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ON THE GOSPEL BY SAINT JOHN.

$iv. On Wednesduy, or the fourth day of Passion-week, the chief priests | by Saint Luke in more animated language than is used by sv. On T'hursday, or the fifth day of Passion-week, Judas covenants to either of the rest (xi. 53.): “ They began vehemently to press

betray Christ (Axii. 4-5); and Christ sends two disciples to prepare him with questions on many points." And, on another occathe Passover. (7-13.)

sion, speaking of the same people, he says, that they were $ vi. On the Passover.day:, that is, from Thursduy evening to Friday filled with mudness. (vi. 11.) Lastly, in the moral instruc(a) In the evening, Christ'eats the Passover; institutes the Sacrament tions given by our Lord, and recorded by this evangelist, of the Lord's Supper; discourses on humility; and foretells his especially in the parables, no one has surpassed him in unit

being betrayed by Judas, his abandonment by his disciples, and ing affecting sweetness of manner with genuine simplicity, (6) Towards night, after eating the Passover with his apostles, Jesus particularly in the parables of the benevolent Samaritan and

goes to the Mount of Olives; where, after being some time in an the penitent prodigal.3 agony, he is apprehended. (xxii. 39–53.) (c) During the night, Christ having been conducted to the high-priest's house (whither Peter followed and denied hitn), is derided. (xxii. 51 -65.) (d) At day-break bn Friday morning, Christ is tried before the Sanhe

SECTION V. drin (xxii. 66–71.); from whose tribunal, (e) On Friday morning, 1. he is delivered first to Pilate (xxili. 1–7.), who sends him to Herod (8–12.); by whom he is again sent to Pilate, and is by him condemned to be crucified. (13–25.1-2. Christ's discourse to the women of Jerusalem as he was led forth to be cru. I. Title.--II, Author.—III, Date.-IV. Genuineness and aucified. (26–31.) The transactions of the third hour. The crucifixion ; Christ's

thenticity of this Gospel, particularly of ch. xxi., and ch. vii, garınents divided; the inscription on the cross; his address to the

53., and viii. 11-1.-V. Its occasion and design.-Account penitent robber. (xxiii. 32–43.)

of the tenets of Cerinthus.-Analysis of its contents.-VI. (g) From the sixth to the ninth hour.—The preternatural darkness,

The Gospel of John, a supplement to the other three.-VII. rending of the veil; death of Christ, and its concomitant circunstances. (xxiii. 44–49.)

Observations on its style. (h) Between the ninth hour and sunset, Jesus Christ is interred by Joseph of Ariinathea. (xxiii. 50–56.)

I. The Title of this Gospel varies greatly in the manuSect. 5. Transactions after Christ's resurrection on Easter scripts, editions, and versions. In the Codex Vaticanus it Day,

is simply xxtu !w.vnv, according to John ; in many other MSS. $i. Christ's resurrection testified to the woman by the angel. (xxiv. 1 and editions, Evangenden TO X254 1w2wvwy, the Gospel according to

John, or to mate 1w2vvay (47.ccv) Euayenev, the Gospel according $ ii. Christ appears to two disciples in their way to Emmaus, and also to to (Saint) John; in the Codex Bezæ, ASXTu EuZgjencov xztu Sij. His appearance to the apostles, and his instructions to them. (xxiv. Jozwar, the Gospel according to John beginneth. To omit minor .

variations in manuscripts of less ancient date,- in the Syriac Sect. 6. The ascension of Christ, and the apostles' return to version, in Bishop Walton's Polyglott

, this Gospel is enJerusalem. (xxiv. 50–52.)

* The Holy Gospel, the preaching of St. John, which

he delivered in Greek, and published at Ephesus :" in the The plan of classifying events, adopted by Luke, has been Arabic version it is “The Gospel of St. John the son of followed by Livy, Plutarch, and other profane historical wri- Zebedee, one of the twelve apostles, which he wrote in Greek ters. Thus Suetonius, after exhibiting a brief summary of by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit;" and in the Persian the life of Augustus, previous to his acquiring the sovereign version, "The Gospel of John, one of the twelve apostles, power, announces his intention of recording the subsequent which was spoken in the Greek-Roman tongue at Ephesus.” events of his life, not in order of time, but arranging them

Il. John, the evangelist and apostle, was the son of Zebeinto distinct classes; and then proceeds to give an account of dee, a fisherman of the town of Bethsaida, on the sea of his wars, honours, legislation, discipline, and private life.! Galilee, and the younger brother of James the elder. His In like manner, Florus intimates that he would not observe mother's name was Salome. Zebedee, though a fisherman, the strict order of time; but in order that the things, which appears to have been in good circumstances; for the evanhe should relate, might the better appear, he would relate gelical history informs us that he was the owner of a vessel, them distinctly and separately.2

and had hired servants. (Mark i. 20.) And therefore we VIII. If Paul had not informed us (Col.iv. 14.) that Luke have no reason to imagine that his children were altogether was by, profession a physician, and consequently a man of illiterale, as some critics have imagined them to have been, letters, his writings would have sufficiently evinced that he had from a misinterpretation of Acts iv. 13., where the terms had a liberal education ; for although his Gospel presents as ag peripetice and id.WTH, in our version rendered unlearned and many Hebraisms, perhaps, as any of the sacred writings, yet ignorunt men, simply denote persons in private stations of his language contains more numerous Græcisms, than that life, who were neither rabbis nor magistrates, and such as of any other writer of the New Testament. The style of had not studied in the schools of the

