having a regard to the reward set before him, which was a seat at the right hand of God. (xii. 2.) All things are put under his feet (. 8.
See Heb. xii. 3. compared with Gal. vi. 9. 2 Thess. ill. 13. and Eph. iii. 13.,
Heb. xii. 14. with Rom. xii. 18.; Heb. xiii. 1.3, 4. with Eph. v. 2-4.; Heb. x. 13.), where the very same passage from the Old Testament is quoted, xiii. 16. with Pbil. iv. 18. See also Rom. xv. 26. 2 Cor. viii. 24. and ix. 13. which Paul quotes in 1 Cor. xv. 25-28., and it is applied in the saine manner." But chiefly does Saint Paul expatiate in his acknuwledged Epistles on and the conclusions of Paul's Epistles, in several respects.
(4.) Coincidences between the conclusion of this Epistle the death of Christ as a propitiatory sacrifice for sin, and the reconciliation of sinners to God by means of this sacrifice. He is there said to have Compare Heb. xii. 18. with Rom. xv. 30. Eph. vi. 18, 19. Col. iv. 3. come into the world to save sinners (1 Tim. I. 15.); to have died for us and 1 Thess. v. 25. and 2 Thess. jii. 1.; Heb. xiji. 20, 21. with Rom. xv. 30–33. for our sins (Tit. ii. 14. 1 Cor. xv. 3.), and to be a propitiation for our sins. Eph. vi. 19-23. 1 Thess. v. 23. and 2 Thess. ii. 16. ; Heb. xiii. 24. with (Rom. iii. 25.) In him we have redemption through his blood. (Eph. i. 7.) Rom. xvi. 21-23. 1 Cor. xvi. 19-21. 2 Cor. xiii. 13. Phil. iv. 21, 22. ; Heb. This salvation it was impossible to obtain by the law; it could only be xiii. 25. with 2 Thess. iii. 18. Col. iv. 18. Eph. vi. 24. I Tiin, vi. 21. 2 Tim. effected by Jesus Christ, who accomplished what the law could not do. iv. 22. and Tit. iii. 15. (Rom. iii. 20—28. viji. 3. Gal. ii. 16. 21.) Finally, Jesus is our constant Mediator and Intercessor with God. (1 Tim. ii. 5. Rom. viii. 34.) In the [v.] Lastly, There are several circumstances towards the Epistle to the Hebrews, we find the same sentiments urged with the same ardour, particularly in chapters vii.---X. To adduce a few instances :
3 Macknight's Pref. to Ep. to the IIebrews. Sect. I. Siil. De Groot gives
instances not only of the formula of quotation, but also of the design with 1 Stuart's Commentary, vol. i. pp. 143, 144. (174, 175. of the London edition.) which the apostle introduces his quotations. (pp. 245, 246.) Prof. Stuart in pp. 144-148. (175—178. of the London edition) he admirably illustrates principally elucidates the mode of appealing to ihe Jewish Scriptures, and the superiority of the motives to piety contained in the Gospel, as well as the apostle's manner of reasoning. Cominentary, vol. i. pp. 153-160., or its superior efficacy in insuring the happiness of mankind, and the perpe. pp. 187—195. of the London edition. tajty of the Christian dispensation.
Wetstein, Nov, Test. tom. ii.p. 386. Schmidii Hist. Canonis, pp 662-664. De Groot, de Epist. ad Hebræos, pp. 240, 241. Stuart's Commentary, De Groot, pp. 247-250. Stuart, vol. i. pp. 160-168., or pp. 196—204. of the vol. i. p. 149 (or p. 152. of the London edition.)
