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79

79, 80

82

ib.
83

CHAPTER VII. On the Treaties or. Covenants, Con-

60, 61 tracts, and Oaths of the Jews.

61

I. Whether the Jews were prohibited from conclud-

ing Treaties with Heathen Nations

II. Treaties, how made and ratified

Covenant of Salt

III. Contracts for the sale and Cession of alienable

61

Property, how made

62

IV. Of Oaths.

ib.

ib.

ib. CHAPTER VIII. Laws respecting Strangers, Aged,

ib.

Blind, Deaf, and Poor Persons.

62

I. Of Strangers

63 II. Of the Aged, Blind, and Deaf

III. Of the Poor

ib.
ib.

CHAPTER 1X. Of the Military Affairs of the Jews,

63 and other Nations mentioned in the Scriptures.

ib.

63, 64

64

Section I. On the Military Discipline of the Jews.

ib.

I. The earliest Wars, predatory Excursions

II. Character of the Wars of the Israelites

Their Levies, how raised

Mosaic Statutes concerning the Israelitish Soldiers

III. Divisions and Officers of the Jewish Army

IV. Encampments :

64

V. Military Schools and Training

VI. Defensive Arms

64, 65 VII. Offensive Arms

65, 66 VIII. Fortifications

IX. Mode of declaring War

ib.

X. Military Tactics.-Order of Battle

Treatment of the Slain, of captured Cities, and of

65, 66

Captives

66 XI. Triumphant Reception of the Conquerors

ib.

XII. Distribution of the Spoil .

ib.

Military Honours conferred on eminent Warriors.-

ib.

A Military Order established by David

XIII. Trophies

67

ib.

ib. Section II. Allusions in the New Testament to the

68 Military Discipline and Triumphs of the Romans.

ib.

ib. VI. Divisions of the Roman Army, and Roman Mili-

ib.

tary Officers, mentioned in the New Testament

ib. II. Allusions to the Armour of the Romans

ib. III. Allusions to their Military Discipline. -Strict Sub-

ib.

ordination.-Rewards of the Soldiers who dis-

ib.

tinguished themselves .

69 IV. Allusions to the Roman Triumphs

93, 94

94, 95
203-206

ib.

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PART III.

II. National, regalar, Weekly, Monthly, and Annual

Sacrifices

119

III. UNBLOODY OFFERINGS

SACRED ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, AND OF OTHER NATIONS IV. Drink-Offerings

ib.

INCIDENTALLY MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES.

V. Other Oblations made by the Jews.

PAGE

1. ORDINARY OBLATIONS:

CHAPTER I. Of Sacred Places

95

(1.) The Show-Bread .

ib.

(2.) Incense

ib.

Section I. Of the Tabernacle.

2. VOLUNTARY OBLATIONS-Korban

ib.

3. PRESCRIBED OBLATIONS-

I. Different Tabernacles in use among the Israelites 96

(1.) First-Fruits.

119, 120

II. The Tabernacle so called by way of eminence, not

(2.) Tithes.

120

of Egyptian Origin-Its Materials

ib. VI. Fitness and Utility of the Jewish Sacrifices 120, 121

III. Form and Construction of the Tabernacle-Its
Contents

96, 97

IV. Its Migrations :

97

CHAPTER IV. Sacred Times and Seasons, observed by

the Jews.

Section II. Of the Temple.

I. The SABBATH.

1. How observed

1. The Temple of Solomon.

98

121

II. The Second Temple

:

2. Jewish Worship on that Day; particularly

98, 99

Its various Courts

122

their Manner of worshipping in the Temple

99, 100

II. New MOONS

ib.

Reverence of the Jews for it

100, 101

III. Notice of the Temples at Heliopolis and Gerizim

III. Annual Festivals.—Their important Design : 122, 123

101

IV. The PASSOVER; when celebrated, and with what

Ceremonies

123-125

Section III. On the High Places, and Proseuchæ or

Its Mystical or Typical Reference :

125, 126

Oratories of the Jews.

V. The Day of PENTECOST .

126

VI. The Feast of TABERNACLES

126, 127

I. On the High Places

101, 102

VII. Other Annual Festivals, viz.

II. On the Proseuchæ or Oratories

· 102, 103

1. The Feast of TRUMPETS

127

2. The Day of EXPIATION

ib.