Pharisees, and consethis evangelist is pure, copious, and flowing, and bears a con- quently were ignorant of the rabbinical learning and traditions siderable resemblance to that of his great master Paul. of the Jews. John and his brother James were, doubtless, Many of his words and expressions are exactly parallel to well acquainted with the Scriptures of the Old Testament, those which are to be found in the best classic authors; and having not only read them, but heard them publicly explained several eminent critics have long since pointed out the sin- in the synagogues; and, in common with the other Jews, gular skill and propriety with which Luke has named and they entertained the expectation of the Messiah, and that his described the various diseases which he had occasion to no- kingdom would be a temporal one. It is not impossible, tice. As an instance of his copiousness, Dr. Campbell has though it cannot be affirmed with certainty, that John had remarked, that each of the evangelists has a number of been a disciple of John the Baptist, before he became a diswords which are used by none of the rest : but in Luke's ciple of Christ. At least, the circumstantial account, which Gospel, the number of such words as are used in none of the he has given in ch. i. 37–41. of the two disciples who fol. other Gospels, is greater than that of the peculiar words lowed Christ, might induce us to suppose that he was one found in all the other three Gospels, put together; and that of the two. It is, however, certain that he had both seen and the terms peculiar to Luke are for the most part long and heard our Saviour, and had witnessed some of his miracles, compound words. There is also more of composition in his particularly that performed at Cana in Galilee. (ii. 1–11.) sentences than is found in the other three Gospels, and con- John has not recorded his own call to the apostleship; but sequently less simplicity. Of this we have an example in we learn from the other three evangelists that it took place the first sentence, which occupies not less than four verses: when he and James were fishing upon the sea of Galilee. Further, Luke seems to approach nearer to the manner of other historians, in giving what may be called his own ver- lia in Nov. Test. vol. ii. pp. 36. Kuinöel, comment. in Libros Hist. Nov.

3 Dr. Campbell on the Gospels, vol.ii. pp. 126–129. Rosenmüller, Scho: dict in the narrative part of his work. Thus he calls the Test. vol. ii

. pp. 213—220 Bp. Marsh's Michaelis, vol. iii, part i. pp. 228 Pharisees pince yg upol, lovers of money (xvi. 14.); and in distin- 271. Pritii, Introd. ad Nov. Test. pp. 181–195. Viser, Herm. Sacr. Nov. guishing Judas Iscariot from the other Judas, he uses the Test. pars i pp: 333-339. pars ii. pp. 205–209. 221. et seq. 261. Rumpæi, phrase és 2.16 7 €VETO TFC&Cous, who also proved a traitor. (vi. 16.) on the style of St. Luke's Gospel, in his Sermons, pp. 209–224. 8vo. Ox Matthew (x. 4.) and Mark (iii, 19.) express the same senti- ford, 1808 ment in milder language, who delivered him up. Again,

the he thinks are three

degrees in the call of Saint John to be a follower of

* Matt. iv. 21, 22. Mark i. 19, 20. Luke v. 1–10. Lampe has marked what attempt made by the Pharisees, to extort from our Lord what Christ, viz. J. His call to the discipleship (John i. 37-42.), after which he might prove matter of accusation against him, is expressed continued to follow his business for a short time; 2. Jlis call to be one of

1 Suetonius in Augusto, c. ix. (al. xii.) p. 58. edit. Bipont. This historian the apostleship, when the surnaine of Boanerges was given to lim and his has pursued the same method in his life of Cæsar.

brother. Lampe, Comment in Evangelium Johannis Prolegom. cap. ii. pp. Flori, Hist. Rom. lib. i. c. 19.

17-21. VOL. II.

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VI. The Acts of the Apostles, as they appear in our co- Jother books of the New Testament, particularly in the pies, may be divided into three principal parts; viz. speeches delivered by Saint Paul at Athens, and before the Part I. comtains the Rise and Progress of the Mother Church Roman governors. It is further worthy of remark, that Saint at Jerusulem from the Time of our Saviour's Ascension to the he has introduced as speaking. -Thus the speeches and dis

Luke has well supported the character of each person whom first Jewish i'ersecution. (ch. i.-viii.) Sect. 1. The transactions before and after Jesus Christ's destitute of all those ornaments which usually occar in the

courses of St. Peter are recorded with simplicity, and are ascension into heaven. (i.)

orations of the Greeks and Romans. Nearly similar are the Sect. 2. The descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles at the speeches of Saint Paul, which were addressed to the Jews,

feast of Pentecost, and Peter's discourse to the people in while those delivered by the same apostle before a heathen consequence of it. (ii.)

audience are widely different. Thus, in his discourse deliSect. 3. A lame man healed by Peter and John-Peter's vered at Antioch in Pisidia, he commences with a long peridiscourse to the people-Events that befel the apostles in phrasis, which would not have been either instructive or enconsequence of that miracle. (iii. iv.)

tertaining in any other place than a Jewish synagogue. On Sect. 4. The death of Ananias and 'Sapphira-Miracles of the contrary, the speech of the martyr Stephen (Acts vii.) is

the apostles,—who are scourged and dismissed. (v.) altogether of a different description. It is a learned but Sect. 5. The institution of deacons-the discourse and mar- unpremeditated discourse, pronounced by a person totally, un

tyrdom of Stephen,—and the first Jewish persecution. (vi. acquainted with the art of oratory; and though he certainly vii. viii. 1—4.)

had a particular object in view, to which the several parts of Part II. comprises the Dispersion of the Disciples--the Pro- object, because his materials are not regularly disposed.

