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it is seen to the best advantage. Imposing, however, as the from 12 to 14,000. This is, indeed, a very slender aggregate,
appearance of Jerusalem is, when viewed from that moun compared with the flourishing population which the city once
tain,-and exhibiting a compactness of structure like that supported; but the numerous sieges it has undergone, and
alluded to by the Psalmist (cxxii. 3.) the illusion vanishes their consequent spoliations, have left no vestige of its origi-
on entering the town. No streets of palaces and walks of nal power. ' " Jerusalem, under the government of a Turkish
state”—no high-raised arches of triumph-no fountains to aga, is still more unlike Jerusalem, as it existed in the reign
cool the air, or porticoes-not a single vestige meets the of Solomon, than Athens during the administration of Peri-
traveller, to announce its former military greatness or com- cles, and Athens under the dominion of the chief of the black
mercial opulence: but in the place of these, he finds himself eunuchs. We have it upon judgment's record, that before a
encompassed by walls of rude masonry, the dull uniformity marching army, a land has been as the garden of Eden; behind
of which is only broken by the occasional protrusion of a it a desolate wilderness. (Joel ii. 3.) The present appearance
small grated window. All the streets are wretchedness, and of Judæa has embodied the awful warnings of the prophet in
the houses of the Jews, more especially, are as dunghills. all their terrible reality."4
From the daughter of Zion all her beauty is departed. (Lam. IX. LATER Divisions OF PALESTINE.
i. 6.) The finest section of the city is that inhabited by the 1. UNDER THE ROMANS, Palestine was dependent on the
Armenians; in the other quarters, the streets are much nar- government of Syria ; and about the commencement of the
rower, being scarcely wide enough to admit three camels to fifth century, was divided into three parts ; viz.
stand abreast. In the western quarter and in the centre of (1.) Palæstina Prima comprised the ancient regions of Ju-
Jerusalem, towards Calvary, the low and ill-built houses dæa and Samaria. It contained thirty-five episcopal cities,
(which have flat terraces or domes on the top, but no chim- and its metropolis was Cæsarea-Palæstina. In this division
neys or windows) stand very close together ; but in the east- were Jerusalem and Sychar or Neapolis.
ern part, along the brook Kedron, the eye perceives vacant (2.) Palæstina Secunda included the ancient districts of
spaces, and amongst the rest that which surrounds the Galilée and Trachonitis. Scythopolis or Bethshan was its
mosque erected by the Khalif Omar, A. D. 637, on the site capital ; and it contained twenty-one episcopal cities.
of the temple, and the nearly deserted spot where once stood (3.) Palæstina Tertia, or Salutaris, comprised the ancient
the tower of Antonia and the second palace of Herod. Peræa and Idumæa, strictly so called : its metropolis was

The modern population of Jerusalem is variously estimated Petra, and it contained eighteen episcopal cities. Most of
by different travellers. The late Professor Carlyle, at the these bishoprics were destroyed in the seventh century, when
commencement of the nineteenth century, computed it at about the Saracens or Arabs conquered Palestine or Syria.
15,000; and Capt. Light, who visited Jerusalem in 1814, 2. IN THE TIME OF THE CRUSADES, after the Latins had con-
estimated it at twelve thousand. Mr. Buckingham, who was quered Jerusalem from the Saracens, they established a patri-
there in 1816, from the best information he could procure, arch of their own communion in that city, and gave him three
states, that the fixed residents (more than one half of whom suffragan bishops, whose sees were at Bethlehem, Hebron,
are Mohammedans) are about eight thousand : but the con- and Lydda. They also re-established the ancient capitals,
tinual arrival and departure of strangers make the total num- viz. Cæsarea, with a suffragan bishop at Sebaste or Samaria;
ber of persons present in the city from ten to fifteen thousand Scythopolis, and afterwards Nazareth, with a suffragan
generally, according to the season of the year. The propor- bishop at Tiberias; Petra, with a suffragan bishop at Mount
tions which the numbers of persons of different sects bear Sinai; and for Bostra, the suffragan-episcopal sees were
to each other in this estimate, he found it difficult to ascer- established at Ptolemais or Acre, Seyde or Sidon, and
tain. The Mohammedans are unquestionably the most nu- Beyroot or Berytus in the northern part of Phænicia.
merous. Next, in point of numbers, are the Greek Christians, 3. MODERN Divisions of Palestine under the Turkish
who are chiefly composed of the clergy, and of devotees. government.
The Armenians follow next in order as to numbers, but their At present, Palestine does not form a distinct country.
body is thought to exceed that of the Greeks in influence and The Turks include it in Sham or Syria, and have divided it
in wealth. Of Europeans there are only the few monks of into pachaliks or governments. That of Acre or Akka
the Convento della Terra Santa, and the Latin pilgrims who extends from Djebail nearly to Jaffa; that of Gaza compre
occasionally visit them. The Copts, Abyssinians, Nestorians, hends Jaffa and the adjacent plains; and, these two being
&c. are scarcely perceptible in the crowd; and even the Jews now united, all the coast is under the jurisdiction of the
are more remarkable from the striking peculiarity of their pacha of Acre. Jerusalem, Hebron, Nablous, Tiberias, and,
1eatures and dress, than from their numbers as contrasted in fact, the greater part of Palestine, are included in the
with other bodies. Mr. Jolliffe, who visited Jerusalem in pachalik of Damascus, now held in conjunction with that of
1817, states that the highest estimate makes the total number Aleppo, which renders the present pacha, in effect, the vice
amount to twenty-five thousand. Dr. Richardson, who was roy of Syria. Though both pachas continue to be dutiful
at Jerusalem in 1818, computed the population at 20,000 subjects of the grand seignior in appearance, they are to be
persons; Dr. Scholz, in 1821, at 18,000 ; and the Rev. Mr. considered as tributaries rather than as subjects of the Porte;
Fisk, an Anglo-American Missionary in Palestine, in 1823, and it is supposed to be the religious supremacy of the sul-
at 20,000. The Rev. William Jowett, who was at Jerusalem tan, as caliph and vicar of Mohammed, more than any appre-
in December, 1823, is of opinion that 15,000 are the utmost hension of his power, which prevents them from declaring
which the city would contain in ordinary circumstances, that themselves independent.”7
is, exclusive of the pilgrims, who are crowded into the con-
vents, and fill up many spaces in the convents which are va- The

