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sea, in expectation of meeting Titus, and receiving an action of his apostolic office and power, and his extraordinary count of the success with which (he hoped) his former revelations, which far outshone the counterfeit glory of the Epistle had been attended, and of the present state of the false teacher; but at the same time declares that he had rather Corinthian church. (2 Cor. ii. 12.) But not meeting him use meekness than exert his power, unless he should be there (13.), Paul proceeded to Macedonia, where he obtained forced to do it by their contumacy and impenitence.! the desired interview, and received satisfactory information IV. This Epistle consists of three parts; viz. concerning the promising state of affairs at Corinth. (vii. 5, 6.) PART I. The Introduction. (i. 1, 2.) From this country, and probably from Philippi (as the sub- Part Îl. The Apologetic Discourse of St. Paul, in which, scription imports), the apostle wrote the second letter (2 Cor. viii. 1-14. ix. 1–5.); which he sent by Titus and his as

Sect. 1. He justifies himself from the imputations of the false

teacher and his adherents, by showing his sincerity and insociates, who were commissioned to hasten and finish the

tegrity in the discharge of his ministry ; and that he acteu contribution among the Christians at Corinth, for the use of their poor brethren in Judæa. (ix. 2_4.) From these histo- not from worldly interest, but from true love for them, and rical circumstances, it is generally agreed that this Epistle a tender concern for their spiritual welfare. (i. 3—24. was written within a year after the former, that is, early in ii.-vii.) A. D. 58., and according to Dr. Bloch, at Beroea. The ge- Sect. 2. He exhorts them to a liberal contribution for their nuineness of this Epistle was never doubted; and as it is poor brethren in Judæa. (viii. ix.) cited or referred to by nearly the same ancient writers, whose Sect. 3. He resumes his apology; justifying himself from the testimonies to the first Epístle we have given in the pre- charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his folceding section, it is not necessary to repeat them in this lowers; in order to detach the Corinthians from them, and place.

to re-establish himself and his authority. (x.-xiii. 10.) II. The first Epistle to the Corinthians produced very dif- Part III. The Conclusion. (xiii. 11–14.) ferent effects among them. Many amended their conduct, most of them showed strong marks of repentance, and is, the confidence of the apostle in the goodness of his cause,

V. “ The most remarkable circumstance in this Epistle evinced such respect for the apostle, that they excommuni- and in the power of God

to bear him out in it. Opposed as cated the incestuous person (2 Cor. ii. 5-11. vii. 11.); re- he then was by a powerful and sagacious party, whose auquested the apostle's return with tears (vii. 7.); and became thority, reputation,

and interest were deeply concerned, and zealous for him,—that is, they vindicated the apostle and who were ready to seize on every thing that could discredit his office against the false teacher and his adherents. (vii. him, it is wonderful to hear him so firmly insist upon his 7–11.) oihers, however, of the Corinthians, adhered

to apostolical authority, and so unreservedly appeal to the the false teacher, expressly denied his apostolical ministry, miraculous powers which he had exercised and conferred at and even furnished themselves with arguments which they Corinth. so far from shrinking from the contest, as afraid pretended to draw from his first Epistle. He had formerly of some discovery being made, unfavourable to himself or to Corinth, thence to visit the Macedonian churches,

and from indeed, but with equal boldness and decision, expressly them to return to Corinth (2 Cor. i. 15, 16.); but

the unhappy declares that his opposers and despisers were the ministers state of the Corinthian church led him to alter his intention of Satan, and menaces them with miraculous judgments, since he found he must have treated them with severity,

had when as many of their deluded hearers had been brought to he visited them. (23.) Hence his adversaries charged him, repentance, and

re-established in the faith, as proper means 1. With levity and

irresolution of conduct (2 Cor. i. 18.), and, could in a reasonable time effect. It is inconceivable that a therefore, he could not be a prophet; 2. With pride and ty- stronger internal testimony, not only of integrity,

but of rannical severity on account of his treatment of the incestuous divine inspiration, can exist. Had there been any thing of person; 3. With arrogance and vain-glory in his ministry; imposture among the Christians, it was next to impossible, therein lessening the authority of the law; and, 4. With but such a conduct must have occasioned a disclosure of it." being personally contemptible, intimating, that however

of the effects produced by this second Epistle, we have weighty he might be in his letters, yet in person he was no circumstantial account; for Saint Luke has only briefly base and despicable. (2 Cor. x. 10.) Such were the prin- noticed (in Acts xx. 2, 3.) Saint Paul's second journey to cipal circumstances that gave occasion to this second Epis- Corinth, after he had written

this Epistle. We know, howtle to the Corinthians, to which we may add their forward

ever, that he was there, and that the contributions were ness in the contribution for the poor saints in Judæa, and brought to him in that city for

the poor brethren at Jerutheir kind and benevolent reception of Titus. III. Agreeably to these circumstances the Scope of this he sent salutations from some of the principal members of

salem (Rom. xv. 26.); and that, staying there several months, Epistle is chiefly, 1. To account for his not having come to that church to the Romans. (xvi. 22, 23.)

