-xxxi.); in the fifth part Elihu sums up the argument (xxxii. Sect. 4. The answer of Job, who, having reproved the harsh --xxxvii.), and in the sixth part Jehovah determines the con- conduct of Bildad, re-vindicates his own conduct with great troversy; Job humbles himself, is accepted, and restored to warmth and animation, and takes a retrospect of his forhealth and prosperity. (xxxiii.—xlii.)

mer character in the relative situations of life, as a husband, Part I. The Exordium, containing the Narration of Job's as a master, and as a magistrate : and concludes by repeatCircumstances and Trials (ch. i. ii.) which is written in

ing his ardent wish for an immediate trial with his calum

niator before the tribunal of God. (xxvi-xxxi.) prose. Sect. 1. The situation and circumstances of Job. (i. 1–6.) Part V. Contains the summing up of the whole argu, Sect. 2. The first trial of Job by Satan, with divine permis- ment by Elihu ; who, having condemned the conduct of alı

sion, in the loss of his property and children; the integrity the disputants, whose reasonings were not calculated to proof Job declared. (i. 7-22.)

duce conviction (xxxii.), proceeds to contest several of Job's Sect. 3. The second trial of Job by Satan, in the severe af- positions, and to show that God frequently afflicts the chil

fliction of his person (ii. 1-10.), and the visit of his friends dren of men for the best of purposes, and that in every in. to console him.

stance our duty is submission. He concludes with a grand Part II. The first Dialogue or Controversy between Job and

description of the omnipotence of the Creator. (xxxiii.his friends. (iii.-xiv.)

xxxvii.) Sect. 1. The complaint of Job on his calamitous situation, Part VI. The Termination of the Controversy, and the Rewhich is the ground-work of the following arguments. (iii.)

storation of Job to his former Prosperity (xxxviii. xlii.); Sect. 2. The speech of Eliphaz, in which he reproves the containing,

impatience of Job, and insinuates that his sufferings were Sect. 1. The appearance of Jehovah to pronounce judge the punishment of some secret iniquity. (iv, v.)

'ment; who addresses Job, out of a whirlwind, in a most Secr. 3. Job's reply, in which he apologizes for the intempe- sublime and magnificent speech, the substance of which is

rance of his grief by the magnitude of his calamities, prays nearly a counterpart to that of Elihu. In it are illustrated for speedy death, accuses his friends of cruelty, and expos- the omnipotence of God, and man's utter ignorance of his

tulates with God, whose mercy he supplicates. (vi. vii.) ways, and works of creation and providence. (xxxvii.---xli.) Sect. 4. The argument of Eliphaz resumed by Bildad, who Secr. 2. The submission of Job, which is accepted, his re

reproves Job with still greater acrimony, and accuses him of storation to his former prosperity, and the increase of his irreligion and impiety. (viii.)

substance to double. (xlii. 1-10.) Sect. 5. Job's rejoinder, in which, while he acknowledges the Sect. 3. A more particular account of Job's restoration and

justice and sovereignty of God, he argues that his afflictions prosperity. (xlii. 11-17.) are no proof of his wickedness, and in despair again wishes

XI. Independently of the important instruction and benefor death. (ix. x.) This passionate reply calls forth, fit which may be derived from a devout perusal of the book Sect. 6. Zophar, who prosecutes the argument begun by of Job, this divine poem is of no small value, as transmit

Eliphaz, and continued by Bildad, with still greater severity ; ting to us a faithful delineation of the patriarchal doctrines and exhorts him to repentance, as the only means by which of religion ; that confirms and illustrates the notices of that to recover his former prosperity. (xi.)

religion contained in the book of Genesis, an outline of which Sect. 7. The answer of Job, who retorts on his friends, cen- has been given in the first volume. On this account, we

suring their pretensions to superior knowledge, and charging trust, the reader will not be reluctantly detained, if we take them with false and partial pleading against him, and ap- a brief retrospect of the patriarchal creed,-more especially peals to God, professing his hope in a future resurrection. as some very learned men have denied that it contained any (xii.-xiv.)

reference either to fallen angelic spirits, or to a future resurl'ART III. The second Dialogue or Controversy (xv.-xxi.); rection of the body from the grave, and consequently to a in which we have,

future state of existence. Sect. 1. The argument renewed, nearly in the same manner

The two grand articles of patriarchal faith, from the earlias it had been commenced by Eliphaz, who accuses Job of That there is a God, and, 2. That he is a rewarder of them

est days, according to Saint Paul (Heb. xi. 6.), were, 1. impiety in justifying himself. (xv.) Sect. 2. Job's reply, who complains of the increasing un- tained in Job's declaration,

that diligently seek him. These articles are particularly conkindness of his friends, protests his innocency, and looks to death as his last resource. (xvi. xvii.)

