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the Romans, was considered as youth, the apostle, with propriety, macher, Professor Eickhorn, and others, and vindicated by might say to him, Let no man despise thy youth.

Professor Hug; the following is an abstract of the objections 2. When the apostle touched at Miletus, in his voyage to and their refutation:Jerusalem, with the collections, the church at Ephesus had a 1. The language of the Epistle cannot be that of Saint number of elders, that is, of bishops and deacons, who came to Paul, because it is alleged) expressions occur which are him at Miletus, Acts xx. 17. It is therefore asked, What occasion either not to be found in his other Epistles, or at least not was there, in an Epistle written after the apostle's release, to with the same signification. But this is more or less the give Timothy directions concerning the-ordination of bishops and case in other Epistles; and some of the words alluded to are deacons, in a church where there were so many elders already? found in the New Testament, “while the composition of The answer is, the elders who came to the apostle at Miletus, in others betrays the apostle, who, unshackled by the laws of the year 58, might have been too few for the church at Ephesus, grammatical authority, either compounds his own words and in her increased state, in the year 65. Besides false teachers had forcible expressions, or derives them in a manner in which then entered, to oppose whom, more bishops and deacons might tragic authors would scarcely have indulged themselves." be needed than were necessary in the year 58. Not to mention, If, however, “independently of this peculiarity, we examine that some of the first elders having died, others were wanted to the whole of the diction, we shall find it assuredly Paul's. supply their places.

The accumulation of words of allied significations, or false 3. Because the apostle wrote to Timothy, that he hoped to synonymes, the enumerations, the short instantaneous bursts, come to him soon, 1 Tim. iii. 14., it is argued, that the letter, in the parentheses, particularly the long parenthesis in i. 5—18., which this is said, must have been written before the apostle then the animation which pervades the whole ;-all is not said to the Ephesian elders, Acts xx. 25, I know that all ye; might easily succeed, but the fac-simile of his peculiar mode

an imitation in the use of certain words, in which any one see my face no more. But if, by this, the first Epistle to Timo- of communication."! Besides the difference of style in this thy is proved to have been written before the apostle's interview Epistle, as compared with that of the preceding Epistles, is with the elders at Miletus, his Epistles to the Philippians, to the the times when the several Epistles were written, and also by

accounted for by new adversaries arising, by the difference of Hebrews, and to Philemon, in which he promised to visit

them, the diversity of the subjects discussed, all which circumstances must likewise have been written before the interview : for his would necessarily produce a diversity of expression.'1 declaration respected the Philippians, the Hebrews, and Philemon, as well as the Ephesians : for they certainly were persons Epistle, because the apostle (i. 26.) has so very briefly men

2. The great doubts which have been raised against this among whom the apostle had gone preaching the kingdom of tioned Hymenæus and Alexander, are of no moment. He God: yet no commentator ever thought the Epistles above men- mentions them incidentally, as well-known examples of tioned were written to them before the apostle's interview with erring self-conceit, and for no other purpose besides, as he the Ephesian elders. On the contrary, it is universally acknow- has also done in other passages, at this period of his life, ledged, that these Epistles were written four years after the inter- viz. 2 Tim. i. 15., and ii. 17., where he also points out wellview ; namely, during the apostle's first imprisonment at Rome. known examples of error, as a warning to others, and this he When, therefore, he told the Ephesian elders, that they and his also does incidentally.12 other converts, among whom he had gone preaching the king- 3. It has been asserted, that there is a contradiction bedom of God, should see his face no more, as it was no point tween 1 Tim. i. 20. where Alexander is mentioned as a hereeither of faith or practice which he spake, he may well be sup- tic, and 2 Tim. iv. 14. where he is an enemy of St. Paul posed to have declared nothing but his own opinion resulting But the apostle carefully distinguishes the individual in the from his fears. He had lately escaped the rage of the Jews who second Epistle from him who is noticed in the first, by the laid wait for him in Cenchrea to kill him. (Acts xx. 3.) This, epithet of < xxx.kevs, the worker in metals, or the smith. Beza with their fury on former occasions, filled him with such anxiety, and Bolton have conjectured that he was the person who that, in writing to the Romans from Corinth, he requested them appeared at the Roman tribunal among the accusers of Paul. to strive together with him in their prayers, that he might be This, however, is of little moment, as from this name being delivered from the unbelieving in Judæa. (Rom. xv. 30, 31.)- very common, there must have been hundreds of persons who Further, that in his speech to the Ephesian elders, the apostle bore the name of Alexander.12 only declared his own persuasion, dictated by his fears, and not In short, whoever carefully and impartially examines the any suggestion of the Spirit, Dr. Macknight thinks, is plain from style of this Epistle, will find that the language and genius what he had said immediately before, verse 22. Behold I go bound of the apostle of the Gentiles pervades it throughout; and in the spirit to Jerusalem, not knowing the things which shall that the animating, urgent, and affecting motives which it befall me there : 23. Save that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in presents, are such as proceeded from the heart, and such as every city, saying that bonds and aflictions abide me. Where- no impostor could imitate.13 fore, although his fears were happily disappointed, and he actu- affairs of the church in that city, Saint Paul wrote this Epis

IV. Timothy, having been left at Ephesus, to regulate the ally visited the Ephesians after his release, his character as an inspired apostle is not hurt in the least; if in saying, he knew the chiefly to instruct him in the choice of proper officers in they should see his face no more, he declared his own persua- Another and very important part of the apostle's design was

the church, as well as in the exercise of a regular ministry. sion only, and no dictate of the Holy Spirit.'