From this time them so soon as he had promised, viz. not out of levity, but we hear no more of the false teacher and his party; and partly in consequence of his sufferings in Asia, which pre- when

Clement of Rome wrote his Epistle to the Corinthians, vented him (2 Cor. i. 8. 11.), and partly that he might give Saint Paul was considered by them as a divine apostle, to them more time to set their church in better order, so that whose authority he might appeal without fear of contradiche might come to them with greater comfort. (ii. 3, 4.) 2. tion. The false teacher, therefore, must either have been To declare that his sentence against the incestuous person silenced by Saint Paul, in virtue of his apostolical powers, was neither rigid nor tyrannical (ii. 5–11.), but necessary and by an act of severity which he had threatened (2 Cor. and pious ; and now, as excommunication had produced so xiii

. 3, 3.); or this adversary of the apostle must have good an effect upon that offender, the apostle, commending quitted

the place. Whichever was the cause, the effect prothe obedience of the Corinthians, exhorts them to absolve duced must operate as a confirmation of our faith, and as a him from that sentence and to restore him to communion with the church. 3. To intimate his great success in preach-proof of Saint Paul's divine mission.": ing the Gospel, which he does, not for his own glory, but for xii. 14. and xiii. 1, 2., in which passages the apostle mentions

VI. A considerable chronological difficulty occurs in 2 Cors the glory

of the Gospel, which had peculiar efficacy upon his design of visiting Corinth a third time; whereas only one the Corinthians above others (2 Cor. ili.), and far surpassed visit before the date of this Epistle is noticed in the Acts the ministry of Moses (iv.), and was under a veil only to (xviii. 1.), about 4. D. 51, and the

next time that he visited those who were perishing: In preaching which Gospel he Greece (xx, 2.), about A. D. 57, no mention is made of his used all diligence and faithfulness, notwithstanding all his going to Corinth. And, indeed, for the reasons already afflictions for the Gospel; which afflictions, far from re- stated, he purposely avoided that city. It has been conflecting disgrace upon the Gospel, or its ministers, prepared jectured by Grotius, and Drs. Hammond and Paley, that his for him a far greater glory in heaven (V.), to which he first Epistle virtually supplied the place of his presence, and aspired, inviting others to do the same, by accepting the that it is so represented by the apostle in a corresponding grace of reconciliation tendered in the Gospel. 4. To stir passage. (1 Cor. v. 3.) Admitting this solution to be probathem up to lead a holy life, and particularly to avoid com-ble, it is, however, far-fetched, and is not satisfactory as 8 munion with idolaters. 5. To excite them to finish their contributions for their poor brethren in Judæa. (viii. ix.) 6. dently agitated the mind of St. Paul when writing this epistle, and also his

1 Roberts's Clavis Bibliorum, p. 754. The various emotions, which evi. Lastly, to apologize for himself against the personal con- elegance of diction, powers of persuasion, and force of argument, are all temptibleness imputed to him by the false teacher and his admirably discussed and illustrated by M. Royaards, in his Disputatio Inanz adherents. (x.-xiii.) In the course of this apology, he granice alterå Pauli ad Corinthios Epistolà, et observanda in illiâ apos reproves their vain-glory, and enters upon a high commenda- • Scott's Pref. to 1 Cor.

3 Michaelis, vol. iv. p. 74.

in those early times, the Christians were generally con- $ i. Not by Works. (i. 18.) founded with the Jews, it is not unlikely that both were

For the Gentiles (i. 1932.),

The Jews (ii. iii. 1—18.), included in this decree. At this time also, the city of Rome and both together (iii. 19, 20.), are under sin. contained within herself the seeds of insurrection and civil $ ii. But by faith, in which it is shown war. The senate was secretly jealous of the emperor, who

That we are justified by faith alone (iii. 2–31.),

As appears by the example of Abraham and the testimony of David in his turn suspected the senate. The life even of the em

(iv.); peror was seldoin free from danger: and the succession to And the privileges and blessings of Abraham's seed by faith are the throne, after the death of Claudius, was purchased by

shown to be far greater than those which belonged to his seed by

natural descent (as described in Rom. ii. 17-20.) These privileges largesses to the imperial guard. With the political notions of true believers in Christ are, 1. Peace with God (v. 1.); 2. Joy cherished by the Jews, it is no wonder that they, in several in hope of the glory of God (2.), which tribulation cannot prevent, instances, gave cause of suspicion to the Roman government,

but rather promotes 3-10.); 3. Rejoicing in God himself as

reconciled to us through Christ, which however affords no counwho would be glad of an opportunity to expel from the city, tenance to sin, but requires evangelical obedience to God (11–21.), persons who were considered dangerous to its peace and se- whence flows, 4. Mortification of sin and neueness of life, as curity: nor is it improbable, on this account, that the Chris

another evidence and effect of justification (vi.); 5. The freedom

of justified persons from the malediction of the law, and 'ts irritatians, under an idea of being the peculiar people of God, and tion to sin (vii.); 6. Freedom from condemnation, and ultimate the subjects of his kingdom alene, might be in danger of glorification. (viii) being infected with those unruly and rebellious sentiments.

Sect. 2. Concerning the equal privileges of Jewish and ChrisUnder these circumstances, therefore, Saint Paul judged it tian believers (ix.-xi.), in which the apostle, after expressnecessary to exhort the Roman Christians to submit peacea

ing his affectionate esteem for the Jewish nation (ix. 1biy to the government under which they lived. He tells

5.),4 proceeds to show : them, that the powers that (Rom. xiii. 1.), or the constituted authorities, are ordained of God, and forbids them to

$ i. That God's rejection of great part of the seed of Abraham, and also ineddle with those who endeavoured to effect a change in

of Isaac, was an undeniable fact. (ix. 6–13.)

$ ii. That God had not chosen them (the Jews) to such peculiar privileges, the government. The reigning emperor at this time was for any kind of goodness either in themselves or their fathers. (14–24.) that monster of iniquity, Nero.