VIII. Annual Festivals instituted by the Jews in later

SECTION IV. On the Synagogues.

times :

1. The Feast of PURIM

128

I. Nature and Origin of Synagogues

103

2. The Feast of DEDICATION

ib.

The Synagogue of the Libertines explained

ib. IX. Other Festivals observed at stated intervals

II. Form of the Synagogues

104

1. The SABBATICAL YEAR

ib.

III. The Officers or Ministers

ib.

2. The Year of JUBILEE .

128, 129

IV. The Service performed in the Synagogues

104-106

V. Ecclesiastical Power of the Synagogues

VI. The Shemoneh Ezreh, or Nineteen Prayers used

CHAPTER V. Sacred Obligations and Duties.

in the Synagogue Service

106, 107

Section 1. Of Vows.

CHAPTER II. Sacred Persons.

I.

129

II

. Requisites

essential to the validity of a vow 129, 130

Section I. On the Jewish Church and its Members.

III. Different sorts of Vows :

1. The Cherem or irremissible Vow

130

I. The whole Nation accounted holy

108

2. Other

Vows that might be redeemed :-

II. Members of the Jewish Church.-Hebrews of the

i. Vows of Dedication

ib.

Hebrews

ib.

ii. Vows of Self-Interdiction, or Absti

III. Proselytes

· 108, 109

nence.-Of the Nazareate

ib.

IV. Jews of the Dispersion

109

V. Hellenists

110

VI. Libertines

ib.

Section II. On the Prayers and Fasts of the Jews.

VII. Devout Men

ib.

VIII. Circumcision

· 110, 111 I. Various Appellations given to Prayers

131

III. Private Prayers.-Attitudes of the Jews during

Section II. On the Ministers of the Temple and

Prayer

131, 132

other Ecclesiastical or Sacred Persons.

IV. Forms of Prayer in use among the Jews

132

V. Fasts of the Jews

I. Of the Levites .

111, 112

1. Public Fasts.

ib.

11. The Priests, their Functions, Maintenance, and

2. Private Fasts

ib.

3. Solemnities of the Jewish Fasts

Privileges

ib.
112, 113
III. The High-priest, his Functions, Dress, and Pri:
vileges

113, 114 Section III. On the Purifications of the Jews.
Succession to the Pontifical Dignity

114, 115
IV. Officers of the Synagogue

115

V. The Nazarites; Nature of their Vows

I. Materials with which the Purifications of the Jews

116

were performed

133

VI. The Rechabites

ib.

II. Ceremonies of Purification

ib.

VII. The Prophets.

ib. III. of the Persons lustrated

ib.

IV. Account of the different kinds of legal impurities,

particularly

CHAPTER III. Sacred Things.-On the Sacrifices and

1. The Leprosy of the Person

133, 134

other Offerings of the Jews.

2. The Leprosy of Clothes

134

3. The House-Leprosy.

ib.

General Classification of Sacrifices and Offerings 116 V. Minor legal Impurities and their Lustrations

ib,

I. BLOODY OFFERINGS, and the Divine Origin of

Sacrifices

117

1. Different kinds of Victims

ib.

CHAPTER VI. On the Corruptions of Religion by the
2. Selection of Victims

ib. Jews.
3. Manner of presenting them

ib.

4. Immolation of the Sacrifice .

117, 118 Section I. On the Idolatry of the Jews.

5. The Place and Time appointed for Sacri-

ficing

118 I. Origin and Progress of Pagan Idolatry

135

6 Different kinds of Fire Sacrifices:

ib. Sketch of its History and Progress among the

i. Burnt Offerings

ib.

Israelites and Jews

135, 136

ii Peace-Offerings

ib.

II. Idols worshipped by the Israelites alone

136, 137

jii Sin-Offerings

III. Idols of the Ammonites, worshipped by the Israel-

iv Trespass-Offerings

ib. !

ites

139

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1. Title. II. Author.-III. Argument.—1V. Synopsis

of its Contents

225, 226

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Section III. On the Book of Proverbs.
I. Title, Author, and Canonical Authority.-II. Scope.