to caution this young evangelist against the influence of those We conclude, therefore, that Saint Paul wrote his first false teachers (Michaelis thinks they were Essenes), who, by Epistle to Timothy about the end of the year 64.

their subtle distinctions and endless controversies, had corIII. But whatever uncertainty may have prevailed con- rupted the purity and simplicity of the Gospel ; to press upon cerning the date of this Epistle, it has always been acknow him, in all his preaching, a constant regard to the interests ledged to be the undisputed production of the apostle Paul. of practical religion; and to animate him to the greatest Both the first and second Epistles to Timothy are cited or diligence, fidelity, and zeal, in the discharge of his office. alluded to by the apostolical fathers, Clement of Rome, and The Epistle, therefore, consists of three parts; viz. Polycarp; and the first Epistle by, Ignatius;' and in the Part I. The Introduction. (i. 1, 2.). following centuries by Irenæus ; Clement of Alexandria, Part Ii. Instructions to Timothy how to behave in the Ado Tertullian, Caius, Origen, and by all subsequent ecclesiastical writers without exception.

ministration of the Church at Ephesus; in which, Decisive as these testimonies confessedly are, the au

Sect. 1. After reminding Timothy of the charge which had thenticity of this Epistle has been denied by Dr. Schleier

been committed to him, viz. To preserve the purity of the

Gospel against the pernicious doctrines of the false teachers 1 Dr. Benson's Preface to 1 Tim. (pp. 20-222.) Michaelis, vol. iv. pp. (enumerated above!) whose opinions led to frivolous con75–78. Rosenmaller, Scholia in N. T. tom. v. pp. 1-4.; Hug's Introd. vol. ii. pp. 393—102. Larduer's Works, 8vo. vol. vi. pp. 316–320. ; 4to. vol. iii.

troversies, and not to a holy life, Saint Paul shows the use pp. 292–294. Doddridge and Whitby's Prefaces to 1 Tim. Macknight's

of the law of Moses, of which these teachers were ignorant. Dr. Paley has advocated the late date of this This account of the law, he assures Timothy, was agreeable Epistle by argunents similar to those above staled. Horæ Paulinæ, pp.

to the representation of it in the Gospel, with the preaching » Lardner's Works. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 38, 39. ; 4to. vol. i. pp. 298, 299.

of which he was intrusted. (i. 3—11.) Having mentioned 3 Ibid. 8vo. vol. 11. pp. 96, 97.; 4to. vol. I. pp. 330, 331.

the Gospel, the apostle, in the fulness of his heart, makes a • Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 78, 79. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 321. lbid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 164. ; 41o. vol. i. p. 368.

digression to express his gratitude to God in calling him, • Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 224. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 401. Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 264, 265. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 424.

10 Hug's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 403, 404. • Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 374. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 483.

11 Cellerier, Introd. au Nouv, Test. p. 432. 19 Hug, vol. il. p. 405. • Ibid. 8vo. vol. il. p. 471. ; 40. vol. i. p. 535.

13 Cellerier, Introd. au Nouv. Test. p. 432. 1. See p. 343. rupro.

Preface to 1 Tim. sect. ii.

286-294.

evident from his own declaration in ii. 1. where he says that principalities or powers,—that he alone was the head of the neither the Colossians nor the Laodiceans had then seen church, and had reconciled men to the Father. (15—20.) The his f ce ia the flesh.” But though Paul had never been in inference from this description is evident, that Jesus was superior Colossa when he wrote this Epistle, yet Christianity had to angels; that they were created beings, and ought not to be evidently been taught, and a church, planted there, Rosen- worshipped. In verse 21. Paul returns from this digression to m ller is of opinion, that the Gospel was introduced into that the sentiments with which he had introduced it in the thirteenth city by Epaphras. It is not improbable that Epaphras, who and fourteenth verses; and again expresses his joy, that the is mentioned in i. 7. iv. 12, 13., was one çf the earliest Colossians remained faithful to the Gospel, which was to be

eachers; but it does not necessarily follow that he was the preached to the Gentiles, without the restraints of the ceremonial person who first planted Christianity there. Indeed, it is law. From this view of the excellency of Christ's person, and not likely that the Colossians would send away the founder the riches of his grace, the apostle takes occasion to express the of their church while it was yet in an infant state. As it ap- cheerfulness with which he suffered in the cause of the Gospel, pears from Acts xix. 10. that, during Paul's residence at and his earnest solicitude to fulfil his ministry among them in Ephesus, many persons, both Jews and Greeks, came from the most successful manner; assuring them of his concern for various parts of Asia to hear the Gospel, Michaelis supposes them and for the other Christians in the neighbourhood, that that several Colossians, particularly Philemon, were of this number. He also thinks that Timothy might have taught they might be established in their adherence to the Christian them the Christian faith; as Paul subjoins his name to his faith. (i. 21—29. ii. 1—7.) own (i. 1.), and throughout the first chapter speaks in their

JI. Having given these general exhortations, he proceeds joint names, except where the subject relates to his own directly to caution them against the vain and deceitful philosophy imprisonment, and where Timothy of course could not be of the new teachers, and their superstitious adherence to the law; included.