The preceding view of the tenets held by the Heathens Having thus proved his point, he answers the following objections which and Jews of Rome will enable us to ascertain the Scope or might be made to it. design of Saint Paul in writing this epistle, which was to studied the law." Saint Paul answers, if a knowledge of the law, without

Objection 1. "The Jews were well grounded in their knowledge, and confute the unbelieving; to instruct the believing Jew; to the performance of it, could justify them, God would not have condemned confirm the Christian, and to convert the idolatrous Gentile: the Gentiles, who knew the law by nature. (ii. 13-16.)

and to place the Gentile convert upon an equality with the were admitted by an outward sign to a covenant with God; but this sign * Jewish in respect of his religious condition, and his rank in will not avail those who violate the covenant. (ii. 25–29.) the divine favour. These several designs he reduces to one Objection 3. "According to this doctrine of Saint Paul, the Jews have no scheme, by opposing or arguing, with the infidel or unbe- still have advantages ; for to them are committed the oracles of God. But

advantage above the Gentiles, which is manifestly false." Answer. They lieving Jew, in favour of the Christian or believing Gentile. their privileges do not extend so far, that God should overlook their sins, “ Upon this plan, if the unbelieving Jew escaped and re- which seripture earnestly condemns even in Jews, (ii. 1.–19.) mained unconvinced, yet the Christian Jew would be more Hence is no remission, but only the knowledge of sin. (ii. 20.) inoffensively and more effectually instructed in the nature of From the preceding arguinents Saint Paul infers, that Jews and Gentiles the Gospel, and the kind brotherly regards he ought to have must be justified by the same means, namely, without the Levitical law, for the believing Gentiles, than if he had directed his dis-through faith in Christ ; and in opposition to the imaginary advantages of course immediately and plainly to him. But, if his argument of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles. (iii. 21–31.) should fail in reference to the believing Jew, yet the believ- As the whole blessing was promised to those who were the faithful ing Gentile would see his interest

in the covenant

and king- descendants of Abraham, whom both scripture and the Jews call his child. dom of God as solidly established by a full confutation of was an idolater before his call, but was declared just by God, on account Jewish objections (which were the only objections that of his faith, long before

his circumcision. Hence Saint Paul takes occacould with any show of reason be advanced against it), as proceeds to prove from the equity of God that the Jews had no advantages if the Epistle had been written for no other purpose. And above the Gentiles, with respect to justification. Both Jews and Gentiles thus it is of the greatest use to us at this day. It is also at had forfeited* life and immortality, through the common father of their present exceedingly useful, as it entirely demolishes the en- therefore it was the will of God to restore immortality by a new spiritual grossing pretensions and imposing principles of the church head of a covenant, which was Christ, it was just that both Jews and Genof Rome; for a professed faith in Christ, and a subjection tiles should have an equal share in this new representative of the human to Him, are in this Epistle fully shown to be the only Gospel

race. (v. 12-21.)

He shows that the doctrine of justification, as he had stated it, lays us condition of a place in his church, an interest in the covenant under the strongest obligations to holiness (ví. 1-2.); and that since the of God, and of Christian fellowship. By this extensive prin- death of Christ we are no longer concerned with the law of Moses ; for our ciple God broke down the pales of his own ancient enclosure, justification arises from our appearing in the sight of God, as if'actually the Jewish church; and therefore, by the same principle, given to the dead. On this occasion he evinces at large, that the preceding more strongly forbids the building of any other partition wall consideration does not affect the eternal power of God over us, and that of schemes and terms of Christian fellowship."2

death, even by sins of inadvertency. (vii. 1-end.) Hence he concludes, VII. This Epistle consists of four parts; viz.

that all those, and those only, who are united with Christ, and for the sake Part I. The Introduction. (ch, i. 1-15.)

of this union live not according to the flesh, are free

from all condemnation Part II. contains the Doctrinal Part of the Epistle concerning

of the law, and have an undoubted share in eternal life. (viii. 1-17.)

Having described the happiness of all such persons, he is aware that Justification. (i. 16–32. ii.-xi.); in whích we have, the Jews, who expected temporal blessings, would object to him, that

Christians, notwithstanding what he had said, endured many sufferings in Sect. 1. The proposition concerning the extent of the Gos- this world. "This objection he obviates (viii. 18–39.), and shows that God

pel (i. 16.) and the demonstration of that proposition (i. is not the less true and faithful because he does not justify, but rather 17.), in which it is shown that justification is to be attained, 1. 1.) In discussing this delicate topic he displays the utmost caution on

account of the prejudices of his countrymen the Jews. He shows that Michaelis, vol. iv. pp. 89—102. Dr. J. Taylor on Rom. xiii. 1.

the promises of God were never made to all the posterity of Abraham; 2 Dr. J. Taylor's Preface to the Epistle to the Romans, p. clxii.

and that God always reserved to himself the power of choosing those sons 3 Michaelis has given the following more logical view of the argumenta of Abraham, whom for Abraham's sake he intended to bless, and of pun. tive part of the Epistle to the Romans, which may be not unacceptable to ishing the wicked sons of Abraham: and that, with respect to temporal the reader. The principal point, he observes, which Saint Paul intended happiness or misery, even their

good or ill conduct did not determine his to prove, was, that the Gospel reveals a righteousness unknown before, choice. Thus Ishmael, Esau, the Israelites in the Desert in the time of and to which both Jews and Gentiles have an equal claim. (Rom. i. 15, 16.) Moses, and the greater part of that nation in the time of Isaiah, were In order to prove this point he shows (i. 18.-il. 20.) that both Jews and rejected and made a sacrifice of his justice. (ix. 1—29.) He then shows Gentiles are under sin,” that is, that God will impate their sins to Jews that God had reason to reject most

of the Jews then living, because they as well as to Gentiles.