close of this Epistle, which evidently prove that it was written should lead to the conclusion that it was not written by Paul." by Paul. Thus,
Those who have thought differently have mentioned Barnabas, (1.) Heb. xiii. 23. The departure of Timothy is mentioned; and we know Luke, and Clement, as authors or translators of this Epistle. from the commencement of the Epistles to the Philippians, Colossians,
and The opinion of Jerome was, that “ the sentiments are the apostle's, (2.) Heb. xiii. 24. They of Italy salute you : the writer, therefore, was but the language and composition of some one else, who comthen in Italy, whither Paul was sent a prisoner, and where he resided two mitted to writing the apostle's sense, and, as it were, reduced years (Acts xxviii. 30.); where also he wrote several Epistles which are into commentaries the things spoken by his master.” Dr. Lard
(3.) Heb. x. 34. The apostle makes mention of his bonds, and of the ner conjectures that Paul dictated the Epistle in Hebrew, and coinpassion which the llebrew Christians showed him in his sufferings, that another, who was a great master of the Greek language, imand during his imprisonment. then was, should write to the Hebrew Christians, and therein make men Greek; but who this assistant of the apostle was, is altogether
Now it is scarcely credible, that any other person in Italy, where Paul mediately wrote down the apostle's sentiments in his own elegant tion of his own bonds, and of Timothy being with him, who was a man unknown. But surely the writings of Paul, like those of other concerning his condition. Besides, the constant sign and token of Paul's authors, may not all have the same precise degree of merit; and Epistles, which himself had publicly signified to be so (2 Thess. iii. 17, 18.), if, upon a careful perusąl and comparison, it should be thought is subjcined to this :-Grace be with you all. (Heb. xiii. 25.) That this was that the Epistle to the Hebrews is written with greater elegance rather appears to be so because it was written : for he affirms, that it was than the acknowledged compositions of this apostle, it should also his custom to subjoin that salutation
with his own hand. Now this was an be remembered that the apparent design and contents of this Episevidence to the persons to whom the original of the Epistle
first came, but tle suggest the idea of more studied composition, and yet that was their token, being peculiar to Paul; and all these circumstances will there is nothing in it which amounts to a marked difference of yet receive some additional force from the
consideration of the time when style.”4 Besides the sublime subject of this Epistle, the grand this Epistle was written. (See par. iv. in the next column.) Is it possible that all these coincidences (which are compa, did not permit him to employ the negligent style of a familiar
ideas which the apostle developes with equal method and warmth, ratively a small selection) can be the effect of mere accident?
letter. The arrangement and method of treatment, the topics dis- the same construction of sentences, and the same style of ex
On the other hand, as we have already seen, there are cussed, and the peculiarity of sentiments, words, and phrases, are all
so exclusively Pauline, that no other person could have pression, in this Epistle, which occur in no part of the Scriptures been its author, except the great apostle of the Gentiles. except in Saint Paul's Epistles.6 Yet, notwithstanding this strong chain of proof for the authen- Upon the whole, we conclude with Braunius, Langius, ticity of this Epistle, doubts have still been entertained, Carpzov, Pritius, Whitby, Lardner, Macknight, Hales, whether it is a genuine production of Saint Paul. These Rosenmuller, Bengel, Bishop Tomline, Janssens, De Groot, doubts rest principally on the omission of the writer's name, Professor Stuart, and almost every other modern commenand the superior elegance of the style in which it is written tator and biblical critic, that the weight of evidence, both
1. It is indeed certain that all the acknowledged Epistles of external and internal, preponderates so greatly in favour of Paul begin with a salutation in his own name, and that most of Paul, that we cannot but consider the Epistle to the Hebrews them were directed from some particular place, and sent by some far-fetched analogies and inaccurate reasonings”. (as the
as written by that apostle; and that, instead of containing special messengers; whereas the Epistle to the Hebrews is anonymous, and is not directed from any place, nor is the name of opponents of our Saviour's divinity and atonement affirm), its the messenger introduced by whom it was sent to Judæa. These finished, than any of Paul's other Epistles, and that it affords
composition is more highly wrought, and its language more omissions, however, can scarcely be considered as conclusive a finished model of didactic writing. against the positive testimony already adduced.
And they are satisfactorily accounted for by Clement of Alexandria, and by Je-critics and commentators are not agreed, some referring it to