shows the superiority of Christ to angels, and warns Christians II. But though it is impossible now to ascertain the against worshipping them. He censures the observations of founder of the church at Colossæ, the Epistle itself furnishes Jewislı sabbaths and festivals, and cautions the Colossians against us with a guide to its date. In Col. iv. 3. the apostle alludes those corrupt additions which some were attempting to introduce, to his imprisonment, from which circumstance, as well as especially by rigours and superstitions of their own devising. from its close affinity to the Epistle addressed to the Ephe- (ii

. 8—23.) To these doctrinal instructions succeed precepts sians, it is evident that it was written nearly at the same concerning the practical duties of life, especially the relative time. Accordingly most commentators and critics refer it to duties of husbands and wives, parents and children, servants and the year 62. Its genuineness was never disputed.

masters. (iii. iv. 1–6.) The Epistle concludes with matters 111. At the time of writing this Epistle, Paul was “an chiefly of a private nature, except the directions for reading it in ambassador in bonds," for maintaining the freedom of the the church of Laodicea, as well as in that of Colossæ. (iv. 7—18.) Gentile converts from all subjection to the law of Moses. For an illustration of iv. 16. see Vol. I. p. 58.

Its immediate OCCASION was, some difficulties that had Whoever, says Michaelis, would understand the Epistles arisen among the Colossians, in consequence of which they to the Ephesians and Colossians, must read them together. sent Epaphras to Rome, to acquaint ihe apostle with the The one is in most places a commentary on the other; the state of their affairs; to which we may add the letter (Col. meaning of single passages in one Epistle, which, if coniv. 16.) sent to him by the Laodiceans, who seem to have sidered alone, might be variously interpreted, being deterwritten to him concerning the errors of the false teachers, and mined by the parallel passages in the other Epistle. Yet, to have asked his advice. Paul, therefore, replies in the though there is a great similarity, the Epistle to the Colospresent Epistle, which he sent to the Colossians as being sians contains many things which are not to be found in that the larger church, and also because the false teachers had to the Ephesians; especially in regard to the worship of probably caused greater disturbances among the Colossians; angels, and many single points, which appear to be Essene, but desired that they would send the same Epistle to the Lao- and might prevail at Colossa.? diceans, and ask them for a copy of their letter to Paul, in The following Table exhibits the corresponding passages order that they might the better understand his answer.

of the Epistles to the Ephesians and Colossians. Who the false teachers were, is a point not satisfactorily

EPHESIANS.

EPHESIANS. COLOSSIANS. determined. Michaelis is of opinion that this Epistle was

CHAP. iv. 22-25. CHAP. iii. 9, 10. directed against the tenets and practices of the Essenes, of CRAP. : 1 2. Chap. 1: 1, 2

i. 21. 11.6. iii.8-ic. which sect an account has been given in the early part of this

i. 19, 20. volume. But it is more probable that they were partly super

i. 15, 16. 1. 3, 4.

iii. 12, 13. stitious judaizing teachers, who diligently inculcated not

i. 22. iii. 10, 11. i. 16–18. only the Mosaic law, but also the absurd notions of the rab- i. 19. ii. 1-3. ii. 12, 13. bins, and partial converts from Gentilism who blended Pla

iii. 7, 8. tonic notions with the doctrines of the Gospel. It is well

v. 15, 16.

iii. 16, 17. known that the Platonists entertained singular ideas concern- iii. 3, &c.

v. 21-23. vi. 1-9. iii. 18-25. iv. I. ing demons, whom they represented as carrying men's prayers to God, from whom they brought back the blessings

vi. 21, 22. supplicated; and the doctrines of the Jews concerning angels On the undesigned coincidences between this Epistle and were nearly the same as that of the Platonics concerning de- the Acts of the Apostles, see Dr. Paley's Horæ Paulinæ, mons. It appears from Col. ii. 16–23. that the false teach- Chap. VIII. ers inculcated the worship of angels, abstinence from animal food, the observance of the Jewish festivals, new moons and Sabbaths, the mortification of the body by long-continued

SECTION X. fastings, and, in short, the observance of the Mosaic ritual law, as absolutely necessary to salvation.

ON THE FIRST EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS. IV. The Scope of the Epistle to the Colossians is, to show 1. Account of the Christian church there.II. Genuineness that all hope of man's redemption is founded on Christ our Redeemer, in whom alone all complete fulness, perfections,

of this Epistle.-III. Ils occasion and scope-Synopsis of

its contents. and sufficiency, are centered: to caution the Colossians against the insinuations of judaizing teachers, and also I. CHRISTIANITY was first planted at Thessalonica by against philosophical speculations and deceits, and human Saint Paul, A. D. 50, who formed a church, composed both traditions, as inconsistent with Christ and his fulness for our of Jews and Gentiles, but the latter were most numerous. salvation; and to excite the Colossians, by the most persua- (Acts xvii. 2—4.) The unbelieving Jews, however, having sive arguments, to a temper and conduct worthy of their stirred up a persecution against him and his company, they sacred character. The Epistle, therefore, consists of two were forced to flee to Beræa, and thence to Athens (xvii. 5 principal parts besides the introduction and conclusion. -15.), from which city he proceeded to Corinth. Being

thus prevented from visiting the Thessalonians again as he 1. After a short inscription or introduction (i. 1, 2.) Paul begins with expressing great joy for the favourable character Epitre les colossiens; Michaelis's Introd. vol. iv. pp. 116.–124. ; Hog's

1 Boehmer, Isagoge in Epistolam ad Colossenses; Calmet, Preface sur which he had heard of them, and assures them that he daily Introd. vol. ii. pp 433-435. ; Macknight's Preface; Rosenmüller, Schoha, prayed for their further improvement. (3-14.) He then makes tom. iv. pp

. 131 136. In instituting a collation of these two epistles the a short digression in order to describe the dignity of Jesus Christ, students will find a very valuable help in M. Van Bemmelen's Dissertatio

Exegetico-Critica, de epistolas Pauli ad Ephesios et Colossenses inter 88 who, he declares, created all things, whether thrones or dominions, I collatis. 8vo. Lugd. Bat. 1903.