his discourse were directed, yet it is difficult to discover this pugution of Christianity umong the Samaritansthe. Con- Lastly, Saint Paul's discourses before assemblies that were version of Saint Paul, and the Foundation of a Christian Church 'ut Antioch. (viii. 5.-xii.)

accustomed to Grecian oratory, are totally different from any

of the preceding. Though not adorned with the flowers of Sect. 1. The planting of the church at Samaria. (viii. 5—25.) rhetoric, the language is pointed and energetic, and the maSeot. 2. The conversion of the Ethiopian eunuch. (viii. terials are judiciously selected and arranged, as is manifest 26–40.)

in his speech delivered at Athens (Acts xvii. 22—31.), and Sect. 3. The conversion, baptism, and first preaching of in his two defences of himself before the Roman governors Saint Paul. (ix.)

of Judæa. (xxiv. xxvi.) Dr. Benson and Michaelis, howSect. 4. Account of two miracles performed by Peter, and ever, are both of opinion, that Saint Luke has given abstracts

the conversion of Cornelius and his family. (x. xi. 1—18.) only, and not the whole, of Saint Paul's speeches; for in his Sect. 5. The first Gentile church founded at Antioch. (xí. speech before Felix, he must certainly have said more than is 19—30.)

recorded by Saint Luke (xxiv. 12, 13.); unless we suppose Sect. 6. The apostle James put to death by Herod Agrippa,- that Saint Paul merely denied the charge which had been relation of his miserable death. (xii.)

laid against him, without confuting it. Michaelis adds, that Part III. describes the Conversion of the more remote Gentiles, abstracts : and that, if he has not retained ihe very words of

in his opinion Saint Luke has shown great judgment in these by Burnabas and Paul, and, after their Separation, by Paul Saint Paul, he has adopted such as were well suited to the and his Associates

, among whom was Luke himself during polished audiences before which the apostle spoke. the latter Purt of Paul's Labours (xii.—xxviii.)

VIII. The Acts of the Apostles afford abundant levidence Sect. 1. The planting of several churches in the isle of of the truth and divine original of the Christian religion ;

Cyprus, at Perga in Pamphylia, Antioch in Pisidia, Ico- for we learn from this book, that the Gospel was not indebted nium, Lystra, and Derbe-The return of Saint Paul to for its success to deceit or fraud, but that it was wholly the Antioch. (xiii. xiv.)

result of the mighty power of God, and of the excellence Sect. 2. Discussion of the question by the apostles at Jeru- and efficacy of the saving truths which it contains. The salem concerning the necessity of circumcision, and of general and particular doctrines, comprised in the

Acts of the observing the law—Their letter to the churches on this Apostles, are perfectly in unison with the glorious truths resubject. xv. 1-35.)

vealed in the Gospels, and illustrated in the Apostolic EpisSecr. 3. Paul's second departure from Antioch—He preaches tles; and are admirably suited to the state of the persons,

the Gospel in various countries, particularly at Philippi in whether Jews or Gentiles, to whom they were addressed. Macedonia—the conversion of the Philippian gaoler. (xv. And the evidence which the apostles gave of their doctrines, 36—41. xvi.)

in their appeals to prophecies and miracles, and the various Seer. 4. The journeys and apostolical labours of Paul and gifts of the Spirit, were so numerous and so strong, and at

his associates at Thessalonica, Berea, and Athens-His the same time so admirably adapted to every class of persons, masterly apology before the court of the Areopagites. (xvii.) that the truth of the religion which they attest cannot be Secr. 5. Paul's journey to Corinth, and thence to Antioch. reasonably disputed. (xviii, 1–22.):

Further, the history itself is credible. It was written by a sect. 6. Paul's third departure from Antioch-Consequences which he relates, and who was both able and disposed to

person who was acquainted with the various circumstances of his preaching at Ephesus. (xviii. 23—28. xix.) Secr. 7. The labours of Paul in Greece and Asia Minor, and Luke was a companion of the apostles; he was himself an

give a faithful narrative of every thing that occurred. Saint his journey towards Jerusalem. (xx.) Sect. 8. The persecution of Paul at Jerusalem—He is sent cerned in many of the incidents he has recorded. In the

eye and ear witness of the facts, and was personally cona prisoner to Cæsarea. (xxi.-xxiii. 1—30.) Secr. 9. Paul's arrival at Cæsarea—the charges of the Jews the miraculous facts related in it are neither impossible,

history itself there are no inconsistencies or contradictions ; against him-His defence before Felix-Appeal to Cæsar, when we consider the almighty power of God to which they His defence before Agrippa, at whose request his cause was are ascribed; nor improbable, when we consider the grand reheard. (xxiii. 31–35. xxiv.-xxvi.)

design and occasion on account of which they were performSucr. 10. Narrative of Paul's voyage from Cæsarea—His ed. The plainness and simplicity of the narrative are also

shipwreck on the isle of Malta --- His voyage thence to Rome, strong circumstances in its favour. The writer appears to where he preaches the Gospel to the Jews, and resides for have been very honest and impartial, and to have set down two years. (xxvii. xxviii.)

fairly the objections which were made to Christianity both In perusing the Acts of the Apostles, it will be desirable by Jews and Heathens, and the reflections which were cast constantly to refer to the accompanying map of their respect- upon it, as well as upon its first preachers. He has, likeive journeys, particularly those of Saint Paul. In con- wise, with a just and ingenuous freedom, mentioned the structing this inap, the accurate geographer D'Anville has weaknesses, faults, and prejudices, both of the apostles and principally been followed; the courses of the several winds of their converts. The occasional hints, which are dispersed ihat usually blow in the Levant or Mediterranean sea, to- through the epistles of Saint Paul, harmonize with the facts gether with their ancient names, are inserted from Dr. Shaw. related in the history of the Acts of the Apostles; so that

VII. The narrative of the Acts of the Apostles is per- this history is the best guide we can have in studying the spicuous and noble. Though it is not entirely free from epistles. The other parts of the New Testament are in Hebraisms, it is in general much purer than that of most 1 Acts xiii. 16441.

a Michaelis, vol. iii. part i. pp. 331–335. Benson's History of the First · Travels in Barbary, vol. ii. p. 131. 3d edit.