- III. Synopsis of its Contents.-IV. Observations on

its Style

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Section IV. On the Book of Ecclesiastes.
I. Title, Author, and Canonical Authority.-II. Scope

and Synopsis.—III. Observations

247-249

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§ 4. On the Book of the Prophet Isaiah.
I. Author and Date.-II. Genuineness of his Predic-

260-262

tions.—III. Scope.-IV. Analysis of the Contents of

this Book.–V. Observations on its Style .

CHAPTER V. On the Apocrypha.

I. Account of the First Book of Esdras.-II. Of the

Second Book of Esdras.-III. Of the Book of Tobit.-

ly. Of the Book of Judith.-V, of the rest of the

262-269

PAGE

PART III.

II. National, regalar, Weekly, Monthly, and Annual

Sacrifices

119

III. UNBLOODY OFFERINGS

ib.

SACRED ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, AND OF OTHER NATIONS IV. Drink-Offerings

ib.

INCIDENTALLY MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES.

V. Other Oblations made by the Jews.

PAGE

1. ORDINARY OBLATIONS:

CHAPTER I. Of Sacred Places

(1.) The Show-Bread .

ib.

(2.) Incense

ib.

Section I. Of the Tabernacle.

2. VOLUNTARY OBLATIONS-Korban

ib.

3. PRESCRIBED OBLATIONS -

I. Different Tabernacles in use among the Israelites 96

(1.) First-Fruits

119, 120

II. The Tabernacle so called by way of eminence, not

(2.) Tithes

120

of Egyptian Origin.--Its Materials

ib.

VI. Fitness and Utility of the Jewish Sacrifices 120, 121

III. Form and Construction of the Tabernacle:-Its

Contents

96, 97

IV. Its Migrations :

97

CHAPTER IV. Sacred T'imes and Seasons, obscrved by

the Jews.

SECTION II. Of the Temple.

I. The SABBATH.

I. The Temple of Solomon .

98

1. How observed

II. The Second Temple

98, 99

2. Jewish Worship on that Day; particularly

their Manner of worshipping in the Temple

Its various Courts

122

99, 100

Reverence of the Jews for it

II. New Moons

100, 101

ib.

III. Notice of the Temples at Heliopolis and Gerizim

III. Annual Festivals.-Their important Design :

101

122, 123

IV. The PassoveR; when celebrated, and with what

Ceremonies

123-125

Section III. On the High Places, and Proseuchæ or

Its Mystical or Typical Reference:

125, 126

Oratories of the Jews.

V. The Day of PENTECOST.

126

VI. The Feast of TABERNACLES.

126, 127

I. On the High Places

101, 102 VII. Other Annual Festivals, viz.

II. On the Proseuchæ or Oratories

· 102, 103

1. The Feast of TRUMPETS

127

2. The Day of EXPIATION

ib.

VIII. Annual Festivals instituted by the Jews in later

Section IV. On the Synagogues.

times

1. The Feast of PURIM

128

1. Nature and Origin of Synagogues

103

2. The Feast of DEDICATION

ib.

The Synagogue of the Libertines explained

ib. IX. Other Festivals observed at stated intervals :

II. Form of the Synagogues .

104

1. The SABBATICAL YEAR

ib.

III. The Officers or Ministers

ib.

2. The Year of JUBILEE .

: 128, 129

IV. The Service performed in the Synagogues

104-106

V. Ecclesiastical Power of the Synagogues

107

VI. The Shemoneh Ezreh, or Nineteen Prayers used

CHAPTER V. Sacred Obligations and Duties.

in the Synagogue Service

106, 107

Section 1. Of Vows.

CHAPTER II. Sacred Persons.

I. Nature of Vows

129

II

. Requisites essential to the Validity of a Vow

129, 130

SECTION I. On the Jewish Church and its Members.

III. Different Sorts of Vows:-

1. The Cherem or irremissible Vow

130

I. The whole Nation accounted holy

108

2. Other

Vows that might be redeemed :

II. Members of the Jewish Church.-Hebrews of the

i. Vows of Dedication

ib.