COLOSSIANS.

i. 13.

i. 10.

iv. 6.

İ. 17-21.

i. 9-15.

iv. 17-21.
iv. 29.
iv. 32.
iv. 31,
V. 5.
V. 6.
v. 7, 8.

iii. 8. iii. 5. iij. 6.

ii. 1.
ii. 13-16.
iii. 1.

iv. 5.

v. 18-20.

i. 21.
i. 20. ii. 14.
i. 21, 25.
i. 26-29.
ii. 12-15.
ii. 19.

vi. 18-20.

iv. 2-4.
iv. 16.

iv. 2-4.
iv. 7-9.

had intended (1 Thess. ii. 17, 18.), he sent Silas and Timo- 1 of them as thought the advent of Christ and the end of the thy to visit them in his stead (ii. 6.), and, on their return to world to be at hand, were neglecting their secular affairs, as him from Macedonia (Acts xvii. 14, 15. xviii. 5.), he wrote being inconsistent with a due preparation for that important the first Epistle to the Thessalonians, A. D. 52, from Corinth, and awful event. As soon, therefore, as the state of the and not from Athens, as the spurious subscription to this Thessalonians was made known to Paul, he wrote this second Epistle imports.

Epistle, to correct their misapprehension, to rescue them from II. The first Epistle to the Thessalonians is generally an error which (appearing to rest on apostolical authority) admitted to have been one of the earliest written, if indeed must ultimately be injurious to the spread of the Gospel, and it be not the very first,? of all Saint Paul's letters, and we to recommend several Christian duties. find that he was anxious that it should be read to all the II. After a short introduction, the apostle begins with Christian churches in Macedonia. In chap: v. 27. he gives commending the faith and charity of the Thessalonians, of the following command :-I adjure you by the Lord that this which he had heard a favourable report. He expresses his Epistle be read unto all the holy brethren. This direction is joy on account of the patience with which they endured pervery properly inserted in his first Epistle. Its genuineness secution; which, he observes, was a proof of a righteous judg has never been disputed. Polycarp' has probably referred ment to come, where their persecutors would meet with then to it, and it is certainly quoted and recognised as Saint Paul's proper recompense, and the righteous be delivered out of all production (together

with the second pistle) by Irenæus, their afflictions. And all this (he assures them) will take Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Caius, Origen, and place, when Jesus Christ returns with pomp and majesty as all subsequent ecclesiastical writers.

universal judge. He further assures them of his constant III. The iminediate occasion of Paul's writing this Epistle prayers for their further improvement, in order that they may was, the favourable report which Timothy had brought him attain the felicity promised. (ch. i.) of the steadfastness of the Thessalonians in the faith of the He then proceeds to rectify the mistake of the ThessaloGospel. He therefore wrote to confirm them in that faith, nians, who, from misunderstanding a passage in his former lest they should be turned aside from it by the persecutions letter, believed that the day of judgment was at hand. - The of the unbelieving Jews, and also to excite them to a holy day of the Lord,” he informs them, will not come until a conversation, becoming the dignity of their high and holy great apostasy has overspread the Christian world, the nature calling. This epistle consists of five parts, viz.

of which he describes. Symptoms of this mystery of iniquiPart I. The Inscription. (i. 1.).

ty had then appeared: but the apostle expresses his thankPart II. celebrates the grace of God towards the Thessalonians, fulness to God, that the Thessalonians had escaped this cor

and reminds them of the manner in which the Gospel was ruption; and he exhorts them to steadfastness, praying that preached to them. (1. 2-10. ii. 1-16.

God would comfort and strengthen them. (ii.) Párt III. The Apostle declares his desire to see them, together

He next requests their prayers for himself, and for Silvanus with his affectionate solicitude for them, and his prayer for and Timothy, his two assistants ; at the same time expressthem. (ii. 17–20. iii.) In

ing his confidence that they would pay a due regard to the Part IV. he exhorts them to grow in holiness (iv. 1—8.) and instructions he had given them. And he proceeds to correct in brotherly love, with industry. (9–12.)

some irregularities that had crept into their church. Many Part V. contains exhortations against immoderate sorrow for of the Thessalonians seem to have led an idle and disorderly their brethren, who had departed in the faith ; together with life: these he severely reproves, and commands the faithful to admonitions concerning the coming of Christ to judgment. shun their company, if they still remained incorrigible. The (iv. 13—18. v. 1–11.)

apostle concludes with his apostolical benediction; and inThe Epistle concludes with various practical advices and was a token of the genuineness of all the Epistles which he

forms them that his writing the salutation with his own hand instructions. (v. 12—28.).

wrote. On the undesigned coincidences between this Epistle and the Acts of the Apostles, see Dr. Paley's Horæ Paulinæ, Chap. that it consists of five parts, viz.