sketch of the modern state of Jerusalem, above given, has been drawn

* Jolliffe's Letters from Palestine, written in 1817, Lond. 1820, 8vo. p. 102. cant nine months in the year, thus augmenting the popula- up, from a careful comparison of this intelligent writer's remarks, with the tion by some few thousands; and he is disposed to estimate observations of Professor Carlyle (Walpole's Memoirs, p. 187.); of M. Cha the resident population at 12,000.

teaubriand, made in 1806 (Travels, vol. ii. pp. 53. 83, 84. 179, 180.), of Ala Upon the whole, it does not appear that the number of the made in 1814 (Travels in Egypt, &c. pp. 178-187.); and of Mr. Bucking

Bey, made in 1803–1807 (Travels, vol. ii. pp. 240—245.), of Capt. Light, ordinary inhabitants of Jerusalem can be rated higher than ham, made in 1816. (Travels in Palestine, pp. 280—262.) See also Dr. Rich.

ardson's Travels along the Mediterranean, &c. vol. ii. pp. 238–368.;

Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, pp. 238.290., and Mr. Carne's 1 Travels of Ali Bey, in Morocco, Egypt, Arabia, Syria, &c. between 1803 Letters from the East, p. 62. and 1807, vol. ii, p. 245.

3 Relandi Palæstina, tom. i. pp. 204—214. 9 In the travels of Ali Bey (vol. ii. pp. 214-227.) there is a minute 6 Abrégé de la Geographie Sacrée, p. 41. (Paris, 1827. 12mo.) description, illustrated with three large plates, of this mosque, or rather • Modern Traveller :-Palestine, p. 6. In the Abrégé de la Geographie group of mosques, erected at different periods of Islamism, and exhibiting Sacrée (pp. 42-44.) there is an account of the Turkish Divisions of Palesthe prevailing taste of the various ages when they were severally construct- tine, professing to be drawn from a Turkish treatise printed at Constanti. ed. This traveller states that they form a very harmonious whole: the nople, and somewhat different from the divisions above noticed;

which edifice is collectively termed, in Arabic, Al Haram, or the Temple. have been preferably adopted, because they exhibit the actual government 3 Missionary Register for 1824, p. 503.

of Palestine, as described by the most recent travellers.

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CLIMATE, SEASONS, AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE OF THE COUNTRY. 1. Climate.-II. Seasons.-1. Seed-time.-2. Winter.-3. The Cold Season, or Winter Solstice.-4. Hurvest.-5. Summer.

6. The Hot Season.Heavy Dews.—III. Rivers, Lakes, Wells, and Fountains.-Cisterns, and Pools of Solomon.-IV. Mountains.-V. Valleys.-VI. Caves.-VII. Plains.VIII. Deserts.-Horrors and Dangers of travelling in the Great Desert of Arabia.

I. The surface of the Holy Land being diversified with natural phenomena occurring in these several seasons, will mountains and plains, its CLIMATE varies in different places; enable us to form a tolerably correct idea of the climate and though in general it is more settled than in our westerly weather of the Holy Land. countries. From Tripoli to Sidon, the country is much colder 1. SEED-TIME, by the rabbins termed yn (zeRÔ), comprised than the rest of the coast further to the north and to the the latter half of the Jewish month Tisri, the whole of Marsouth, and its seasons are less regular. The same remark chesvan, and the former half of Kisleu or Chisleu, that is, applies to the mountainous parts of Judæa, where the vege- from the beginning of October to the beginning of December. table productions are much later than on the sea-coast, or in During this season the weather is various, very often misty, the vicinity of Gaza. From its lofty situation, the air of cloudy, with mizzling or pouring rain. Towards the close Saphet in Galilee is so fresh and cool, that the heats are of October or early in November, the former or early auscarcely felt there during the summer; though in the neigh-tumnal rains begin to fall; when they usually ploughed their bouring country, particularly at the foot of Mount Tabor and land, and sowed their wheat

and barley, and gathered the in the plain of Jericho, the heat is intense. Generally speak- latter grapes. The rains last for three or four days; they do ing, however, the atmosphere is mild; the summers are not fall without intermission, but in frequent showers. The commonly dry, and extremely hot :: intensely hot days, air at this season is frequently warm, sometimes even hot; however, are frequently succeeded by intensely cold nights; but is much refreshed by cold in the night, which is so inand these sudden vicissitudes, which an Arab constitution tense as to freeze the very heavy dews that fall. Towards alone can endure, together with their consequent effects on the close it becomes cooler, and at the end of it snow begins the human frame, verify the words of the patriarch Jacob to to fall upon the mountains. The channels of the rivulets are his father-in-law, that in the day the drought consumed him, sometimes dry, and even the large rivers do not contain much and the frost by night. (Gen. xxxi. 40.)4.