would not believe in the Messiah, though the Gospel had been preached to His proof of this position may be reduced to the following syllogisms. them plainly enough (ix. 30.--X.): yet, that God had not rejected all his (i. 17-24.) "The wrath of God is revealed against those who

hold the truth people, but was still fulfilling his

promises on many thousand natural in unrighteousness; that is, who acknowledge the truth, and yet sin descendants of Abraham, who believed in the Messiah ; and would in a against it.” (i. 18.)

future period fulfil them upon more ; for that all Israel would be converted, "The Gentiles acknowledged truths; but partly by their idolatry, and (xi. 132.) And he concludes with expressing his admiration of the wise partly by their other detestable vices, they sinned against the truths which counsels of God. (33–36.) Michaelis,

vol. iv. pp. 102-106. they acknowledged.

The genuineness and proper interpretation of Rom. ix. 5. (which conTherefore the wrath of God is revealed against the Gentiles, and pun. tains one of the most decisive testimonies to the divinity of Jesus Christ, ishes them. (i. 19-32.)

in the New Testament), are satisfactorily established by Mr. Holden in his “The Jews have acknowledged more truths than the Gentiles, and yet Scripture Testimony to the Divinity of Jesus Christ, pp. 514-56. they sin. (ii. 1. 17-24.)

*Consequently the Jewish sinners are yet more exposed to the wrath of • Michaelis's expression, as translated by Bishop Marsh, is “foretold." God.” (ii. 1-12.)

but the sense evidently requires "forfeited."

5 ill. That his acceptance of the Gentiles, and rejection of many of the wisdom, and knowledge of their Christian liberty, and thus Siv. That God had offered salvation to both Jews.and Gentiles on the undermined his influenee, and the credit of his ministry. same terms, though the Jews rejected it. (x. 1-2.)

Hence two parties were formed; one of which contended Sv. That, though the Israelites were rejected for their obstinacy, yet that strenuously for the observance of Jewish ceremonies, while

rejection was not total; there still being a remnant among them who the other, misinterpreting the true nature of Christian liberty, $vi. That the rejection of the rest was not final, but in the end "all Israel indulged in excesses which were contrary to the design and

spirit of the Gospel. One party boasted that they were the $ vii. And that, in the mean time, even their obstinacy and rejection followers of Paul; and another, that they were the followers

served to display the unsearchable wisdom and love of God. (32-36.) of Apollos. The Gentile converts partook of things offered PART III. comprises the Hortatory or Practical Part of the to idols, which the Jewish Christians affirmed to be unlawful. Epistle (xii.--xv. l-14.), in which the apostle urges The native Corinthian converts had not so entirely eradicated

Christian believers to act in a manner suitable to their high that lasciviousness to which they had been addicted in their and holy calling: with this view he exhorts them,

heathen state, but that they sometimes committed the vilest Sect. 1. To dedicate themselves to God, and to demean crimes : and one of them had even proceeded so far as to

themselves as fellow-members of Christ's body. (xii. 1–8.) marry his stepmother. Some of them, also, supporting Sect. 2. To Christian love and charity. (xii. 9–21.) themselves by philosophical arguments and speculations, Sect. 3. To obedience to the constituted authorities (xiii. denied the resurrection of the dead. The richer members of 1-7.), and the exercise of mutual love. (8—14.)

the church misconducted themselves at the celebration of the Sect. 4. How those who are strong in faith should conduct Lord's Supper; while others, who possessed spiritual gifts,

themselves towards their weak brethren. (xiv. xv. l-13.) behaved themselves insolently, on account of their acquireArt IV. The Conclusion, in which Saint Paul excuses him- ments... Women also, with unveiled heads, spoke in their self.

assemblies for divine worship. It further appears that many Partly for his boldness in thus writing to the Romans (xv. 14– of the Corinthian Christians prosecuted their brethren before

the Heathen tribunals, instead of bringing their complaints 21.), and partly for not having hitherto come to them (22.), before Christian tribunals; and that violent controversies but "promises to visit them, recommending himself to their were agitated among them concerning celibacy and marprayers (23–33.); and sends various salutations to the bre

riage. thren at Rome. (xvi.)'

Although these evils originated (as above noticed) chiefly VIII. In perusing this epistle it will be desirable to read, with the false teachers, yet they are in part at least to be at least, the first eleven chapters, at once, uninterruptedly: ascribed to the very corrupt state of morals at Corinth. It is as every sentence, especially in the

argumentative part, bears well known that at the temple of Venus, erected in the cenan intimate relation to, and is dependent upon the whole dis- tre of that city, one thousand prostitutes were maintained in course, and cannot be understood unless we comprehend the honour of her. Hence it happened that some, who professed scope of the whole. Further, in order

to enter fully into its themselves Christians, regarded the illicit intercourse of the spirit, we must enter into the spirit of a Jew in those times, sexes as a trifling affair: and as the eating of things offered and endeavour to realize in our own minds his utter aversion to idols was, in itself, an indifferent thing, they frequently from the Gentiles, his valuing and exalting himself upon his went to the temples of the heathen deities to partake of the relation to God and to Abraham, and also upon his law, pom- meat that had been there sacrificed, by which means they pous worship, circumcision, &c. as if the Jews were the only rendered themselves accessary to idolatry: people in the world who had any right to the favour of God. II. The Occasion on which this Epistle was written, Attention to this circumstance will show the beauties of the appears from its whole tenor to have been twofold, viz. apostle's style and argument, and that this Epistle is indeed, First, the information which the apostle had received from a writing which, for sublimity and truth of sentiment, for some members of the family of Chloe, while he was at brevity and strength of expression, for regularity in its struc- Ephesus, concerning the disorders that prevailed in the church ture, but, above all , for the unspeakable