From the preceding view of this Epistle, it will be seen LX.

1. The Inscription. (i. 1, 2.)
2. Saint Paul's Thanksgiving and Prayer for them. (i. 3—

12.)
SECTION XI.

3. The Rectification of their Mistake concerning the day of judg

ment and the doctrine concerning the man of sin. (ii.) 4. Various advices relative to Christian virtues, particularly

i. To prayer, with a prayer for the Thessalonians. iii. 1-5.)

ii. To correct the disorderly. (iii. 5–16.) I. Date, occasion, and scope of this Epistle.-II. Analysis of 5. The Conclusion. (iii. 17, 18.) its contents.-III. Observations on this Epistle.

III. Although the second Epistle to the Thessalonians is I. The second Epistle to the Thessalonians was evidently the shortest of all Saint Paul's letters to the churches, it written soon after ihe first (A. D. 52), and from the same is not inferior to any of them in the sublimity of the sentiplace; for Silvanus or Silas, and Timothy, are joined to- ments, and in that excellent spirit by which all the writings gether with the apostle in the inscription of this Epistle as of this apostle are so eminently distinguished. Besides those well as that of the former. The Epistle was occasioned by marks of genuineness and authority which it has in common the information communicated to Paul by the person who had with the rest of the apostolical Epistles, it has one peculiar conveyed his first letter to the Thessalonians, respecting the to itself, in the exact representation it contains of the papal state of their church. Among other things he was informed, power, under the characters of the “ Man of Sin," and the from some expressions in it, to ihat many of them expected that Mystery of Iniquity.” For, considering how directly oppothe day of judgment would happen in that age; and that such site the principles here described were to the genius of Chris

tianity, it must have appeared, at the time when this Epistle Grotius has contended that the first Epistle to the Thessalonians is in was written, highly improbable to all human apprehension reality the second, but he has not supported that conjecture by any histo. that they should ever have prevailed in the Christian church; . Calinet, Bloch, Dr. Macknight

, and many other modern critics, after and consequently a prediction like this, which answers so Chrysostou and Theodoret, are decidedly of opinion that this is the ear. exactly in every particular to the event, must be allowed to liest written of all St. Paul's Epistles.

carry its own evidence along with it, and to prove that its · Lardner, 8vo. vol. ii. p. 96. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 330. • Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 164. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 368.

author wrote under divine influenceli • Ibid. Ayn, vol. ii. p. 223. ; 4to. vol. 1. p. 401

On the undesigned coincidences between this Epistle and Ibid. Sun vol. ii. p. 264. ; 41o. vol. i. p. 423.

the Acts of the Apostles, see Dr. Paley's Horæ Paulinæ, • Ibid o. vol. ii. p. 374. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 432. • Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 528 530. ; 410. vol. i. pp. 566, 567.

Chap. X. • Calinet, Preface sur la première Epitre aux Thessaloniens; Rosenmüller, Scholia, toin. iv. pp. 681, 632.; Bloch, Chronotaxis Scriptorum Pauli

, 11 Dr. Doddridge's Introd. to 2 Thess. Bloch, Chronotaxis Scriptorum Bp. 99-109.; Michaelis, vol. iv. pp. 23-2. ; Hug's Introduction, vol. ii. pp Pauli, pp. 109-115. Calinel's Preface sur la seconde Epitre aux Thessa. 319–352. But the fullest view of all the circumstances of this epistle is loniens; Hug's Introd. vol. ii. pp. 353, 354. For a full illustration of the given in Burgerhoudt's Specimen Academicum Inaugurale de Coetus prophecy above mentioned, see Bishop Newton's Dissertations, vol. ii. Diss. Christianorum Thessalonicensis Ortu Fatisque, et prioris

Pauli iis scriptæ 22. Dr. Benson's Dissertation on the Man of Sin (Paraphrase on 1 and Epistolæ Consilio et Argumento. Lugd. Bat. 1825. 8vo.

ON THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS.

2 Thess. pp. 173–197. 20 edit.); or Drs. Macknight and A. Clarke on 10 See 1 Thess. iv. 15. 17. v. 4. 6.

2 Thess. ii.

SECTION XII.
On the contrary, in behalf of the LATER DATE,

which sup

poses this Epistle to have been written after Saint Paul's ON THE FIRST EPISTLE TO TIMOTHY.

first imprisonment at Rome, A. D. 64 or 65, it is insisted, I. Account of Timothy.II. Date of this Epistle.—III. Genu- 1. That it appears from Saint Paul's Epistles to Philemon

ineness and authenticity of the two Epistles to Timothy.-IV. (22.) and to the Philippians (ii. 24.), that he evidently designed, Scope and synopsis of the first Epistle.V. Observations on when he had a prospect of being released, to go both to Colossa the use which the church is to make in every age of Pauls and into Macedonia. Now it is admitted, that these two Epistles Epistles to Timothy and Titus.

were written towards the close of Saint Paul's first imprisonment I. TIMOTHY, to whom this Epistle was addressed, was a

at Rome; and, if he executed his intention of going to Colosse native of Lystra, a city of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor. His immediately after his release, it is very probable that he would father was a Greek, but his mother was a Jewess (Acts xvi

. visit Ephesus, which was in the vicinity of Colosse, and proceed 1.), and, as well as his grandmother Loïs, a person of excel- thence to Philippi. lent character. (2 Tim. i. 5.) The pious care they took of