water. In the latter part of November the leaves lose their II. Six several Seasons of the natural year are indicated foliage. Towards the end of that month the more delicate in Gen. viii. 22. viz. seed-time and harvest, cold and heat, sum- light their fires (Jer. xxxvi. 22.), which they continue, almost mer and winter ; and as agriculture constituted the principal to the month of April ; while others pass the whole winter employment of the Jews, we are informed by the rabbinical without fire. writers, that they adopted the same division of seasons, with 2. Winter, by the rabbins termed gin (CHORCP), included reference to their rural work. These divisions also exist the latter half of Chisleu, the whole of Tebeth, and the among the Arabs to this day. A brief statement of the former part of Sebat, that is from the beginning of Decem

ber to the beginning of February. In the commencement of 1 Besides the researches of modern travellers and the other authorities, this season, snows rarely fall, except on the mountains, but cited for particular facts, the following treatises have been consulted for

the they seldom continue a whole day; the ice is thin, and melts 29.; Pareau, Antiquitas Hebraica, pp. 57—64. ; and Alber, Hermeneutica advances, the north wind and the cold, especially on the lofty erman, Archæologia Biblica, ss 14–21. Schulzii Archæologia Hebraica, pp. as soon as the sun ascends above the horizon. As the season Sacra, tom. i. pp. 64-72.

mountains, which are now covered with snow, is intensely 9 Harmer's Observations, vol. i. pp. 2–4. London, 1808.

of the intensity of the heat in Palestine, during the summer, some idea severe, and sometimes even fatal: the cold is frequently so may be formed, when it is known that the mercury of Dr. E. D. Clarke's piercing, that persons born in our climate can scarcely enduro thermometer, in a subterraneous recess perfectly shaded (the scale being it. The roads become slippery, and travelling becomes both placed so as not to touch the rock), remained at one hundred degrees of laborious and dangerous, especially in the steep mountain

1 The same vicissitudes of temperature exist to this day at Smyrna (Emer. paths (Jer. xiii. 16. xxiii. 12.); and on this account our son's Letters from the Egean, volei, pe 94.2 also in the Desert of Arabia Lord, when predicting the calamities that were to attend London, 1827. 8vo.), in the Desert between Damascus and the ruins of Pal: the siege at Jerusalem, told his disciples to pray that their myra (Carne's Letters from the East, p. 585.), in Persia (Morier's

Second flight might not be in the winter. (Matt. xxiv. 20.) The cold P: 20. Dr. Richardson's Travels along the Meditterranean, &c: vol. i. pp: the country. On high mountains (as we have just remarked) Journey, P. 97, London, 1818. 4to.), and in Egypt. (Capt. Light's Travels, however varies in severity according to the local situation of the same effect, from the earlier travellers in the East. Observations on it is extreme; but in the plain of Jericho it is scarcely felt, Scripture, vol. i. pp. 61–65. London, 1808. Bava Metsia, fol. 106. cited by Dr. Lightfoot, in his Hebrew and Talmu. Jerusalem, the vicissitudes of a winter in Palestine were tury, in all its horrors. Many persons of both sexes perished . 4. The Harvest, by the rabbins denominated 793(KETSIR), in consequence of want of food, the intenseness of the cold, includes the latter half of Nisan, the whole of Jyar (or Zif), and the heaviness of the rains, which kept them wet for four and the former half of Sivan, that is, from the beginning of successive days. The ground was alternately deluged with April to the beginning of June. In the first fortnight of this rain, or encrusted with ice, or loaded with snow; the beasts season, the latter rains are frequent, but cease towards the of burthen were carried away by the sudden torrents, that end of April, when the sky is generally fair and serene. In descended (as they still do) from the mountains, and filled the plain of Jericho the heat of the sun is excessive, though the rivers, or sank into the boggy ground. So vehement in other parts of Palestine the weather is most delightful; were the rains, storms of hail, and winds, as to tear up the and on the sea-coast the heat is tempered by morning and stakes of the tents, and carry them to a distance. The evening breezes from the sea. As the harvest depends on the extremity of the cold and wet killed the horses, and spoiled duration of the rainy season, the early or autumnal rains, and their provisions.

the winter there resembling spring; yet, in the vicinity of dical Exercitations on John iv. 35. (Works, vol. ii. p. 543.) • See Golius's Lexicon Arabicum, col. 934.

experienced by the crusaders at the close of the twelfth cen. 10 The article here is unquestionably demonstrative. See Bp. Midle. $ In our authorized version, the preposition 72 (Bar) is rendered against ton's Doctrine of the Greek Article, p. 327. (first edit.). thee, which is erroneous, as the context shows that the Jews were talking 11 Egmont and Heyman (who travelled in Palestine in the beginnin; of of or concerning the prophet, and so it is properly rendered in Psal. the eighteenth century) found the air about Jericho extremely hot, nu Lxxxvii. 3. Glorious things are spoken or thee, O city of God.