Planting of Christianity, vol. il. p. 258.

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$iv. On Wednesday, or the fourth day of Passion-week, the chief priests | by Saint Luke in more animated language than is used by sv. On Thursday, or the fifth day of Passion-week, Judas corenants to either of the rest (xi. 53.): “ They began vehemently to press betray Christ (xxii. 43.); and Christ sends two disciples to prepare him with questions on many points." And, on another occathe Passover. (7--13.)

sion, speaking of the same people, he says, that they were $ vi. On Die Passover.day, that is, from Thursduy evening to Friday filled with madness. (vi. 11.) Lastly, in the moral instruc(a) In the evening, Christ'eats the Passover; institutes the Sacrament tions given by our Lord, and recorded by this evangelist, of the Lord's Supper; discourses on humility; and foretells his especially in the parables, no one has surpassed him in unit

being betrayed by Judas, his abandonmept by his disciples, and ing affecting sweetness of manner with genuine simplicity, (6) Towards night, after eating the Passover with his apostles, Jesus particularly in the parables of the benevolent Samaritan and

goes to the Mount of Olives; where, after being soine time in an the penitent prodigal,3 (c) During the night, Christ having been

conducted to the high-priest's house (whither Peter followed and denied himn), is derided. (xxii. 51 -65.) (d) At day-break bn Friday morning, Christ is tried before the Sanhe.

SECTION V. drin (xxii. 66–71.); froin whose tribunal, (e) On Friday morning, 1. he is delivered first to Pilate (xxiii. 1–7.), who sends hirn to Herod (8--12.); by whom he is again sent to

ON THE GOSPEL BY SAINT JOHN, Pilate, and is by him condemned to be crucified. (13–25.)-2. Christ's discourse to the women of Jerusalem as he was led forth to be cru. I. Title.-II. Author.-III. Date.-IV. Genuineness and are cified. (26–31.)

thenticity of this Gospel, particularly of ch. xxi., and ch. vii, The transactions of the third hour.-The crucifixion; Christ's

53., and viii. 11-1.-V. Its occasion and design.-Account garments divided; the inscription on the cross; his address to the penitent robber. (xxiii. 32–43.)

of the tenets of Cerinthus,-Analysis of its contents.-VI. (g) From the sixth to the ninth hour. The preternatural darkness,

The Gospel of John, a supplement to the other three.-VII. rending of the veil; death of Christ, and its concoinitant circunstances. (xxiii. 44-49.)

Observations on its style. (h) Between the ninth hour and sunset, Jesus Christ is interred by Joseph of Arimathea. (xxiii. 50—56.)

I. The Title of this Gospel varies greatly in the manuSect. 5. Transactions after Christ's resurrection on Easter scripts, editions, and versions. In the Codex Vaticanus it Day.

is simply Xitu !Werony, according to John ; in many other MSS. $ i. Christ's resurrection testified to the woman by the angel. (xxiv. 1 and editions, Eurgjencev TO Kate Icozyny, the Gospel according to

John, or το κατά Ιωάννην (αγιον) Ευαγγέλιον, the Gospel according $ ii. Christ appears to two disciples in their way to Emmaus, and also to to (Saint) John ; in the Codex Bezæ, AgXetu Eurgjencev uztu s iii. His appearance to the apostles, and his instructions to them. (xxiv. Jazyvay, the Gospel according to John beginneth. To omit minor 36–49.)

variations in manuscripts of less ancient date,- in the Syriac Sect. 6. The ascension of Christ, and the apostles' return to titled, “ The Holy Gospel, the preaching of St. John, which

version, in Bishop Walton's Polyglott, this Gospel is enJerusalem. (xxiv. 50—52.)

he delivered in Greek, and published at Ephesus :" in the The plan of classifying events, adopted by Luke, has been Arabic version it is " The Gospel of St. John the son of followed by Livy, Plutarch, and other profane historical wri- Zebedee, one of the twelve apostles, which he wrote in Greek ters. Thus Suetonius, after exhibiting a brief summary of by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit;" and in the Persian the life of Augustus, previous to his acquiring the sovereign version, "The Gospel of John, one of the twelve apostles, power, announces his intention of recording the subsequent which was spoken in the Greek-Roman tongue at Ephesus." events of his life, not in order of time, but arranging them 11. John, the evangelist and apostle, was the son of Zebeinto distinct classes; and then proceeds to give an account of dee, a fisherman of the town of Bethsaida, on the sea of his wars, honours, legislation, discipline, and private life.? Galilee, and the younger brother of James the elder. His In like manner, Florus intimates that he would not observe mother's name was Salome. Zebedee, though a fisherman, the strict order of time; but in order that the things, which appears to have been in good circumstances; for the evanhe should relate, might the better appear, he would relate gelical history informs us that he was the owner of a vessel, them distinctly and separately.2