%. We further learn from the first Epistle to Timothy, that his education soon appeared to have the desired success; for he was left at Ephesus to oppose the following errors: 1. Fables we are assured by Saint Paul, that from his childhood, Timo- invented by the Jewish doctors to recommend the observance of thy was well acquainted with the Holy Scriptures. (2 Tim. the law. of Moses as necessary to salvation ;—2. Uncertain iii. 15.). It is generally supposed that he was converted to genealogies, by which individuals endeavoured to trace their dethe Christian faith during the first visit made by Paul and scent from Abraham, in the persuasion that they would be saved, Barnabas to Lystra. (Acts xiv.). From the time of his con- merely because they had Abraham to their father ;–3. Intricate version, Timothy made such proficiency in the knowledge of questions and strifes about some words in the law;-4. Perverse the Gospel, and was so remarkable for the sanctity of his disputings of men of corrupt minds, who reckoned that which manners, as well as for his zeal in the cause of Christ, that produced most gain to be the best of godliness; and oppositions he attracted the esteem of all the brethren in those parts. of knowledge falsely so named. But these errors had not taken Accordingly, when the apostle came from Antioch in Syria place in the Ephesian church before the apostle's departure ; for, to Lystra the second time, they commended Timothy so in his charge to the Ephesian elders at Miletus, he foretold that highly to him, that Paul selected him to be the companion false teachers would enter among them after his departing, Acts of his travels, having previously circumcised him (Acts xvi. xx. 29., I know that after my departing, shall grievous wolves 2, 3.) and ordained him in a solemn manner by imposition enter in among you, not sparing the Rock. 30. Also of your of hands (1 Tim. iv. 14.; 2 Tim. i. 6.), though at that time own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw he probably was not more than twenty years of age. (1 Tim. away disciples after them. The same thing appears from the iv. 12.) From this period, frequent mention is made of Ti- two Epistles which the apostle wrote to the Corinthians; the mothy, as the attendant of Paul in his various journeyings, one from Ephesus before the riot of Demetrius, the other from assisting him in preaching the Gospel, and in conveying his Macedonia after that event ; and from the Epistle which he wrote instructions to the churches. When the apostle was driven to the Ephesians themselves from Rome, during his confinement from Thessalonica and Beræa by persecution, he left Silas there. For in none of these letters is there any notice taken of and Timothy there to strengthen the churches in the faith. the above mentioned errors as subsisting among the Ephesians (Acts xvii. 13, 14.) Thence they went to Paul at Corinth (xviii. 5.), and from Ephesus he again sent Timothy to Thes- at the time they were written, which cannot be accounted for salonica (Acts xix. 22.; 1 Thess. iii. 2, 3.) to comfort the on the supposition that they were prevalent in Ephesus, when believers under their tribulations and persecutions. Timothy therefore, with Dr. Macknight, that the first Epistle to Timothy,

the apostle went into Macedonia after the riot. We conclude, returning to the apostle, next accompanied him into Asia (Acts xx. 4.), and was left at Ephesus (1 Tim. i. 3, 4.) to in which the apostle desired him to abide at Ephesus for the instruct the church in that city, the care of which was con purpose of opposing the judaizers and their errors, could not be fided to Timothy. How long he governed the Ephesian written, either from Troas, or from Macedonia, after the riot, as church is not known; and we are equally uncertain as to the those who contend for the early date of that Epistle suppose : but time of his death. An ecclesiastical tradition relates that he it must have been written some time after the apostle's release suffered martyrdom, being slain with stones and clubs, A. D. from his confinement in Rome, when, no doubt, he visited the 97, while he was preaching against idolatry in the vicinity church at Ephesus, and found the judaizing teachers there busily of the temple of Diana at Ephesus. His supposed relics employed in spreading their pernicious errors. were translated to Constantinople, with great pomp, A. D.

3. In the first Epistle to Timothy, the same persons, doctrines, 356, in the reign of Constantius.

and practices are reprobated, which are condemned in the second. II. The date of this Epistle has been much disputed. Compare 1 Tim. iv. 1–6. with 2 Tim. iii. 1-5., and 1 Tim. Dr. Lardner refers it to the year 56 ; Dr. Benson, Michaelis, vi. 20. with 2 Tim. i. 14., and 1 Tim. iv. 7. and vi. 20. with 2 and Hug (after Cappel, Grotius, Lightfoot, and several other Tim. ii. 16. The same commands, instructions, and encouragecritics), date it in A. v. 58; Bishop Pearson, Le Clerc, Dr. ments are given to Timothy in the first Epistle as in the second. Mill, and Rosenmüller, in A. D. 65; Drs. Whitby, Macknight, Compare i Tim. vi. 13, 14. with 2 Tim. iv. 1–5. The same and Paley, and Bishop Tomline, in 64.

remedies for the corruptions, which had taken place among the In favour of the EARLY DATE it is argued,

Ephesians, are prescribed in the first Epistle as in the second. 1. That it appears from the third chapter of this Epistle, that Compare 1 Tim. iv. 14. with 2 Tim. i. 6,7. And as in the no bishops had been then appointed at Ephesus. Saint Paul second Epistle, so in the first every thing is addressed to Timothy, instructs Timothy in the choice, as of an appointment to a new church at Ephesus: all which, Dr. Macknight justly thinks, im

as superintendent both of the teachers and of the laity in the office, and “ hopes to return to him shortly." And it is not pro plies that the state of things among the Ephesians was the same bable the apostle would suffer a community to be long without when the two Epistles were written. Consequently, the first governors. Now he departed from Ephesus when he travelled into Macedonia (Acts xx. 1.), and we see from v. 17. 28. that Epistle was written only a few months before the second, and not on his return bishops had been appointed. Consequently this long before the apostle's death. Epistle must have been written at the beginning of his journey;