importance of the at Corinth; such as, 1. Schisms and divisions (1 Cor. i: 11. discoveries which it contains, stands unrivalled by any mere et seq.); 2. Many notorious scandals, as the prevalence of human composition; and as far exceeds the most celebrated impurity, incests, covetousness, lawsuits of Christians before writings of the Greeks and Romans, as the shining of the Pagan magistrates (v. vi.); 3. Idolatrous communion with the sun exceeds the twinkling of the stars."2

Heathens at their idol-feasts (viii. x.); 4. Want of decorum On the undesigned coincidences between this Epistle and and order in their public worship (xi. 2—16. xiv.); Gross the Acts of the Apostles, see Dr. Paley's Horæ Paulinæ, profanation of the Lord's Supper (xi. 17–34.); and, 6. Chap. II.

Tne denial of the resurrection and eternal life. (xv. 12. et seq.)

The second cause of Saint Paul's writing this Epistle was his receiving a letter from the church at Corinth, by the

hands SECTION IV.

of Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus (xvi. 17. vii. 1.), in which the Corinthian Christians requested his advice con

cerning some particular cases; as, I. Concerning marriage ON THE FIRST EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS.

(yii. 1. et seq.); 2. Things sacrificed to idols (viii.); 3. SpiI. State of the Corinthian church.-II. Occasion of this Epis- others (xiv.); and, 5.

Concerning the making of charitable

ritual gifts (xii.); 4. Prophesying, or teaching and instructing tle.—III

. Its scope and analysis.-IV. Date and genuineness, collections for 'the poor brethren in Judæa. (xvi. 1. et seq.). -V. Examination of the question, how many epistles Paul

Hence we learn that Saint Paul maintained a constant inwrote to the Corinthians ?

tercourse with the churches which he had planted, and was I. CHRISTIANITY was first planted at Corinth? by Saint acquainted with all their circumstances. They seem to have Paul himself, who resided here a year and six months be applied to him for advice in those difficult cases, which their tween the years 51 and 53. The church consisted partly of own understanding could not solve; and he was ready, on Jews and partly of Gentiles, but chiefly of the latter; whence all occasions, to correct their mistakes. the apostle had to combat, sometimes with Jewish supersti- Ill. The Scope of this Epistle, therefore, is conformable tion, and sometimes with Heathen licentiousness. On Saint to the circumstances that caused the apostle to write it, and Paul's departure from Corinth, he was succeeded by Apollos, in like manner is twofold; viz. 1. To apply suitable reme“an eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures," who dies to the disorders and abuses which had crept into the preached the Gospel with great success. (Acts xviii

. 24—28.) church at Corinth; and, 2. To give the Corinthians satisfacAquila and Sosthenes were also eminent teachers in this tory answers on all those points concerning which they had church. (xviii. 2. 1 Cor. i. 1.) But, shortly after Saint Paul requested his advice and information. The Epistle accordquitted this church, its peace was disturbed by the intrusion ingly divides itself into three parts. of false teachers, who made great pretensions to eloquence, Part 1. The Introduction (i. 1—9.), in which Paul expresses PART II. discusses various Particulars adapted to the State of | ure from Corinth, went into Asia, and visited Ephesus, Jethe Corinthian Church; which may be commodiously ar- rusalem, and Antioch, after which, passing through Galatia ranged into two Sections.

his Satisfaction at all the good he knew of them, particularly 1 Lardner's Works, 8vo. vol. vi. pp. 325-327.; 4to. vol. iii. p. 297.; Mi

at their having received the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, for the chaelis, vol. iv. pp. 89-92.; Rosenmüller, Scholia, tom. iii. pp. 352—360.; Whitby's and Macknight's Prefaces to the Epistle to the Romans; Bloch

Confirmation of the Gospel. Chronotaxis Scriptorum Divi Pauli, pp. 201-215. ; Rambach, Introd. in Epistolam Pauli ad Romanos, pp. 1-118; Hug's Introd. to the New Test. The reader will find an instructive account of the state of the church vol. ii. pp. 408-425. Calmet, Preface sur l'Epitre de St. Paul aux Romains. at Corinth in Prof. Storr's Note Historica, epistolarum Pauli ad Corin Macknight on the Epistles, vol. i. p. 407. 4to. edit.

thios interpretationi inservientes, in the second volume of his Opuscule • For an account of the city of Corinth, before the planting of Christian Academica, pp. 242-266. ity, see the Historical and Geographical Index in Volume II.