and had hired servants. (Mark i. 20.). And therefore we VIII. If Paul had not informed us (Col.iv. 14.) that Luke have no reason to imagine that his children were altogether was by profession a physician, and consequently a man of illiterate, as some critics have imagined them to have been, letters, his writings would have sufficiently evinced that he had from a misinterpretation of Acts iv. 13., where the terms had a liberal education; for although his Gospel presents as sy p2pi pezou and 869744, in our version rendered unlcurned and many Hebraisms, perhaps, as any of the sacred writings, yet ignorunt men, simply denote persons in private stations of his language contains more numerous Græcisms, than that life, who were neither rabbis nor magistrates, and such as of any other writer of the New Testament. The style of had not studied in the schools of the Pharisees, and consethis evangelist is pure, copious, and flowing, and bears a con- quently were ignorant of the rabbinical learning and traditions siderable resemblance to that of his great master Paul. of the Jews. John and his brother James were, doubtless, Many of his words and expressions are exactly parallel to well acquainted with the Scriptures of the Old Testament, those which are to be found in the best classic authors; and having not only read them, but heard them publicly explained several eminent critics have long since pointed out the sin- in the synagogues; and, in common with the other Jews, gular skill and propriety with which Luke has named and they entertained the expectation of the Messiah, and that bis described the various diseases which he had occasion to no- kingdom would be a temporal one. It is not impossible, tice. As an instance of his copiousness, Dr. Campbell has though it cannot be affirmed with certainty, that John had remarked, that each of the evangelists has a number of been a disciple of John the Baptist, before he became a diswords which are used by none of the rest : but in Luke's ciple of Christ. At least, the circumstantial account, which Gospel, the number of such words as are used in none of the he has given in ch. i. 37–41. of the two disciples who fol. other Gospels, is greater than that of the peculiar words lowed Christ, might induce us to suppose that he was one found in all the other three Gospels, put together; and that of the two. It is, however, certain that he had both seen and the terms peculiar to Luke are for the most part long and heard our Saviour, and had witnessed some of his miracles, compound words. There is also more of composition in his particularly that performed at Cana in Galilee. (ii, 1–11.) sentences than is found in the other three Gospels, and con- John has not recorded his own call to the apostleship; but sequently less simplicity. Of this we have an example in we learn from the other three evangelists that it took place the first sentence, which occupies not less than four verses: when he and James were fishing upon the sea of Galilee." Further, Luke seems to approach nearer to the manner of other historians, in giving what may be called his own ver- lia in Nou. Test. vol. ii. pp.3-6. Kuinüel, Comruent, in Libros Hist. Nov.

3 Dr. Campbell on the Gospels, vol. ii. pp. 126–129. Rosenmüller, Scho dict in the narrative part of his work. Thus he calls the Test. vol. ii

. pp. 213—220. Bp. Marsh's Michaelis, vol. iii. part i. pp. 228– Pharisees pangupai, lovers of money (xvi. 14.); and in distin- 271. Pritii, Introd, al Nov. Test. pp. 181–195. Viser, Herm. Sacr. Nov. guishing Judas Iscariot from the other Judas, he uses the comun. Crit. in Libros Nov. Test, pp. 81: 88. Bishop Cleaver's Discourse phrase és 2.41 €7&VETO Tp:Scans, who also proved a traitor. (vi. 16.) on the style of St. Luke's Gospel, in his Sernions, pp. 209–224. 8vo. Ox: Matthew (x. 4.) and Mark (iii. 19.) express the same senti- ford, 1808 ment in milder language,-who delivered him up. Again, the he thinks are three degrees in the call of Saint John to be a follower of

* Matt. iv. 21, 22. Mark i. 19, 20. Luke v. 1-10. Lampe has marked what attempt made by the Pharisees, to extort from our Lord what Christ

, viz. 1. His call to the discipleship (Jolin i. 37-42.), after which he might prove matter of accusation against him, is expressed continued to follow his business for a short time; 2. Jlis call to be one of

1 Suetonius in Augusto, c. ix. (al. xii.) p. 58. edit. Bipont. This historian the apostleship, when the surnaine of Boanerges was given to him and his has pursued the same method in his life of Cæsar,

brother. Lampe, Comment in Evangelium Johannis Prolegom. cap. ii. pp. Flori, Hist. Rom. lib. ii. c. 19. VOL. II.

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17-21.

And Mark, in enuinerating the twelve apostles (iii. 17.), in the year 68; Dr. Owen in 69; Michaelis in 70. But when he mentions James and John, says that our Lord "sur- Chrysostom and Epiphanius, among the ancient fathers, and named them Boanerges, which is, sons of thunder,” from Dr. Mill, Fabricius, Le Clerc, and Bishop Tomline, among which appellation we are not to suppose that they were of the moderns, refer its date, with greater probability, to the particularly fierce and ungovernable tempers (as Dr. Cave year 97, Mr. Jones to the year 98, and Berthold: to the last has conjectured);! but, as Dr. Lardner and others have ob- decad of the first century. The principal argument for its served, it is rather to be considered as prophetically represent- early date is derived from John v. 2.

, where the apostle says, ing the resolution and courage with which they would openly “ Now there is at Jerusalem, by the sheep-market, a pool, which and boldly declare the great truths of the Gospel when fully is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, having five porches." acquainted with them. How appropriate this title was, the From these words it is urged, that Jerusalem was standing Acts of the Apostles and the writings of John abundantly when they were written; and that if they had been written show. From the time when John and his brother received after the destruction of Jerusalem, the evangelist would have their immediate call from Christ, they became his constant used the past tense instead of the present, and would have attendants; they heard his discourses, and beheld his mira- said, There was at Jerusalem a pool, &c. But this argument cles; and, after previous instruction, both public and private, is more specious than forcible; for, though Jerusalem was they were honoured with a selection and appointment to be demolished, it does not necessarily follow that the pool of of the number of the apostles.