To the late date of this first Epistle, however, there are for Timothy soon left Ephesus, and was at Corinth with Paul. three plausible objections which admit of easy solutions. (Acts xviii. 5.) He even joined him in Macedonia, for the 1. It is thought, that if the first Epistle to 'Timothy was writsecond Epistle to the Corinthians, written in Macedonia, was in ten after the apostle's release, he could not, with any propriety, the joint names of Paul and Timothy. This Epistle, therefore, have said to Timothy, iv. 12. Let no man despise thy youth.was written a short time before the second to the Corinthians. But it is replied, that Servius Tullius, in classing the Roman people,

2. It is further contended, that Timothy, at the time this as Aulus Gellius relates,' divided their age into three periods. Epistle was written, was in danger of being “ despised for his childhood, he limited to the age of seventeen : youth, from that youth.” (1 Tim. iv. 12.) As he became an associate of Paul at to forty-six ; and old age, from forty-six to the end of life. Now, Lystra (Acts xvi. 1.) so early as a. D. 50, he must then have supposing Timothy to have been twenty years old, A. D. 50, been, as an assistant in the Gospel, at least twenty years of age. when he became Paul's assistant, he would be no more than 34, If this Epistle was written A. D. 65, he must have been of the A. D. 64, two years after the apostle's release, when it is supage of thirty-five years, and could not have been less than fifteen posed this Epistle was written. Since, therefore, Timothy was years a preacher of the Gospel. He could not in that case have then in that period of life, which, by the Greeks as well as been depised for his youth; though he might, before he had reached his twenty-seventh year.

· Noctes Atticæ, lib. 2. c. 2.

the Romans, was considered as youth, the apostle, with propriety, | macher, Professor Eickhorn, and others, and vindicated by might say to him, Let no man despise thy youth.

Professor Hug; the following is an abstract of the objections 2. When the apostle touched at Miletus, in his voyage to and their refutation:Jerusalem, with the collections, the church at Ephesus had a 1. The language of the Epistle cannot be that of Saint number of elders, that is, of bishops and deacons, who came to Paul, because it is alleged)'expressions occur which are him at Miletus, Acts xx. 17. It is therefore asked, What occasion either not to be found in his other Epistles, or at least not was there, in an Epistle written after the apostle's release, to with the same signification. But this is more or less the give Timothy directions concerning the ordination of bishops and case in other Epistles; and some of the words alluded to are deacons, in a church where there were so many elders already ? found in the New Testament, “while the composition of The answer is, the elders who came to the apostle at Miletus, in others betrays the apostle, who, unshackled by the laws of the year 58, might have been too few for the church at Ephesus, grammatical authority, either compounds his own words and in her increased state, in the year 65. Besides false teachers had forcible expressions, or derives them in a manner in which then entered, to oppose whom, more bishops and deacons might tragic authors would scarcely have indulged themselves." be needed than were necessary in the year 58. Not to mention, If, however, independently of this peculiarity, we examine that some of the first elders having died, others were wanted to the whole of the diction, we shall find it assuredly Paul's. supply their places.

The accumulation of words of allied significations, or false 3. Because the apostle wrote to Timothy, that he hoped to synonymes, the enumerations, the short instantaneous bursts, come to him soon, 1 Tim. iii

. 14., it is argued, that the letter, in the parentheses, particularly the long parenthesis in i. 5—18., which this is said, must have been written before the apostle then the animation which pervades the whole ;-all is not said to the Ephesian elders, Acts xx. 25., I know that all ye, an imitation in the use of certain words, in which any one among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom of God, shari might easily succeed, but the fac-simile of his peculiar mode see my face no more. But if, by this, the first Epistle to Timo- of communication.”. Besides the difference of style in this thy is proved to have been written before the apostle's interview Epistle, as compared with that of the preceding Epistles, is with the elders at Miletus, his Epistles to the Philippians, to the the times when the several Epistles were written, and also by

accounted for by new adversaries arising, by the difference of Hebrews, and to Philemon, in which he promised to visit them, the diversity of the subjects discussed, all

which circumstances must likewise have been written before the interview: for his would necessarily produce a diversity of expression.' declaration respected the Philippians, the Hebrews, and Phile