the latter or spring rains are absolutely necessary to the supThe hail-stones which fall during the severity of the win- port of vegetation, and were consequently objects greatly ter season are very large, and sometimes fatal to man and desired by the Israelites and Jews. These rains, however, Deast. Such was the storm of hail that discomfited the were always chilly (Ezra x. 9. and Sol. Song ii. 11.), and Amorites (Josh. x. 10.); and such also the very grievous hail often preceded by whirlwinds (2 Kings iii. 16, 17.) that that destroyed the cattle of the Egyptians. (Exod. ix. 18. raised such quantities of sand as to darken the sky, or, in 23, 24.). A similar hail-storm fell upon the British fleet in the words of the sacred historian, to make the heavens black Marmorice bay, in Asiatic Turkey, in the year 1801,2 which with clouds and wind. (1 Kings xviii. 45.) In Egypt the affords a fine comment on that expression of the psalmist, barley harvest precedes the summer. This may explain Jer. He casteth forth his ice like morsels ; who can stand before his viii. 20. where the harvest is put first in the description,cold? (Psal. cxlvii. 17.). The snow which falls in Judæa The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not saved. is by the same elegant inspired writer compared to wool The rains descend in Palestine with great violence; and (Psal.cxlvii.16.); and we are informed that in countries which as whole villages in the East are constructed only with palm are at no great distance from Palestine, the snow falls in branches, mud, and tiles baked in the sun (perhaps corresflakes as large as walnuts : but not being very hard or very ponding to and explanatory of the untempered mortar noticed compact, it does no injury to the traveller whom it covers.3" in Ezek. xiii. 11.), these rains not unfrequently dissolve the

But, however severe the cold weather sometimes is in cement, such as it is, and the houses fall to the ground. To these countries, there are intervals even in the depth of win- these effects our Lord probably alludes in Matt. vii. 25—27. ter when the sun shines and there is no wind, and when it is very small clouds are likewise the forerunners of violent perfectly warm-sometimes almost hot-in the open air. At storms and hurricanes in the east as well as in the west: such seasons the poorer classes in the East enjoy the conver- they rise like a man's hand (1 Kings xviii. 44.), until the sation of their friends, sauntering about in the air, and sitting whole sky becomes black with rain, which descends in torunder the walls of their dwellings; while the houses of the rents, that rush down the steep hills, and sweep every thing more opulent inhabitants, having porches or gateways, with before them. In our Lord's time, this phenomenon seems benches on each side, the master of the family receives to have become a certain prognostic of wet weather. He said visitors there, and despatches his business—few persons (not to the people, When ye see The cloud (THN Nepenny) rise out even the nearest relations) having further admission except of the west, straightway ye say, There cometh a shower; AND on extraordinary occasions. These circumstances materially so it is. (Luke xii. 54.) illustrate a difficult passage in the prophet Ezekiel (xxxiii. 5. The Summer, by the rabbins termed syp (KYITS), com30.)—Also, thou son of man, the children of thy people are still prehends the latter half of Sivan, the whole of Thammuz, talking concerning thee, by the WALLS AND IN THE DOORS of the and the former half of Ab, that is, from the beginning of houses, and speak one to another, every one to his brother, saying June to the beginning of August. The heat of the weather Come, I pray you, and hear what is the word that cometh forth increases, and the nights are so warm that the inhabitants from the Lord. It appears from Ezek. xxxiii. 21. that these sleep on their house-tops in the open air. things were transacted in the tenth month, corresponding with 6. The Hot Season, by the rabbins called din (CHUM), or the close of our December or the commencement of January. the great heat, includes the latter half of Ab, the whole of The poorer people, therefore, sat under their walls for the Elul, and the former half of Tisri, that is, from the beginbenefit of the sun, while those in better circumstances sat in ning of August to the beginning of October. During the their porchways or gateways to enjoy its genial rays. chief part of this season the heat is intense, though less so

It appears, therefore, that one part of the winter is, by the at Jerusalem than in the plain of Jericho: 'there is no cold, inhabitants of the East, distinguished from the rest by the not even in the night, so that travellers pass whole nights in severity of the cold, which may be denominated the depth of the open air without inconvenience. Lebanon is for the most their winter.

part free from snow, except in the caverns and defiles where 3. The Cold Season or Winter Solstice, by the rabbins the sun cannot penetrate. During the hot season, it is not termed 72 (KOR), comprises the latter half of Sebat, the uncommon in the East Indies for persons to die suddenly, in whole of Adar, and the former half of Nisan, from the be- consequence of the extreme heat of the solar rays (whence ginning of February to the beginning of April. At the com- the necessity of being carried in a palanquin). This is now mencement of this season, the ground is frequently covered commonly termed a coup-de-soleil, or stroke of the sun. The with a thick hoar-frost, and the weather is cold; but it son of the woman of Shunem appears to have died in consegradually becomes warm and even hot, particularly in the quence of a coup-de-soleil (2 Kings iv. 19, 20.);"1 and to plain of Jericho. Thunder, lightning, and hail are frequent. Vegetable nature now revives; the almond tree blossoms, The following are a few among the many allusions in the Scripture to and the gardens assume a delightful appearance. Barley is the importance of the early and latter rains, and the earnestness with ripe at Jericho, though but little wheat is in the ear. The which they were desired. Peut. xi. 14. Job xxix. 23. Prov. xvi. 16. Jer.

iii. 3. v. 24. Hos. vi. 3. Joel ii. 23. Zech. x. 1. “From these bountiful latter rains sometimes begin to fall in the end of this season, showers of heaven, indeed, the fertility of every land springs : but how swelling the rising crops, with which the valleys are covered dreadful in this country would be such a three years' drought, as was in.