* Roberts's Clavis Bibliorum, p. 748.

and Phrygia, he returned to Ephesus, where he remained Sect 1. contains a reproof of the corruptions and abuses three years. (Acts xviii. 18—23. xix. 1. xx. 31.) At the which disgraced the church. (i. 10. vi, 1–20.)

close of his residence at Ephesus, Saint Paul wrote this $ i. The apostle rebukes the sectaries among them, and defends himself Epistle, as appears from 1 Cor. xvi. 8. where he says, I will

against one or more Corinthian teachers, who had alienated most of tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost; and that it was written at reunite them in affection to himself, as having first planted the Gospel where the apostle uses this expression, ye are unleavened,

the Corinthians from him; and adds many weighty arguments to the preceding passover, is further evident from 1 Cor. v. 7. $ ii. A reproof for not excommunicating an incestuous person, who had that is, ye are now celebrating the feast of unleavened bread. $ ii. A reproof of their covetous and litigious temper, which caused there three years, took place about the year of Christ 56, it

Now, as Saint Paul's departure from Ephesus, after residing them to prosecute their Christian brethren before heathen courts of follows that the first Epistle to the Corinthians was written judicature. (vi. 1–9.) Siv. A dissuasive from fornication,-a sin to which they had been about that time.5

extremely addicted before they were converted, and which some of the Corinthians appeared to have considered an indifferent

matter. thians was never

doubted. It was cited or alluded to repeat

The genuineness of Saint Paul's first Epistle to the CorinThe enormity of this sin is very strongly represented. (vi. 10—20.) Sect. 2. contains an answer to the questions which the Co-edly by Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and Polycarp, in the rinthian church had proposed to the apostle. (vii.—xv.)

first century. In the following century it was cited by Ta$ i. Directions concerning matrimony (vii. 1–16.), the celibacy of virgins In the third century, this Epistle was acknowledged to be

tian, Irenæus,10 Athenagoras,. and Clement of Alexandria.12 show that Christianity makes no alteration in the civil conditions of Saint Paul's by Tertullian,13 Caius,14 and Origen.15 The tesmen, but leaves them under the same obligations that they were before timonies of later writers are too numerous and explicit to Sii. Concerning the lawfulness of eating things sacrificed to idols, show

render any detail of them necessary. ing when they may, and when they may not, be lawfully eaten. (viii. V. An important question has been much agitated, -xi. 1.)

Whether Saint Paul wrote any other Epistle to the Corin$ iii. Saint Paul answers a third query concerning the manner in which thians besides those we now have. In 1 Cor. v. 9. the fol

impulse. He particularly censures the unusual dress of both sexes in lowing words occur-Ezpence ima u Tu XISONN, which in our prophesying, which exposed them to the contempt of the Greeks, version is rendered—I have written to you in an epistle.

among whom the men usually went uncovered, while the women From this text it has been inferred, that Saint Paul had Siv. A reproof of their

irregularities, when celebrating the Lord's Sup. already written to the Corinthians an Epistle which is no per, with directions for receiving it worthily. (xi. 17–34.)

longer extant, and to which he alludes; while others con$ 6. Instructions concerning the desiring and exercising of spiritual gifts. tend, that by tn etissan, he means only the Epistle which he $ vi. The certainty of the resurrection of the dead defended against the is writing. The former opinion is advocated by Calvin, false teacher or teachers. (xv.)

Beza, Grotius, Cappel, Witsius, Le Clerc, Heinsius, Mill, It appears from the twelfth verse of this chapter that the doctrine of the Wetstein, Beausobre, Bishop Pearce, Dr. Doddridge, Mr. resurrection from the dead was denied by certain false teachers; in con- Scott, Michaelis, Storr, Rosenmüller, Hug, and Schleusner: sequence of which Saint Paul discusses the three following questions: 1. Whether there will be a resurrection from the dead ?

and the latter opinion, after Chrysostom, Theodoret, and II. What will be the nature of the resurrection-bodies ?

other fathers, is defended by Fabricius, Glassius, Calmet, III. What will become of those who will be found alive at the day of Dr. Whitby, Stosch, Jer. Jones, Drs. Edwards, Lardner, and judgment ? I. He proves the doctrine of the resurrection,

Macknight, Purver, Archbishop Newcome, Bishop Tomline 1. From Scripture. (1--4.) 2. From eye-witnesses of Christ's resurrection. (5–12.)

(whose words are adopted by Bishop Mant and Dr. D'Oyly), 3. By showing the absurdity of the contrary doctrine :- Thus,

and Bishop Middleton. A third opinion is that of Dr. Beni. If the dead rise not, Christ is not risen. (13.)

son, which is acceded to by Dr. Clarke, viz. that Saint Paul ii. It would be absurd to have faith in him, according to the preaching refers to an Epistle which he had written, or begun to write, iii. The apostles, who attest his resurrection, must be false witnesses. but had not sent; for, on receiving further information from

Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus, he suppressed that, iv. The faith of the Corinthians, who believe it, must be vain. (16, 17,) and wrote this, in which he considers the subject more at 5. All the believers, who have died in the faith of Christ, have perished, large. The weight of evidence, however, is most decidedly vi. Believers in Christ are in a more miserable state than any others, in favour of the opinion, that the apostle wrote only the two if there be no resurrection. (19.)

epistles now extant, which bear his name.16 vii. Those, who were baptized in the faith that Christ died for them,

On the undesigned coincidences between this Epistle and and rose again, are deceived. (29.) viii. The apostles and Christians in general, who suffer persecution, the Acts of the Apostles, see Dr. Paley's Horæ Paulinæ, on the ground that, after they had suffered

awhile here, they shall Chap. III.17 have a glorious resurrection, are acting a foolish and unprofitable

part. (30—35.) II. He shows what will be the nature of the resurrection-bodies, and in what manner this great work will be performed. (35—49.) III. He shows what will become of those who will be found alive at the

SECTION V. day of judgment. (50-57.) This important and animating discussion is folhowed by The use which we should make of this doctrine. (58.)2

ON THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS. Part III. contains the Conclusion, comprising Directions relative to the Contributions for the Saints at Jerusalem, pro- I. Date and where written.-II. Occasion of this Epistle.mises that the Apostle would shortly visit them, and Salutations III. Scope.-IV. Synopsis.-V. Observations on this Episto various Members of the Church at Corinth. (xvi.) tle.-VI. A supposed chronological difficulty elucidated.