2. The great doubts which have been raised against this mon, as well as the Ephesians : for they certainly were persons Epistle, because the apostle (i. 26.) has so very briefly menamong whom the apostle had gone preaching the kingdom of tioned Hymenæus and Alexander, are of no moment. He God: yet no commentator ever thought the Epistles above men- mentions them incidentally, as well-known examples of tioned were written to them before the apostle's interview with erring self-conceit, and for no other purpose besides, as he the Ephesian elders. On the contrary, it is universally acknow- has also done in other passages, at this period of his life, ledged, that these Epistles were written four years after the inter- viz. 2 Tim. i. 15., and ii. 17., where he also points out wellview; namely, during the apostle's first imprisonment at Rome. known examples of error, as a warning to others, and this he When, therefore, he told the Ephesian elders, that they and his also does incidentally.12 other converts, among whom he had gone preaching the king- 3. It has been asserted, that there is a contradiction bedom of God, should see his face no more, as it was no point tween 1 Tim. i. 20. where Alexander is mentioned as a hereeither of faith or practice which he spake, he may well be sup- tic, and 2 Tim. iv. 14. where he is an enemy of St. Paul posed to have declared nothing but his own opinion resulting But the apostle carefully distinguishes the individual in the from his fears. He had lately escaped the rage of the Jews who second Epistle from him who is noticed in the first, by the laid wait for him in Cenchrea to kill him. (Acts xx. 3.) This, epithet of xxnxeus, the worker in metals, or the smith. Beza with their fury on former occasions, filled him with such anxiety, and Bolton have conjectured that he was the person who that, in writing to the Romans from Corinth, he requested them appeared at the Roman tribunal among the accusers of Paul. to strive together with him in their prayers, that he might be This, however, is of little moment, as from this name being delivered from the unbelieving in Judæa. (Rom. xv. 30, 31.)- very common, there must have been hundreds of persons who Further, that in his speech to the Ephesian elders, the apostle bore the name of Alexander.12 only declared his own persuasion, dictated by his fears, and not In short, whoever carefully and impartially examines the any suggestion of the Spirit

, Dr. Macknight thinks, is plain from style of this Epistle, will find that the language and genius what he had said immediately before, verse 22. Behold I go bound of the apostle of the Gentiles pervades it throughout; and in the spirit to Jerusalem, not knowing the things which shall that the animating, urgent, and affecting motives which it befall me there : 23. Save that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in presents, are such as proceeded from the heart, and such as every city, saying that bonds and aflictions abide me. Where

no impostor could imitate.13 fore, although his fears were happily disappointed, and he actu- affairs of the church in that city, Saint Paul wrote this Epis

IV. Timothy, having been left at Ephesus, to regulate the ally visited the Ephesians after his release, his character as an tle chiefly to instruct him in the choice of proper officers in inspired apostle is not hurt in the least; if in saying, he knew the church, as well as in the exercise of a regular ministry. they should see his face no more, he declared his own persua- Another and very important part of the apostle's design was sion only, and no dictate of the Holy Spirit.'

to caution this young evangelist against the influence of those We conclude, therefore, that Saint Paul wrote his first false teachers (Michaelis thinks they were Essenes), who, by Epistle to Timothy about the end of the year 64.

their subtle distinctions and endless controversies, had corIII. But whatever uncertainty may have prevailed con- rupted the purity and simplicity of the Gospel ; to press upon cerning the date of this Epistle, it has always been acknow him, in all his preaching, a constant regard to the interests ledged to be the undisputed production of the apostle Paul. of practical religion; and to animate him to the greatest Both the first and second Epistles to Timothy are cited or diligence, fidelity, and zeal, in the discharge of his office. alluded to by the apostolical fathers, Clement of Rome, and The Epistle, therefore, consists of three parts; viz. Polycarp; and the first Epistle by, Ignatius;' and in the Part I. The Introduction. (i. 1,2.), following centuries by Irenæus ; Člement of Alexandria, Part Ii. Instructions to Timothy how to behave in the AdTertullian,?. Caius, Origen, and by all subsequent ecclesiastical writers without exception.

ministration of the Church at Ephesus ; in which, Decisive as these testimonies confessedly are, the au

Sect. 1. After reminding Timothy of the charge which had thenticity of this Epistle has been denied by Dr. Schleier- been committed to him, viz. To preserve the purity of the

Gospel against the pernicious doctrines of the false teachers i Dr. Benson's Preface to 1 Tim. (pp. 220--222.) Michaelis, vol. iv. pp. (enumerated above!:) whose opinions led to frivolous con75–78. Rosenmüller, Scholia in N. T. tom. v. pp. 1-4.; Hug's Introd. vol. ii. pp. 393—102. Lardner's Works, 8vo. vol. vi. pp. 316–320. ; 4to. vol. iii.

troversies, and not to a holy life, Saint Paul shows the use pp. 292—291. Doddridge and Whitby's Prefaces to 1 Tim. Macknight's

of the law of Moses, of which these teachers were ignorant. Preface to 1 Tim. secu. ii. Dr. Paley has advocated the late date of this This account of the law, he assures Timothy, was agreeable Epistle by arguinents similar to those above stated. Horæ Paulinæ, pp.

to the representation of it in the Gospel, with the preaching 3 Lardner's Works. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 38, 39. ; 4to. vol. i. pp. 298, 299.

of which he was intrusted. (i. 3—11.) Having mentioned 3 Ibid. 8vo. vol. 11. pp. 96, 97.: 4to. vol. i. pp. 330, 331.

the Gospel, the apostle, in the fulness of his heart, makes a • Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 78, 79. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 321. • Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 164. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 368.

digression to express his gratitude to God in calling him, • Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 224. 4to. vol. i. p. 401. *Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 264, 265. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 424.

10 Hug's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 403, 404. • Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 374. ; 4to. vol. 1. p. 4R3

11 Cellerier, Introd. au Nouv. Test. p. 432. 19 Hug, vol. il. p. 405. » Ibid. 8vo. vol. il. p. 471. ; 410. vol. i. p. 535.

13 Cellerier, Introd. au Nouv. Test. p. 432. 1. See p. 343. rupro.

286-294.

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