Israel in the days of Ahab, may easily be conceived, when it is

remembered that in summer the richest soil is burnt to dust; so that a 1 Jarmer's Observations, vol. i. pp. 36–42. 9 “On the 8th of February cornienced the most violent thunder and hail imagine himself to be crossing a desert." (Jowett's Christian Researches

traveller, riding through the plain of Esdraelon in July or August, would storm ever remembered, and which continued two days and nights inter in Syria, p. 306. London, 1825. 8vo.). mittingly. The hail, or rather the ice-stones, were as big as large walnuts. & Jowett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, &c. p. 144. LonThe camps were deluged with a torrent of them two feet deep, which, don, 1822. 8vo. pouring from the inountains, swept every thing before it. The scene of confusion on shore, by the horses breaking loose, and the men being and also takes place in Abyssinia. Mr. Bruce, speaking of the phenomena

9 A similar phenomenon is noticed by Homer (Iliad, lib. iv. 275–278.), unable to face the storm, or remain still in the freezing deluge, surpasses attending the inundation of the Nile, says,

-Every morning, "about nine, description. It is not in the power of language to convey an adequate idea of such a tempest.” Sir Robert Wilson's History of the British Expedition lently round, as if upon an axis; but, arrived near the zenith, it first abates

a small cloud, not above four feet broad, appears in the east, whirling vioto Egypt, vol. i. p. 8. 8vo. edit. Hail-storms are so violent in some parts of its motion, then loses its form, and extends itself greatly, and seeins to call Persia, as frequently to destroy the cattle in the fields. Kinneir's Geographical Memoir, p. 158.

up vapours from all opposite quarters. These clouds, having attained nearly * Harmer's Observations, vol. i. p. 45. note.

the saine height, rush against each other with great violence, and put me Ægean, vol. i. pp. 96, 97. The same usage still obtains at Smyrna. Emerson's Letters from the always in wind of Elijah foretelling rain on Mount Carmel.” Travel , vol.

say that it destroyed several persons the year before they were the re. * Harmer's Observations, vol. i. pp. 50-53.

The army of King Baldwin IV. suffered considerably from this circı n

upon

this fatal effect of the solar heat the psalmist alludes (Psal. royal psalmist alludes. (Psal. xxxii. 4.). If, at this season, cxxi. 6.), as he also does to the effect of the lunar rays, which a single spark falls upon the grass, a conflagration immediatein Arabia (as well as in Egypt) are singularly injurious to ly ensues, especially if there should be any briers or thorns, the eyes of those who sleep in the open air."" The moon low shrubs or woods contiguous. (Psal. lxxxiii. 14. Isa. here really strikes and affects the sight when you sleep ex- ix. 18. x. 17, 18. Jer. xxi. 14. Compare also Exod. xxii. 6. posed to it much more than the sun: indeed, the sight of a and Joel i. 19, 20.) The face of the country becomes enperson, who should sleep with his face exposed at night, tirely changed; the fields, so lately clothed with the richest would soon be utterly impaired or destroyed."

verdure and adorned with the loveliest flowers, are converted From the time of harvest, that is, from the middle of April into a brown and arid wilderness; the grass withereth, the to the middle of September, it neither rains nor thunders. Hower fadeth (Isa. xl. 6, 7.);the fountains and rivulets are (Prov. xxvi. 1. 1 Sam. xii. 17.), During the latter part of dried up; and the soil becomes so hard as to exhibit large April, or aboụt the middle of the harvest, the morning cloud fissures or clefts. These effects are accelerated if the east is seen early in the morning, which disappears as the sun wind blow for a few days; which, being usually dry and ascends above the horizon. (Hos: vi. 4. xiii. 3.) These light producing a blight, becomes fatal to the corn and vines (Job fleecy clouds are without water (repercus ävudpu); and to them xv. 2. Gen. xli. 6. 23. Ezek. xvii. 10. xix. 12. Hos. xiii. 15. the apostle Jude (verse 12.) compares the false teachers, who Jonah iv. 8. Psal. ciii. 15, 16.); and is particularly daneven then began to contaminate the church of Christ. In gerous to navigators in the Mediterranean Sea. This is Deut. xxxii. 2. the doctrine of Jehovah is compared to the alluded to in Psla. xlviii. 7. and Ezek. xxvii. 26. The people rain, and clouds are the instruments by which rain is dis- of the East generally term every wind an east wind, that tilled upon the earth. In arid or parched countries, the very blows between the east and north and the east and south. appearance of a cloud is delightful, because it is a token of The Euroclydon, which caused the wreck of the vessel in refreshing showers ; but when sudden winds arise, and dis- which Paul was sailing to Rome, was one of these tempesperse these clouds, the hope of the husbandman and shepherd tuous east winds, üvapeos TUPcvixas, that drove every thing before is cut off. The false teachers alluded to, are represented as it. (Acts xxvii. 14.) Such winds are common in the Mediclouds ; they have the form and office of teachers of right- terranean to this day, where they are called Levanters, the eousness, and from such appearances pure doctrine may term Levant meaning that country which lies at the eastern naturally be expected. But these are clouds without water; extremity of that sea. they distil no refreshing showers, because they contain none; III. In consequence of the paucity of showers in the East, and they are carried about by their passion, as those light and water is an artícle of great importance to the inhabitants. fleecy clouds in question are carried by the winds. Hence, in Lot's estimation, it was a principal recommenda