Hebrews

ii. Vows of Self-Interdiction, or Absti-

III. Proselytes

:

108, 109

nence.-Of the Nazareate

ib.

IV. Jews of the Dispersion

109

V. Hellenists

110 Section II. On the Prayers and Fasts of the Jews.
VI. Libertines

.
VII. Devout Men

ib.

VIII. Circumcision

110, 111

I. Various Appellations given to Prayers

131

ib.

III. Private Pragers.-Attitudes of the Jews during

Section II. On the Ministers of the Temple and

Prayer

131, 132

other Ecclesiastical or Sacred Persons.

IV. Forms of Prayer in use among the Jews

132

V. Fasts of the Jews :-

I. Of the Levites .

ib.

111, 112

1. Public Fasts.

II. The Priests, their Functions, Maintenance, and

2. Private Fasts

ib.

Privileges

112, 113

3. Solemnities of the Jewish Fasts

ib.

III. The High-priest, his Functions, Dress, and Pri.

vileges .

Succession to the Pontifical Dignity

113, 114 Section III. On the Purifications of the Jews.

114, 115

IV. Officers of the Synagogue

115

I. Materials with which the Purifications of the Jews

V. The Nazarites; Nature of their Vows

116

were performed

133

VI. The Rechabites

ib. II. Ceremonies of Purification

ib.

VII. The Prophets.

ib. III. Of the Persons lustrated

ib.

IV. Account of the different kinds of legal Impurities,

particularly

CHAPTER III. Sacred Things.On the Sacrifices and

1. The Leprosy of the Person

133, 134

other Offerings of the Jews.

2. The Leprosy of Clothes

134

3. The House-Leprosy.

ib.

General Classification of Sacrifices and Offerings 116 V. Minor legal Impurities and their Lustrations

ib

I. BLOODY OFFERINGS, and the Divine Origin of

Sacrifices

117

1. Different kinds of Victims

ib.

CHAPTER VI. On the Corruptions of Religion by the

2. Selection of Victims

ib.

Jews.

3. Manner of presenting them

ib.

4. Immolation of the Sacrifice .

117, 118 Section I. On the Idolatry of the Jews.

5. The Place and Time appointed for Sacri-

ficing.

118 I. Origin and Progress of Pagan Idolatry

135

6 Different kinds of Fire Sacrifices

ib. Skeich of its History and Progress among the

i. Burnt-Offerings

ib.

Israelites and Jews

135, 136

ii Peace-Offerings

ib. II. Idols worshipped by the Israelites alone

136, 137

ji Sin-Offerings

ib. III. Idols of the Ammonites, worshipped by the Israel-

iv Trespass-Offerings

ib.

ites

139

ib.

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IV. Idols of the Canaanites or Syrians

137, 138 III. Nurture of Children

163, 164

V. Phænician Idols

138 IV. Power of the Father over his Children Disposi-

VI. Babylonian and Assyrian Idols

139

tion of his Property

164

VII. Idols worshipped in Samaria during the Captivity ib. V. Adoption :

164, 165

Hieroglyphic Stones, why prohibited to the Jews ib.

VIII. Idols of the Greeks and Romans mentioned in the

New Testament

ib. CHAPTER V. On the Condition of Slaves and of Ser.

IX. Allusions in the Scriptures to the idolatrous Wor:

vants, and the Customs relating to them, mentioned

ship of the Heathen Nations

139-142

or alluded to in the New Testament,

X. Different kinds of Divination

142, 143

Prevalence of Sorcery and Magic .

143

I. Slaves, how acquired

165

II. Their Condition among the Hebrews

165, 166

Section II. On the State of Religion among the

III. And among other Nations

166, 167

Jews in the Time of Jesus Christ.