IV. Although the subscription to this Epistle purports that it was written at Philippi, yet, as this directly contradicts

I. The preceding Epistle, we have seen, was written Saint Paul's own declaration in xvi. 8., we must look to the from Ephesus about the year 57, before Saint Paul's deEpistle itself for notes of time, that may enable us to ascer-parture from that city. On quitting Ephesus he went to tain its date. We have seen that

Saint Paul, on his depart-Troas, which place was situated on the shore of the Ægean

• Michaelis, vol. iv. p. 42. Paley's Horæ Paulinæ, p. 96. Mill, Whitby, 1 On the subject of the spiritual gifts discussed in chap. xii. the reader Michaelis, Benson, and almost all modern commentators and critics, agres is referred to Dr. Bloomfield's Recensio Synoptica, vol. vì. pp. 552—570. , Dr. A. Clarke on 1 Cor. xv.

6 Lardner's Works, 8vo. vol. ii. p. 36.; 4to. vol. i. p. 297. The Jews, who lived out of Palestine, were chiefly engaged in trade, - Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 74, 75. ; 4to. vol. i. pp. 318, 319. and were generally in more affluent circumstances than those who resided 8 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 91. 91. ; 4to. vol. i. pp. 327. 329. in Judæa, to whom they usually sent an annual relief. (Vitringa de Syn. 9 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 140. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 355. Vet. lib. iii. p. i. c. 13.) Now, as the Gentile Christians became brethren 10 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 163. i 4to. vol. i. p. 868. to the Jews, and partook of their spiritual riches, Saint Paul thought it 11 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 135. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 380. equitable that the Greek Christians should contribute to the support of 12 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 222. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 401. their poorer brethren in Judæa. (Rom. xv. 26, 27.) When he was at Jeru- 13 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 263. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 423. salem, he had promised Peter and James that he would collect alms for 14 lbid. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 374, 375. : 4to. vol. i. pp. 482, 483. this purpose (Gal. ii. 10.); and accordingly we find (1 Cor. xvi. 1-4.) that 15 Ibid. Svo. vol. ii. P. 471. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 535. he made a collection among the Christians at Corinth. Michaelis, vol. iv. 16 See this subject discussed, supra, Vol. I. pp. 57, 58.

17 Lardner's Works, 8vo. vol. vi. pp. 314, 315. ; 4to. vol. iii. p. 291.; * Sea p. 324. supra. Michaelis is of opinion that the mistake in the sub. Michaelis, vol. iv. pp. 42–62. 68, 69. ; Hug's Introduction, vol

. ii. pp. 368 scription arose from misunderstanding diep oucos (xvi. 5.) to mean I am now 385.; Rosenmüller, Scholia, tom is. pp. 1-7. Whitby's and Macknight's travelling through, instead of " my route is through Macedonia,” which it Prefaces; Bloch, Chronotaxis, Scriptorum Pauli, pp: 160—172. Calmet, evidently means. Vol. iv. p. 43.

Preface sur la premiere Epitre de Saint Paul aux Corinthiens.

in the above date.

p. 61.

sea, in expectation of meeting Titus, and receiving an action of his apostolic office and power, and his extraordinary count of the success with which (he hoped) his former revelations, which far outshone the counterfeit glory of the Epistle had been attended, and of the present state of the false teacher; but at the same time declares that he had rather Corinthian church. (2 Cor. ii. 12.). But not meeting him use meekness than exert his power, unless he should be there (13.), Paul proceeded to Macedonia, where he obtained forced to do it by their contumacy and impenitence.' the desired interview, and received satisfactory information IV. This Epistle consists of three parts; viz. concerning the promising state of affairs at Corinth. (vii. 5,6,) PART I. The Introduction. (i. 1, 2.), From this country, and probably from Philippi (as the sub- Part il. The Apologetic Discourse of St. Paul, in which, scription imports), the apostle wrote the second letter (2 Cor. viii. 1-14. ix. 1–5.); which he sent by Titus and his as

Sect. 1. He justifies himself from the imputations of the false

teacher and his adherents, by showing his sincerity and insociates, who were commissioned to hasten and finish the contribution among the Christians at Corinth, for the use of tegrity in the discharge of his ministry; and that he acted their poor brethren in Judæa. (ix. 2–4.) From these histo- not from worldly interest, but from true love for them, and rical circumstances, it is generally agreed that this Epistle

a tender concern for their spiritual welfare. (i. 3—24. was written within a year after the former, that is, early in

ii.-vii.) A. D. 58., and according to Dr. Bloch, at Beroea. The ge

Sect. 2. He exhorts them to a liberal contribution for their nuineness of this Epistle was never doubted; and as it is poor brethren in Judæa. (viii. ix.) cited or referred to by nearly the same ancient writers, whose Sect. 3. He resumes his apology; justifying himself from the testimonies to the first Epistle we have given in the pre- charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his folceding section, it is not necessary to repeat them in this lowers; in order to detach the Corinthians from them, and place.

to re-establish himself and his authority. (x.—xiii. 10.) II. The first Epistle to the Corinthians produced very dif- Part III. The Conclusion. (xiii. 11–14.) ferent effects among them. Many amended their conduct, most of them showed strong marks of repentance, and is, the confidence of the apostle in the goodness of his cause,