Bethesda was dried up. On the contrary, there are much What the age of John was at this time, his history does stronger reasons for supposing that it escaped the general denot precisely ascertain. Some have conjectured that he was vastation; for, when Vespasian ordered the city to be demolishthen twenty-two years old; others that he was about twenty-ed, he permitted some things to remain for the use of the garfive or twenty-six years of age; and others again think that rison which was to be stationed there;' and he would naturally he was about the age of our Saviour. Dr. Lardner is of leave this bathing-place, fitted up with recesses or porticoes opinion that none of the apostles were much under the age for shade and shelter, that he might not deprive the soldiers of thirty, when they were appointed to that important office. of a grateful refreshment. Now, since the evangelist's Whatever his age might have been, John seems to have been proposition may simply regard Bethesda, we cannot be certhe youngest of the twelve, and (if we may judge from tain that it looks further, or has any view to the state of Jehis writings) to have possessed a temper singularly mild, rusalem. The argument, therefore, which is deduced from amiable, and affectionate. He was eminently the object of the above passage in favour of an early date, is inconclusive. our Lord's regard and confidence; and was, on various occa- But, besides this argument, we have strong evidence from sions, admitted to free and intimate intercourse with him, so the contents and design of the Gospel itself, that it was not that he was characterized as “the disciple whom Jesus written until the year 97. It is evident, as Bishop Tomline loved.” (John xiii. 23.) Hence we find him present at has forcibly remarked, that the evangelist considers those to several scenes, to which most of the other disciples were whom he addresses his Gospel as but little acquainted with not admitted. He was an eye-witness, in company with Jewish customs and names; for he gives various explanaonly Peter and James, to the resurrection of Jairus's daughter tions which would be unnecessary, if the persons for whom to life, to our Saviour's transfiguration on the mount, and to he wrote were conversant with the usages of the Jews.7 his agony in the garden. John repaid this attention by the Similar explanations occur in the Gospels of Mark and Luke; most sincere attachment to his master; for, though, in com- but in this of John they are more marked, and occur more mon with the other apostles, he had betrayed a culpable frequently. The reason of which may be, that when John timidity in forsaking him during his last conflict, yet he wrote, many more Gentiles, and of more distant countries, afterwards recovered his firmness, and was the only apostle had been converted to Christianity; and it was now become who followed Christ to the place of his crucifixion. He necessary to explain to the Christian church, thus extended, was also present at the several appearances of our Saviour many circumstances which needed no explanation while its after his resurrection, and has given his testimony to the members belonged only to the neighbourhood of Judæa, and truth of that miraculous fact; and these circumstances, while the Jewish polity was still in existence. It is reasontogether with his intercourse with the mother of Christ able to suppose that the feasts and other peculiarities of the (whom our Saviour had commended to his care) (xix. 26, Jews would be but little understood by the Gentiles of Asia 27.), qualified him, better than any other writer, to give a Minor, thirty years after the destruction of Jerusalem.8 circumstantial and authentic history of Jesus Christ.

IV. The Gospel by John has been universally received as In one of our Saviour's interviews with his apostles, after genuine. The circumstantiality of its details proves that the his resurrection, he prophetically told this evangelist that he book was written by a hearer and eye-witness of the discourses would survive the destruction of Jerusalem, and intimated, and transactions it records; and, consequently, could not be not obscurely, that Peter would suffer crucifixion, but that written long afterwards by a Platonic Christian, as it has he would die a natural death. (xxi. 18—24.). After the been recently asserted, contrary to all evidence. But, besides ascension of Christ, and the effusion of the Holy Spirit on this incontestable internal evidence, we have the external and the day of Pentecost, John became one of the chief apostles uninterrupted testimony of the ancient fathers of the Chrisof the circumcision, and exercised his ministry at Jerusalem tian church. His Gospel is alluded to, once by Clement of and its vicinity, in the manner and with the success related Rome, and once by Barnabas ;9 and four times by Ignatius in the Acts of the Apostles. He was present at the council bishop of Antioch, who had been a disciple of the evangeheld in that city (Acts xv.) about the year 49 or 50. Until list, and had conversed familiarly with several of the apostles.10 this time he probably remained in Judæa, and had not tra- It was also received by Justin Martyr,11 Tatian, the churches velled into any foreign countries. From ecclesiastical his- of Vienne and Lyons, iż Irenæus,13 Athenagoras,!Theophilus tory we learn, that after the death of Mary, the mother of of Antioch,15 Clement of Alexandria, 18 Tertullian, AmmoChrist, John proceeded to Asia Minor, where he founded and nius,18 Origen,19 Eusebius 20 Epiphanius, Augustine, Chrypresided over seven churches in as many cities, but resided sostom, and, in short, by all subsequent writers of the ancient chiefly at Ephesus. Thence he was banished to the Isle of Christian church.21 The Alogi or Alogians, a sect which is Patmos towards the close of Domitian's reign, where he said to have existed in the second century, are reported to wrote his Revelation. (Rev. i. 9.) On his liberation from exile, by the accession of Nerva to the imperial throne, John

s See Josephus de Bell. Jud. lib. iii. c. i. $i.