From the Jewish month Sivan, through the entire months tion of the plain of Jordan that it was well watered every of Tammuz, Ab, and the former part of Elul, corresponding where (Gen. xiii. 10.); and the same advantage continued in with our months of May, June, July, and August, not å later ages to be enjoyed by the Israelites, whose country was single cloud is to be seen; but during the night, the earth is intersected by numerous brooks and streams; whence it is moistened by a copious dew, which in the sacred volume is not more emphatically than beautifully described as a land frequently made a symbol of the divine goodness. (Compare of brooks of water, of fountuins and depths, that spring out of Gen. xxvii. 28. and xlix. 25. where the blessing from above is valleys anii hills. And the same preference is given to this equivalent with dew, Deut. xxxii. 2. xxxiii. 13. Job xxix. day by the Eelauts (a Tartar tribe occupying a district in 19. Mic. v. 7.), In Arabia Petræa the dews are so heavy, as the northern part of the Persian empire), who carry their to wet to the skin those who are exposed to them: but as flocks to the highest parts of the mountains, where the bless. soon as the sun arises, and the atmosphere becomes a little ings of pasturage and of good water are to be found in warmed, the mists are quickly dispersed, and the abundant abundance. The knowledge of this circumstance will, permoisture, which the dews had communicated to the sands, is haps, impart new force to the promises made to the Gentiles entirely evaporated. What a forcible description is this of by the evangelical prophet. Their pastures shall be in all high the transiently good impressions, felt

by many, to which the pluces, they shall not hunger nor thirst ; neither shall the sun or prophet Hosea alludes! (vi. 4.). Other references to the heat smite them; for he that hath mercy on them shall lead them, refreshing nature of the dews of Palestine occur in Psal. even by the springs of water shall he guide them. (Isa. xlix. 9— cxxxiii. 3. and Hos. xiv. 5. These dews fall, as in other 11.): See also Rev. vii. 16, 17: countries, very fast as well as very suddenly, upon every Although Rivers are frequently mentioned in the Sacred blade of grass and every spot of earth: whence an active Writings, yet, strictly speaking, the only river in the Holy and expeditious soldiery is in 2 Sam. xvii. 12. by a beautiful Land is the Jordan, which is sometimes designated in the figure compared to dew. But, however copious the dews Scripture as the river without any addition; as also is the are, they nourish only the more robust or hardy plants; and Nile (Gen. xli. 1. Exod. i. 22. ii. 5. iv. 9. vii

. 18. and viii. as the season of heat advances, the grass withers, the flowers 3. 9. 11.), and, occasionally, the Euphrates (as in Jer. ii

. fade, every green herb is dried up by the roots and dies, 18.); in these cases, the tenor of the discourse must deterunless watered by the rivulets or by the labour of man. To mine which is the river actually intended by the sacred writhis appearance of the fields, during an eastern summer, the ters. The name of river is also given to inconsiderable

streams and rivulets, as to the Kishon (Judges iv. 7. and v. stance near Tiberias. The heat at the time was so un usally great, that as 21.) and the Arnon. (Deut. iii. 16.) many died by that as by the sword. After the battle, in their return to their former encampment, a certain ecclesiastic, of some distinction in the 1. The principal river which waters Palestine is the JORchurch and in the army, not being able to bear the vehemence of the heat, Dan or Yar-Dan, i. e. the river of Dan, so called because it was carried in a litter, but expired under Mount Tabor.--Harmer's Obser: takes its rise in the vicinity of the little city of Dan. Its

Carne's Letters from the East, p. 77. A nearly similar account is true source is in two fountains at Paneas (a city better known given by Mr. R. R. Madden, who travelled

in the Easi, between the years by its subsequent name of Cæsarea Philippi), at the foot of 1824 and 1827. Travels in Turkey, &c. vol. ii. pp. 197, 198. The deadly Anti-Libanus ; its apparent source flows from beneath a cave in Bengal, meat hung up, if exposed to moonlight, will not take the salt, but at the foot of a precipice, in the sides of which are several taints and spoils speedily: whereas the same kind of meat, if kept froin niches with Greek inscriptions. During several hours of the moonlight will take salt, and keep good for some time. (Extract of a its course, it continues to be a small and insignificant letter from India, in the Christian Observer for 1808, p. 754.) And at De. merara the moon strikes (similarly to the sun) with a coup-de-lune; so that people walk out at night with umbrellas or paralunes. Such indeed are ! "The very affecting images of Scripture, which compare the shortihe effects of the lunar rays upon fish, as to make it part from the bones. living existence of man to the decay of the vegetable creation, are scarcely (Froin information cominunicated by the Rev. Mr. Elliol, missionary at understood in this country. The verdure is perpetual in England. It is Demerara.)

difficult to discover a time when it can be said, 'the grass withereth." . Dr. A. Clarke, on Jude 12.