V. “ The most remarkable circumstance in this Epistle evinced such respect for the apostle, that they excommuni- and in the power of God to bear him out in it. Opposed as cated the incestuous person (2 Cor. ii. 5–11. vii. 11.); re- he then was by a powerful and sagacious party, whose auquested the apostle's return with tears (vii. 7.); and became thority, reputation, and interest were deeply concerned, and his office against the false teacher and his adherents. (vii. him, it is wonderful to hear him so firmly insist upon his 7-11.) Others, however, of the Corinthians, adhered to the false teacher , expressly denied

his apostolical
ministry, miraculous powers which he had exercised and conferred at

apostolical authority, and so unreservedly appeal to the and even furnished themselves with arguments which they Corinth. so far from shrinking from the contest, as afraid pretended to draw from his first Epistle. He had formerly of some discovery being

made, unfavourable to himself or to Corinth, thence to visit the Macedonian churches, and from indeed,

but with equal boldness and decision, expressly them to return to Corinth (2 Cor. i. 15, 16.) ; but the unhappy declares that his opposers and despisers were the ministers state of the Corinthian church led him to alter his intention of Satan, and menaces them with miraculous judgments, since he found he must have treated them with severity,

had when as many of their deluded hearers had been brought to he visited them. (23.) Hence his adversaries charged him, repentance, and re-established in the faith, as proper means 1. With levity and

irresolution of conduct (2 Cor.i. 18.), and, could in a reasonable time effect. It is inconceivable that a therefore, he could not be a prophet; 2. With pride and ty- stronger internal testimony, not only of integrity,

but of rannical severity on account of his treatment of the incestuous divine inspiration, can exist. Had there been any thing of person ; 3. With arrogance and vain-glory in his ministry; imposture among the Christians, it was next to impossible, therein' lessening the authority of the law; and, 4. With but such a conduct must have occasioned a disclosure of it.” being personally contemptible, intimating, that however

of the effects produced by this second Epistle, we have weighty he might be in his letters, yet in person he was no circumstantial account; for Saint Luke has only briefly cipal circumstances that gave occasion to this second

Epis- Corinth, after he had written

this Epistle. We know, howtle to the Corinthians, to which we may add their forward- ever, that he was there, and that the contributions were ness in the contribution for the poor saints in Judæa, and brought to him in that city for

the poor brethren at Jerutheir kind and benevolent reception of Titus.

III. Agreeably to these circumstances the Scope of this he sent salutations from some of the principal members of Epistle is chiefly, 1. To account for his not having

come to that church to the Romans. (xvi. 22, 23.) From this time partly

in consequence of his sufferings in Asia, which pre- when Clement of Rome wrote his Epistle to the Corinthians, vented him (2 Cor. i. 8. 11.), and partly that he might give Saint Paul was considered by them as a divine apostle, to them more time to set their church in better order, so that whose authority he might appeal without fear of contradiche might come to them with greater

comfort. (ii. 3, 4.) 2. tion. The false teacher, therefore, must either have been To declare that his sentence against

the incestuous person silenced by Saint Paul, in virtue of his apostolical powers, was neither rigid nor tyrannical (ii. 5–11.), but necessary and by an act of severity which he had threatened (2 Cor. and pious ; and now, as excommunication had produced so xiii. 2, 3.); or this adversary of the apostle must have the obedience of the Corinthians, exhorts them to absolve duced must operate as a confirmation of our faith, and as a him from that sentence and to restore him to communion proof of Saint Paul's divine mission."3 with the church. 3. To intimate his great success in preaching the Gospel, which he does not for his own glory, but for xii. 14. and xiii

. 1, 2., in which passages the apostle mentions

VI. A considerable chronological difficulty occurs in 2 Cor the glory of the Gospel, which had peculiar efficacy upon his design of visiting Corinth a third time; whereas only one the Corinthians above others (2 Cor. ili.), and far surpassed visit before the date of this Epistle is noticed in the Acts the ministry of Moses (iv.), and was under a veil only to (xviii. 1.), about A. D. 51, and

the next time that he visited those who were perishing. In preaching which Gospel he Greece (xx. 2.), about A. D. 57, no mention is made of his used all diligence and faithfulness, notwithstanding all his going to Corinth. And, indeed, for the reasons already Alecting disgrace upon the Gospel, or its ministers,

prepared jectured by Grotius, and Drs. Hammond and Paley, that his for him a far greater glory in heaven (v.), to which he first Epistle virtually supplied the place of his presence, and aspired, inviting others to do the same, by accepting the that it is so represented by the apostle in a corresponding grace of reconciliation tendered in the Gospel. 4. To stir ihem up to lead a holy life, and particularly to avoid com- ble, it is, however, far-fetched, and is not satisfactory as a

passage. (1 Cor. v. 3.). Admitting this solution to be probamunion with idolaters. 5. To excite them to finish their contributions for their poor brethren in Judæa. (viii. ix.) 6. dently agitated the mind of St. Paul when writing this epistle, and also his

1 Roberts's Clavis Bibliorum, p. 754. The various emotions, which evi. Lastly, to apologize for himself against the personal con- elegance of diction, powers of persuasion, and force of argument, are all temptibleness imputed to him by the false teacher and his admirably discussed and illustrated by M. Royaards, in his Disputatio Inanz adhérents. (x.--siii.) In the course of this apology, he guralis de alterå Pauli ad Corinthios Epistolå, et observanda in illiä aposreproves their vain-glory, and enters upon a high commenda- 3 Scott's Pref. to 1 Cor.

Michaelis, vol. iv. p. 74.

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