6 Dr. Townson's Works, vol. i. p. 224. This conjecture is confirmed by returned to Ephesus, where he wrote his Gospel and Epis- the fact, that Vespasian soon after erected inagnificent public baths at Rome. tles, and died in the hundredth year of his age, about the Suetonius in Vespasiano, c. vii

. year of Christ 100, and in the third year of the reign of the

* See particularly John i. 38.41., ji. 6. 13., iv. 9., and xi. 55.

8 Elements of Christ. Theol. vol. i. pp. 335. Jones on the Canon, vol. iii. emperor Trajan. 4

pp. 113–116. III. The precise time when this Gospel was written has * See Jones on the Canon, vol. iii. pp. 117, 118. not been ascertained, though it is generally agreed that John

10 Dr. Lardner's Works, 8vo. vol.ii. pp. 120, 121. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 344.

11 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 139. ; 4to. vol. I. p. 355. composed it at Ephesus. Basnage and Lampe suppose it to 12 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 150.; 4to. vol. i. p. 361. have been written before the destruction of Jerusalem; and, 13 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 161.; 4to. vol. 1. p. 367. in conformity with their opinion, Dr. Lardner fixes its date 14 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 183. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 379.

16 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. p. 193.; 4to. vol. i.
16 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii

P.

384.

. pp. 212. 220. ; 4to. vol. i. pp. 395, 399. 1 Cave's Life of St. James the Great, $5. p. 142.

17 lbid. 8vo, vol. ii. p. 256. ; 4to. vol. i. p. 419. ? Lampe, Cominent. in Evangelium Johannis Prolegom. cap. i. pp. 21—30. 18 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii. pp. 414-417. ; 4to. vol. i. 503–505. a See particularly Acts jü. iv. 1–22. and viii. 5-26.

19 Ibid. 8vo. vol. ii

. pp. 469, 470.; 41o. vol. i. pp. 533, 534. Lardner's Works, 8vo. vol. vi. pp. 156–170.; 4to. vol. iii. pp. 212-220. 20 lbid. 8vo. vol. iv. pp. 225-227.; 4to. vol. ii. pp. 368, 369. Michaelis, vol. iii. part i. pp. 272—274. Lampe, Proleg. in Joan. Evangel pp. 21 See their several testimonies in Lardner's Works, 8vo. vol. vi. pp. 187 31–102. 'Jones on the Canon, vol. iii. pp. 101–110.

- 190.; 4to. vol. iii. pp. 227, 228.

Pp.

have rejected this Gospel, as well as the rest of John's wri- the seventh verse of John viii., where water has the article ter tings; but we have no information concerning these Alogi, prefixed.—He that is without sin among you, let him first cast on which any dependance can be placed : for, in strictness, The (not a stone, as in our authorized version) stone at her ; we have no account of them except the later and uncertain TON ALOON #7 QUTCO Beasta. The allusion, Bishop Middleaccounts of Philaster and Epiphanius; Irenæus, Eusebius, ton remarks, is to the particular manner of stoning, which and other ancient writers before them, being totally silent required that one of the witnesses (for two at the least were concerning the Alogi. The probability, therefore, is, that necessary, see Deut. xvii. 6.) should throw the stone, which there never was any such heresy.'

was to serve as a signal to the by-standers to complete the With such decisive testimonies to the genuineness of John's punishment. There is therefore strict propriety in calling Gospel, it is not a little surprising, that an eminent critic on this stone TON awer, in order to distinguish it from other the continent should have asserted that his Gospel and Epis- stones. It is not probable that an interpolator would have tles exhibit clear evidence that it was not written by an eye- been thus exact in his phraseology, or would have adverted witness, but was compiled by some Gentile Christian in the to this apparently trifling circumstance; especially since the beginning of the second century, after the death of the evan- t expression of Benner TCV 2s9ov is not elsewhere found in the gelist John, for whom he passed himself. It is also astonish- New Testament. A few manuscripts (Griesbach and Schulz ing that, with such testimonies to the genuineness of this specify eleven) omit the article: but this, Dr. M. is of opiGospel, so distinguished a critic as Grotius should have nion, only proves that the copyists knew not what to make imagined that the evangelist terminated his history of our of it; and that, had they undertaken to interpolate the pasSaviour with the twentieth chapter, and that the twenty-first sage, they would have done it less skilfully than did the chapter was added after his death by the church at Ephesus. present interpolater, supposing we must consider the passage But this opinion is contradicted by the universal consent of to be spurious.? manuscripts and versions; for, as this Gospel was published Upon a review therefore of the whole evidence respecting before the evangelist's death, if there had been an edition of this disputed clause, we may safely conclude that it preponit without the twenty-first chapter, it would in all probability i derates in favour of its genuineness. have been wanting in some copies. To which we may add V. The design of St. John in writing his Gospel was " to that the genuineness of the chapter in question was never convey to the Christian world just and adequate notions of doubted by any one of the ancient Christian writers. Finally, the real nature, character, and office of that great 'Teacher, the style is precisely the same as that of the rest of his who came to instruct and redeem mankind. For this purpose, Gospel.3