But, let the traveller visit the beautiful plain of Smyrna, or any other part • Shaw's Travels, vol. ii. p. 325. The very heavy drws which fall in the of the East

, in the inonth of May, and revisit it towards the end of June, Holy Land, are noticed by almost every one who has travelled in that coun. and he will perceive the force and beauty of these allusions. In May, an try. We shall adduce the testimonies of twn or three. Maundrell, travel appearance of fresh verdure and of rich luxuriance every where meets ling near Mount Hermon, in the year 1997, says, "We were instructed by the eye; the face of nature is adorned with a carpet of flowers and herb. experience, what the Psalmist means by the dew of Hermon (Psal. cxxxiil. age, of the most elegant kind. But a month or six weeks subsequently, 3.), our tents being as wet with it, as if it had rained all night.(Travels how changed is the entire scene! The beauty is gone; the grass is with from Aleppo to Jerusalemn,

p. 77.) Dr. E. D), Clarke, when on his journey ered; the flower is faded; a brown and dusty desert has taken place of a from Aboukir to Rosetta, in 1801, says, “We had a tent allotted to us for delicious garden. It is doubtless to this rapid transformation of nature the night; it was double lined; yet

so copious are the deus of Egypt (the that the Scriptures compare the fate of man." Hartley's Researches in climate of which country is similar to that of the Holy Land), after sun. Greece, p: 237. set that the water ran copiously down the tent pole." (Travels, vol. iii. p. 6 Shaw's Travels in Barbary, &c. vol. ii. pp. 127-133. 365. 8vo.) Mr. Carne says, "The dews had fallen heavily for some nighis, Morier's Second Journey ihrough Persia, p. 121. and the clothes that covered us were quite wet in the morning." Letters • In a few instances, the seo is called a rider, as in Hab. iii. 8. where the from the Fast, p. 178.

Red Sea is intended. • Harmer's Observatione, vol. I. p. 6,

• Capt. Irby's and Mangle's Travels in Egypt &c. pp. 287--289. VOL. II.

D

rivulet.1 It flows due south through the centre of the coun- 2. The ARNON, which descends from the mountains of the try, intersecting the lake Merom and the sea or lake of Gali- same name, and discharges itself into the Dead Sea. lee, and (it is said) without mingling with its waters; and 3. The Sihor (the Belus of ancient geographers, at preit loses itself in the lake Asphaltites or the Dead Sea, into sent called the Kardanah), has its source about four miles to which it rolls a considerable volume of deep water, with such the east of the head of the river Kishon. It waters the plains rapidity as to prevent a strong, active, and expert swimmer of Acre and Esdraelon, and falls into the sea at the gulph of from swimming across it. The course of the Jordan is about Keilah.. one hundred miles ; its breadth and depth are various. Dr. 4. The brook JABBOK takes its rise in the same mountains, Shaw computed it to be about thirty yards broad, and three and falls into the river Jordan. It is a rapid stream, flowing yards or nine feet in depth ; and states that it discharges over a rocky bed; its waters are clear, and agreeable to the daily into the Dead Sea about 6,090,000 tuns of water.2 taste, and its banks are very thickly wooded with oleander Viscount Chateaubriand (who travelled nearly a century after and plane trees, wild olives, wild almonds, and numerous him) found the Jordan to be six or seven feet deep close to other trees. By the Arabs it is now termed Nahr-el-Zerkah, the shore, and about fifty paces in breadth. The late count or the river of Kerkah, from a neighbouring station or vilVolney asserts it to be scarcely sixty paces wide at its em- lage of that name.? bouchure. Messrs. Banks and Buckingham, who crossed it 5. The Kanah, or Brook of Reeds, springs from the mounin January, 1816, pretty nearly at the same ford over which tains of Judah, but only flows during the winter, and it falls the Israelites passed on their first entering the promised land, into the Mediterranean Sea near Cæsarea : it formerly sepafound the stream extremely rapid; and as it Howed at that rated the tribe of Ephraim from that of Manasseh."(Josh. part over a bed of pebbles, its otherwise turbid waters were xvii. 8, 9.) tolerably clear, as well as pure and sweet to the taste. It is 6. The brook BESOR (1 Sam. xxx. 9.) falls into the same here fordable, being not more than four feet deep, with a sea between Gaza and Rhinocorura. rapid current.