IV. Of hired Servants.-Customs relating to them,

and to Slaves, alluded to in the New Testa-

ment

167

§ 1. Account of the Jewish Sects mentioned in the

V. Different Kinds of Slaves or Servants mentioned

New Testament.

in the Scriptures :

167, 168

I. The Pharisees .

144, 145

II. The Sadducees

145, 146 Chapter VI. Domestic Customs and Usages of the

III. The Essenes

146 Jews.

IV. The Scribes

ib.

y. The Lawyers

ib. I. Forms of Salutation and Politeness.-Reverence to

VI. The Samaritans

147, 148

Superiors

168, 169

VII. The Herodians

148 II. Mode of receiving

Guests or Visitors

VIII. The Galilæans

169, 170

ib. III. Conversation and Bathing

170

IX. The Zealots

ib. IV. Food and Entertainments

171-173

X. The Sicarii

ib. V. Mode of Travelling

173

VI. Hospitality, a Sacred Duty among the Jews

ib

§ 2. On the extreme Corruption of the Jewish Peo-

Account of the Tessere Hospitales of the Greeks

and Romans

173, 174

ple, both in Religion and Morals, at the Time of

Christ's Birth.

CHAPTER VII. On the Occupations, Literature, Stu-

General Corruption of the Leaders of the Jewish

dies, and Sciences of the Hebrews.

Nation.-of their Chief Priests and other Minis-

ters of Religion. Its deplorable Effects on the

SECTION I. Rural and Domestic Economy of the

People.-State of the Jews not resident in Pales-

Jews.

tine

148–150

I. MANAGEMENT or Cattle by the Jews.—Various

Animals reared by them

174-176

11. Laws of Moses respecting Agriculture

176

III. Manures known and used by the Jews .

176, 177

IV. Their Mode of Ploughing, Sowing, and Reap-

PART IV.

177

V. Different Ways of threshing out Corn

178

DOMESTIC ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, AND OF OTHER NATIONS

VI. Vineyards, and the Culture of the Vine and Olive-

Gardens

INCIDENTALLY MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES.

178-180

VII. Allusions in the Scriptures to the Rural and Domes-

tic Economy of the Jews

180

CHAPTER I. On the Dwellings of the Jews.

I. Caves

SECTION II. On the Arts cultivated by the Hebrews

150

II. Tents

150, 151

or Jews.

III. Houses-their Arrangement-Materials and Con-

veniences

I. Origin of the Arts.—State of them from the Deluge

151-154

IV. Furniture

to the Time of Moses

154, 155

180, 181

V. Cities, Markets, and Gates

II. State of the Arts from the Time of Moses until the

155

Captivity

181

III. State of the Arts after the Captivity

ib.

CHAPTER II. On the Dress of the Jews.

IV. Account of some of the Arts practised by the

Jews :-

1. Writing : Materials used for this purpose

I. Dress in the early Ages

.81-183

155, 156

Letters : Form of Books

183

II. Tunic

156

2. Engraving

ib.

III. Upper Garmen-Other Articles of Apparel

ib.

3. Painting

ib.

IV. Coverings for the Head.—Mode of dressing the

V. Music and Musical Instruments

Hair

183, 184

156, 157 VI. Dancing

184

V. Sandals

157

VI. Seals, or Signets, and Rings

ib.

VII. Some Articles of Female Apparel elucidated 158, 159 Section III. On the Literature and Sciences of the

Complexion of the Women

159 Hebrews.

VIII. Rending of Garments, a Sign of Mourning

ib.

IX. Numerous Changes of Apparel deemed a neces-

I. Schools

184

sary Part of their Treasure .

ib. On the Schools of the Prophets in particular. 184, 185

II. Appellations given to the Jewish Doctors, or

Teachers

CHAPTER III. Jewish Customs relating to Marriage. ·

185

III. Their Method of Teaching

ib.

IV. Studies of the Jews :-

I. Marriage accounted a Sacred Obligation by the

1. History

185, 186

Jews

160

2. Poetry

186

II. Polygamy tolerated.-Condition of Concubines

ib.

3. Oratory

ib.

III. Nuptial Contract and Espousals

160, 161

4. Ethics

ib.

IV. Nuptial Ceremonies

161, 162

5. Physics

ib.

V. Divorce

162, 163

6. Arithmetic

ib.

7. Mathematics

ib.

Chapter IV. Birth, Nurture, &c. of Children.

8. Astronomy

ib.

9. Astrology

ib.

10. Surveying

187

I. Child-birth.-Circumcision.-Naming of the Child 163

11. Mechanic Arts

ib

Jl Privileges of the First-born

ib.

12. Geography

iB

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