he studiously selected, for his narrative, those passages of Some doubts have been entertained concerning the genuine- our Saviour's life, which most clearly displayed his divine ness of the portion of this Gospel comprised between ch. power and authority; and those of his discourses, in which vii. 53. and viii. 1–11. Its authenticity has been questioned he spoke most plainly of his own nature, and of the efficacy by Erasmus, Calvin, Beza, Grotius, Le Clerc, Wetstein, of his death, as an atonement for the sins of the world. The Semler, Schulze, Morus, Haenlein, Paulus, Schmidt, and object, which this evangelist had in view, is very clearly various other writers who are mentioned by Wolfius, and stated in chap. xx. verse 31. It was not to accumulate as by Koecher :5 Griesbach and Schulz have remarked it as a many instances as possible of the miraculous power exerted passage which ought probably to be omitted ; and its genu- by Jesus; but only those, which most distinctly illustrated ineness has been advocated by Drs. Mill and Whitby, Bp. his peculiar office and nature : Many other signs truly did Micidleton, Heumann, Michaelis, Storr, Langius, Dettmers, Jesus, in the presence of his disciples, which are not writien in Staeudlin, Kuingel, and Dr. Bloomfield. The limits neces- this book. But these are written, that ye might believe that sarily prescribed to this section forbid us to enter into a Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing, ye review of all that has been said on this subject; but it may might have life through his name. This expression seems to be permitted to remark that the evidence is in favour of the prove, that those persons are wrong, who suppose that Șt. genuineness of the passage in question. For, though it is John wrote his Gospel, merely to supply the defects and omisnot found in several ancient versions, and is not quoted or sions of the other Evangelists. The real difference between illustrated by Chrysostom, Thecphylact, Nonnus (who wrote them is, that they wrote a history of our Saviour's life; but commentaries or explanations of this Gospel), nor by Ter- St. John, of his person and office." tullian, or Cyprian, both of whom treat copiously on chastity But, besides this more general design of the evangelist, and adultery, and therefore had abundant opportunity of ci- we are informed by Irenæus, and other ancient writers, that ting it, if it had been extant in their copies; yet it is found there were two especial motives that induced John to comin the greater part of the manuscripts (Griesbach has enume- pose his Gospel. One was, that he might refute the heresies rated more than eighty) that are extant, though with great of Cerinthus and the Nicolaitans, who had attempted to cordiversity of readings. If it had not been genuine, how could rupt the Christian doctrine: the other motive was, that he it have found its way into these manuscripts ? Moreover, might supply those important events in our Saviour's life, there is nothing in the paragraph in question that militates which the other evangelists had omitted. Respecting the either against the character, sentiments, or conduct of Jesus former of these motives, Irenæus gives us the following Christ; on the contrary, the whole is perfectly consistent account.9 with his meekness, gentleness, and benevolence. To which “ John being desirous to extirpate the errors sown in the we may add, that this passage is cited as genuine by Augus- minds of men by Cerinthus, and sometime before by those tine, who assigns the reason why it was omitted by some called Nicolaitans, published his Gospel : in which he accopyists, viz. lest any offence should be taken by supposing quaints us that there is one God, who made all things by his that our Lord suffered a guilty woman to go unpunished word, and not, as they say, one who is the Creator of the But, in reply to this supposition or objection, we may remark, world, and another who is the Father of the Lord: one the 1. 'That, according to his own declaration, he came not into Son of the Creator, and another the Christ from the superthe world to condemn the world (John iii. 17. viii. 15. xii. 47. celestial abodes, who descended upon Jesus the Son of the Luke xii. 14.) and to execute the office of a judge (and it is Creator, but remained impassible, and afterwards fled back but reasonable to try him by his own principles, in which no to his own pleroma or fulness." inconsistency can be found); and, 2. Any exercise of judicial This testimony of Irenæus has been opposed by Lampe, authority would have given a direct contradiction to that de- Lardner, Tittmann, Kuinöel, and adopted by Buddeus, Miference and subordination which he constantly showed and chaelis, Moldenhawer, Mosheim, Bishop Tomline, Dr. Owen, inculcated to the power of the civil magistrate. An addi- and other later divines. The principal objections against tional evidence in favour of the disputed clause is found in the declaration of Irenæus may be reduced to the two follow

1 Dr. Lardner's Works, 8vo. vol. ix. pp. 515_516. ; 4to. vol. iv. pp. 690, 691. ing: viz. 2 Dr. Bretschneider, in his Probabilia de Evangelii et Epistolarum Jo- 1. That Irenæus is at variance with himself: for in anhannis Apostuli Indole, et Origine. Svo. Lipsiæ, 1820. In justice to Dri

: other passage he says, “as John the disciple of our Lord tion of his Handbuch der Doginatik (Manual of Dogunatic Theology), he assures us, saying, But these are written, that ye might believe declared himself satisfied concerning the genuineness of this passage that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing ye (Jena Literary Gazette for January, 1827, Supplt. No. 1.)

3 The genuineness of the twenty-first chapter of St. John's Gospel is * Kuinöel, Comment. in Libros Nov. Test, Historicos, pp. 379-396. Tittsatisfactorily vindicated against the objections of Grotius, and some modern manni Cominentarius in Evang. Johannis, pp. 318-322. Bishop Middleton's critics, by Professor Weber in his "" Authentia capitis ultimi Evangelii Doctrine of the Greek Article, on John viii. 7. Griesbachii et Schulzii Nov. Johannis, &c.” Halis, 18:23, 8vo.

Test. tom. I. pp. 555, 556. Bloomfield's Annotations, vol. iii. pp. 275-284., in • Wolfii Cura Philologicæ, in loc.

which Dr. B. has given a copious statement of the evidence for and against * Koecheri Analecta, in loc.

this section of St. John's Gospel • Staeadlin, Prolusio quà Pericopre de Adulterà, Joh. vii. 53. viii. 1-11., • Bp. Bloomfield's Lectures on the Gospel of St. John, pp. 4, 5. Veritas, et Authentia defenditur. Gottingæ, 1206, 410

Irenæus adv. Hæres. lib. iii. c. 11.

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