7. The Kishon, now called the Moukattoua, issues from Anciently the Jordan overflowed its banks about the time the mountains of Carmel, at the foot of which it forms two of barley harvest (Josh. iii. 15. iv. 18. 1 Chron. xii. 15. streams; one flows eastward into the sea of Galilee, and the Jer. xlix. 19.), or the feast of the passover; when, the snows other, taking a westerly course through the plain of Jezreel being dissolved on the mountains, the torrents discharged or Esdraelon, discharges itself into the Mediterranean Sea, themselves into its channel with great impetuosity. When at a short distance to the south of Acro or Acre. This is the visited by Mr. Maundrell, at the beginning of the last cen- stream noticed in 1 Kings xviii. 40.: when swollen by heavy tury, he could discern no sign or probability of such inunda- rains it is impassable. tions, though so late as the 30th of March ; and so far was 8. The Kedron, KIDRON, or CEDRON, as it is variously the river from overflowing, that it ran almost two yards termed (2 Sam. xv. 23. 1 Kings xv. 13. 2 Kings xxiii. 6. below the brink of its channel. It may be said to have two 12. 2 Chron. xxix. 16. Jer. xxxi. 40. John xviii. 1.), runs banks,-the first, that of the river in its natural state; the in the valley of Jehoshaphat, eastward of Jerusalem, between second, that of its overflowings. After descending the outer- that city and the Mount of Olives. Except during the winmost bank, the traveller proceeds about a furlong upon a level ter, or after heavy rains, its channel is generally dry, but, strand, before he comes to the immediate bank of the river. when swollen by torrents, it flows with great impetuosity; This second bank is now (as it anciently was) so beset with its waters are said to become dark and turbid, probably bebushes, reeds, tamarisks, willows, oleanders, and other cause it collects the waste of the adjacent hills; and, like shrubs and trees, which form an asylum for various wild other brooks in cities, it is contaminated with the filth, of animals, that no water is perceptible until the traveller has which it is the receptacle and common sewer. The blood made his way through them. In this thicket several kinds and offal of the victims sacrificed in the temple are said, in of wild beasts used formerly to conceal themselves, until the later times, to have been carried off by a drain into the Keswelling of the river drove them from their coverts. To this dron.10 As no mention is made of bridges in Palestine, it is fact the prophet Jeremiah alludes, when he compares the probable that the inhabitants forded the rivers and brooks impatience of Edom and Babylon under the divine judg- wherever it was practicable, (in the same manner as persons ments, to the coming up of a lion from the swellings of Jordan, of both sexes do to this day in Bengal), which is alluded to (Jer. xlix. 19.), On the level strand above noticed, it proba- in Isa. xlvii. 2. bly was, that John the Baptist stood, and pointed to the Of the Lakes mentioned in the Scriptures, three are particustones of which it was composed, when he exclaimed, I say larly worthy of notice; that of Galilee or Gennesareth, the unto you, that God is able of THESE STONES to raise up child- Lake Merom, and the Lake of Sodom, both of which are ren unto Abraham: and turning to the second bank, which termed seas,ií agreeably to the Hebrew phraseology, which was overgrown with various shrubs and trees that had been gives the name of sea to any large body of water. suffered to grow wild for ages, he added, and now also the 1. The SEA OF GALILEE (so called from its situation on the axe is laid unto the root of THE TREES: therefore every tree, eastern borders of that division of Palestine), through which which bringeth not forth good Fruit, is hewn down and cast the Jordan flows, was anciently called the Sea of Chinnereth into the fire. (Matt. iii. 9, 10.) The passage of this deep and (Num. xxxiv. 11.) or Chinneroth (Josh. xii. 3.), from its rapid river by the Israelites, at the most unfavourable season, vicinity to the town of that name; afterwards Gennesar (1 when augmented by the dissolution of the winter snows, was Macc. xi. 67.), and in the time of Jesus Christ Genesareth or more manifestly miraculous, if possible, than that of the Red Gennesareth (Luke v. 1.), from the neighbouring land of the Sea; because here was no natural agency whatever employed; same name (Matt. xiv. 34. Mark vi. 53.); and also the Sea no mighty winds to sweep a passage as in the former case; of Tiberias (John vi. 1. xxi. 1.), from the contiguous city of no reflux in the tide on which minute philosophers might Tiberias. This capacious lake, almost equal in the grandeur fasten to depreciate the miracle. It seems, therefore, to have of its appearance to that of Geneva, spreads its transparent been providentially designed, to silence cavils respecting the waters over all the lower territory, extending from the northformer: it was done at noonday, in the presence of the neigh-east to the south-west. The waters of the northern part of bouring inhabitants: and it struck terror into the kings of this lake abound with fish: this circumstance marks the the Amorites and Canaanites westward of the river, whose propriety of our Lord's parable of the net cast into the sea hearts melted, neither was there any spirit in them any more, (Matt. xii. 47, 48.), which was delivered by him from a because of the children of Israel. (Josh. v. 1.). The place vessel near the shore. The fish are said to be most delicious. where the Israelites thus miraculously passed this river, There is not much variety, but the best sort is the most comis supposed to be the fords of Jordan mentioned in Judg mon; it is a species of bream, equal to the finest perch. It is iii. 26.

remarkable, that there is not a single boat of any description The other remarkable streams or rivulets of Palestine are the following:

6 Shaw's Travels, vol. ii. p. 33.
* Buckinghain's Travels, p. 325.

• Carne's Letters, p. 250. Richter's Pilgriinages in the East, in 1815Carne's Recollections of Travels in the East, p. 38. London, 1830. 8vo. 1816.. Cabinet of Foreign Voyages, vol. i. pp: 159, 160, Loudon, 1823.) » Shaw's Travels, vol. ii. pp. 156, 157.

9 In like manner the rivers or Cyprus (which island lies to the north-west • Buckingham's Travels, p. 315. · Three Weeks in Palestine, p. 90. into torrents by sudden rains. Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. p. 75.

of the Holy Land) are dry during the summer months, and are swollen • Maundrell's

Journey, p. 110. Dr. Macunichael's Travels froin Moscow to Constantinople, in the years 1817, 1818, p. 191. (lond. 1819. 4to.) The (Works, vol. i. p. 80.)

10 Lightfoot's Chorographical Century, on Matthew, chap. 38. fine. Jordan is annually frequented by many thonsand pilgrims, chiefly of the Greek church, under the protection of the Moosilliin, or Turkish governor its vicinity,"" who, like the earliest ones, call their water a sea, and reckon

11. This appellation is retained by the modern inhabitants, who reside in of Jerusalem, and a strong military escort. Ibid. pp. 191, 192. Richardson's it and the Dead Sea to the south of them to be the two largest known except Travels, vol. ii. p. 387. Irby's and Mangles' Travels, pp. 329, 330,

the great ocean." Buckingham's Travels, p. 471.

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