IV. With regard to the time when this Epistle was written, rome, who intimate, that as Jesus Christ himself was the pecu- A. D. 58, but the greater part placing it between A. D. 61 and liar apostle to the Hebrews (as acknowledged in this epistle, iii. 1.), 64. If (as we believe) Paul was its author, the time when Paul declined, through humility, to assume the title of an apostle. it was written may easily be determined; for the salutations To which Theodoret adds, that Paul being peculiarly the apos- from the saints in Italy (Heb. xiii. 21.), together with the tle of the uncircumcision, as the rest were of the circumcision apostle's promise to see the Hebrews shortly (23.), plainly (Gal. ii. 9. Rom. xi. 13.), he scrupled to assume any public cha- intimates that his imprisonment was then either terminated, racter when writing to the people of their charge. He did not or on the point of being so. It was therefore written from mention his name, messenger, or the particular persons to whom Italy, perhaps from Rome, soon after the Epistles to the it was sent, because (as Dr. Lardner judiciously remarks) such Colossians, Ephesians, and Philemon, and not long before a long letter might give umbrage to the ruling powers at this Paul left Italy, viz. at the end of a. D. 62, or early in 63. It crisis, when the Jews were most turbulent, and might endanger is evident from several passages, as Lardner and Macknight himself
, the messenger, and those to whom it was directed. But have observed, that it was written before the destruction of they might casily know the author by the style, and also from Jerusalem, and probably, Professor Stuart thinks, but a short the messenger, without any formal notice or superscription. But time before that event; for in Heb. viii. 4. ix. 25. x. 11. and the absence of the apostle's name is no proof that the Epistle to xiii. 10. the temple is mentioned as then standing, and the the Hebrews was not written by Paul, or, that it is a treatise or Levitical sacrifices are noticed as being then offered. To homily, as some critics have imagined; for, in our canon of the which we may add, that in x. 32–37. the apostle comforts New Testament, there are Epistles universally acknowledged to the believing Hebrews under the persecution which their be the production of an inspired apostle, notwithstanding his unbelieving brethren were carrying on against them, by the name is nowhere inserted in them. The three Epistles of John prospect of Christ's speedy advent to destroy Jerusalem and are here intended, in all of which, that apostle has omitted his the whole Mosaic economy. name, for some reasons not now known. The first Epistle
V. The occasion of writing this Epistle will be sufficiently begins in the same manner as the Epistle to the Hebrews ; and in apparent from an attentive review of its contents. The Jews the other two, he calls himself simply the elder or presbyter. did every thing in their power to withdraw their brethren, That Paul, however, did not mean
to conceal himself, we learn who had been converted, from the Christian faith. To perse from the Epistle itself:— “Know ye,” says he, “ that our
and threats, they added arguments derived from the Timothy has been sent abroad, with whom, if he come shortly, infer, that the law of Moses was given by the ministration
excellency of the Jewish religion. They observed, we may I will see you." (Heb. xiii. 23.) The objection, therefore, from of angels; that Moses was far superior to Jesus of Nazareth, the omission of the apostle's name, necessarily falls to the ground. who suffered an ignominous death; that the public worship
2. With regard to the objection, that this Epistle is superior in of God, instituted by their great legislator and prophet, was point of style to Paul's other writings, and therefore is not the truly splendid and worthy of Jehovah : while the Christians, production of that apostle, it is to be observed, that there does on the contrary, had no established priesthood, no temple, no not appear to be such a superiority in the style of this Epistle as altars, no victims, &c. In opposition to such arguments, the Schmidii Fist. Canonis, p. 665. Lardner's Works, Svo, vol;wi: pp: 402, at Jerusalem strongly denied ; viz. that Jesus of Nazareth, Son of God, and far superior to the angels, to Moses, to the Proofs, (X. 1939.-xiii. 1—19.) in which the Hebrews are high-priest of the Old Testament, and to all other priests : exhorted, that from his sufferings and death, which he endured for us,
apostle shows, what the learned doctors, scribes, and elders The hypothesis of Berger, that the Epistle to the Hebrews was ori- whom they had lately put to death, was the Messiah, the finally an homily, is examined and refuted by Prof. Stuart. Commentary, vol. i. pp. 4-7., or pp. 4--9. of the London edition.
* Bishop Tomline's Elements of Christian Theology, vol. i. pp. 455, 456. Michaelis thinks it highly improbable that Paul would visit Jerusalem See pp. 354, 355. supra. again, and expose his life to zealots there. But surely, Dr. Hales remarks, 6 The objections of Bertholdt and others, taken from the style of the he might revisit Judæa without incurring that danger. Analysis of Chrono Epistle to the Hebrews, are examined in detail, and refuted by Professor logy Tul ii book ii p 1130.
Biua vol I. p. 160. et seq.
Sect. 1. To faith, prayer, and constancy in the Gospel. (X. much greater and more lasting benefits have resulted to the
19—25.) This exhortation is enforced by representations whole human race, than the Jews ever derived from their
of the danger of wilfully renouncing Christ, after having temple service, and from the numerous rites and ordinances
received the knowledge of the truth, and is interspersed with of the Levitical laws, which were absolutely inefficacious to procure the pardon of sin. The reality of the sacrifice of
warnings, expostulations, and encouragements, showing the himself, which Christ offered for sin, is clearly demonstrated.
nature, excellency, and efficacy of faith, illustrated by exFrom these and other arguments, the apostle proves that the
amples of the most eminent saints, from Abel to the end of religion of Jesus is much more excellent and perfect than
the Old Testament dispensation. (x. 26–39. xi.) that of Moses, and exhorts the Christian converts to con
Sect. 2. To patience and diligence in their Christian course, stancy in the faith, and to the unwearied pursuit of all god
from the testimony of former believers, and by giving parliness and virtue.
ticular attention to the example of Christ, and from the The great object of the apostle, therefore, in this Epistle,
paternal design and salutary effect of the Lord's corrections. is to show the deity of Jesus Christ, and the excellency of
(xii, 1–13.) his Gospel, when compared with the institutions of Moses;
Sect. 3. To peace and holiness, and to a jealous watchfulness to prevent the Hebrews or Jewish converts from relapsing
over themselves and each other, enforced by the case of Esau into those rites and ceremonies which were now abolished;
(xii. 14–17.) and to point out their total insufficiency, as means of recon
Sect. 4. To an obedient reception of the Gospel, and a reveciliation and atonement. The reasonings are interspersed rential worship of God, from the superior excellency of the with numerous solemn and affectionate warnings and exhor- Christian dispensation, and the proportionably greater guilt tations, addressed to different descriptions of persons. At and danger of neglecting it. (xii
. 18—29.) length Saint Paul shows the nature, efficacy, and triumph of Sect. 5. To brotherly love, hospitality, and compassion; to faith, by which all the saints in former ages had been ac- charity, contentment, and the love of God. (xiii. 1-3.) cepted by God, and enabled to obey, suffer, and perform ex- Sect. 6. To recollect the faith and examples of their deceased ploits, in defence of their holy religion ; from which he takes pastors. (xiii. 4–8.) occasion to exhort them to steadfastness and perseverance in Sect. 7. To watchfulness against false doctrines in regard to the true faith.
the sacrifice of Christ. (xiii. 9—12.) The Epistle to the Hebrews consists of three parts ; viz. Sect. 8. To willingness to bear reproach for him, and thanksPart I. demonstrates the Deity of Christ by the explicit Decla- giving to God. (xii, 13-15.) rations of Scripture. (ch. i.-X. 18.)
Sect. 9. To subjection to their pastors, and prayer for the The proposition is, that Christ is the true God. (i. 1–3.) apostle. (xiii. 16–19.) The proofs of this are,
Part III. The Conclusion, containing a Prayer for the HeSect. 1. His superiority to angels, by whom he is worshipped
brews, and Apostolical Salutations. (xiii. 20—25.) as their Creator and Lord. (i. 4—14.)
The Epistle to the Hebrews, Dr. Hales obseryes, is a masInference. Therefore we ought to give heed to him. (i. terly supplement to the Epistles to the Romans and Gala1-4.)
tians, and also a luininous commentary on them; showing The superiority of Christ over angels asserted, notwithstand that all the legal dispensation was originally designed to be ing his temporary humiliation in our nature (ii
. 5–9.); with superseded by the new and better covenant of the Christian out which he could not have accomplished the work of man's dispensation, in a connected chain of argument, evincing the redemption (ii. 10–15); and for this purpose he took not upon profoundest knowledge of both. The internal excellence him the nature of angels, but that of Abraham. (ii. 16–18.) of this Epistle, as connecting the Old Testament and the Sect. 2. His superiority to Moses, who was only a servant, New in the most convincing and instructive manner, and eluwhereas Christ is Lord. (iii. 1–6.)
cidating both more fully than any other Epistle, or perhaps Application of this argument to the believing Hebrews, who than ani of them, places its divine inspiration beyond all are solemnly warned not to copy the example of their yn in other parts of the New Testament, stated, proved, and
doubt. We here find the great doctrines, which are set forth believing ancestors who perished in the wilderness. (iii. 7— applied to practical purposes, in the most impressive manner.'
19. iv. 1–13.) Sect. 3. His superiority to Aaron and all the other high-priests
1 Heidegger, Enchiridion. Biblicum, pp. 600-611. Dr. Owen's Exercitademonstrated. Christ is the true high-priest, adumbrated tions on the Epistle to the Hebrews, pp. 1–44. fol. edit. Lardner's Works, by Melchizedek and Aaron. (iv. 14–16. v.-viii.) In ch. Svo, vol. vi. pp. 381415, ; 4to, vol. iii. pp. 324–341. Macknight's Preface v. 1-14. and ch. vi. the apostle inserts a parenthetical di- ribe Hebrews, voli in pp. 321-341, 40. edit. or vol. v. pp. 127.8vo. edit. gression, in which he reproves the Hebrew Christians for tiones in Epist. ad Hebræos,
pp. Ixii.-ev. Schmidii Hist. et Vindicatio their ignorance of the Scriptures.
Canonis, pp. 655-673. Langii Commentatio de Vita et Epistolis Apostoli Sect. 4. The typical nature of the tabernacle and its furniture, bræos, pp. 1–8. 1173-1185. 8vo. Lipsiæ, 1815. Michaelis,
vol. iv. pp. 192
Pauli, pp. 153–160. J. A. Ernesti Lectiones Academic ce in Epist. ad He. and of the ordinances there observed. (ix. 1-10.)
-269.' Dr Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. pp. 112-1137. Pritii Sect. 5. The sacrifice of Christ is that true and only sacrifice Introd. ad Lectionem Nov. Test. pp, 38, 61, 312 318. Rosenmüller, Scholia
by which all the Levitical sacrifices are abolished. (ix. 11- cos Vet. et Nov Test. pp. 332-340. Alber, Institutiones Hermeneuticæ
28. x. 1-18.) Part II. The Application of the preceding Arguments and Conssems dienen en toe Sacrée, comebipp. 61–68. Whitby's and Scott's