I know that my Redeemer liveth,

And that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth. Sect. 3. Bildad, going over his former line of argument, with

increased asperity, applies it to Job, whose aggravated suf- But there are several other important points of doctrine ferings, he urges, are justly inflicted upon him. (xviii.)

either directly stated, or which may be legitimately inferred Sect. 4. Job's appeal to the sympathy of his friends, and from different parts of this book; they may be reduced to

from them to God: professing his faith in a future resur- the following nine articles :rection, he cautions his friends to cease from their invec- 1. The creation of the world by one supreme, omnipresent, tives, lest God should chastise them. (xix.)

and eternal Being, of boundless wisdom, irresistible power, in. Sect. 5. Job's appeal is retorted upon himself by Zophar describable glory, inflexible justice, and infinite goodness. This

(xx.); to whom the patriarch replies by discussing at large first great principle of what is usually called natural religion, is the conduct of Divine Providence, in order to evince the laid down throughout the whole book as an incontestable truth; fallacy of Zophar's argument of the short-lived triumph of | but it is particularly illustrated in the speech of Jehovah himthe wicked. (xxi.)

self in Job xxxvii.xli. Part IV. The third Debate or Controversy (xxii.--xxxi.); in

2. The government of the world by the perpetual and superwhich,

intending providence of God. This article of the patriarchal Sect. 1. Eliphaz resumes the charge, representing Job's vin- creed is particularly noticed in Job i. 9. 21.; ii. 10.; v. 8–27.; dication and appeal as displeasing to God : contends that

ix. 4–13.; and in almost every other chapter of the book : in certain and utter ruin is the uniform lot of the wicked, as every instance, this doctrine is proposed, not as a matter of nice was evinced in the destruction of the old world by the de- speculation, but as laying mankind under the most powerful luge ; and concludes with renewed exhortation to repent. Creutor, Lord, and Ruler.

obligations to fear and serve, to submit to and trust in their ance and prayer. (xxii.) Sect. 2. In reply, Job ardcntly desires to plead his cause be carried on by the ministration of a heavenly hierarchy (i. 6,

3. That the providential government of the Almighty is fore God, whose omnipresence he delineates in the sublim- 7.; iv. 18, 19.; v. 1.; xxxiii. 22, 23.), which is composed of est language, urging that his sufferings were designed as trials of his faith and integrity; and he shows in various

1 Dr. IIales is of opinion that the last six verses of this chapter, 11-17. instances that the wicked frequently escape punishment in (which particularize the increase of Job's

family, the names of his daugh. this life. (xxiii. xxiv.)

ters, who, according to primitive usage were inade co-heiresses with their Sect. 3. The rejoinder of Bildad, who repeats his former pro- trial), form an appendix ; which was probably added in later times from

brothers, together with the number of years during which he survived his position, that, since no man is without sin in the sight tradition, either

by Moses, who resided so long in his neighbourhood, or of God, consequently Job cannot be justified in his sight. by Samuel, or by the person (whoever he was that introduced the book various ranks and orders, possessing different names, dignities, Nor was the morality of Job less excellent than his theo and offices.

into the sacred canon. Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book i. p. 101. (2xv.)

» See Vol. I. Chap. V. Sect. I. $ 1. pp. 142, 143,

logy. He thus expresses his undeviating obedience to the 4. An apostacy or defection in some rank or order of these laws of God, and his delight therein :powers (iv. 18.; xv. 15.); of which Satan seems to have been xxiji. 11. My foot hath held his steps, one, and perhaps chief. (i. 6–12. ; ii. 2—7.)

His way have I kept and noi declined: 5. The good and evil powers or principles, equally formed

12. Neither have I gone back from the commandment of His lips.

I have esteemed the words of His mouth, by the Creator, and hence equally denominated " Sons of God;"

More than my necessary food. both of them employed by him in the administration of his Pro- From this and other passages, Dr. Hales with great pro vidence: and both amenable to him at stated courts, held for the bability thinks it evident, that there was some collection of purpose of receiving an account of their respective missions.? certain precepts, or rules of religion and morality, in use (i. 6, 7. ; ii. 1.)

among the patriarchs ;—such were the precepts of the Noa6. That Zabianism, or the idolatrous worship of the stars, chidæ or sons of Noah : and there is great reason to believe, was a judicial offence, cognizable by the pelilim or judges ; that the substance at least of the decalogue, given at Sinaj who were arbitrators, consisting of the heads of tribes or fami- was of primitive institution. Compare Gen. ix. 1–6. How lies, appointed by common consent to try offences against the well the venerable patriarch observed the duties of morality, community, and to award summary justice.3 Such was the will be manifest to every one who will take the trouble of case of the Trans-jordanite tribes, who were suspected of apos- perusing chap. xxix. 11–17. and xxxi. 6—22. tacy, and were threatened with extirpation by the heads of the

There is a remarkable reference in the book of Job to the ten tribes on the western side of Jordan. (Josh. xxii. 16–22.): former destruction of the world by water, and to its final

7. Original sin, or that corruption of the nature of every dissolution by fire; which was prophesied' by Enoch before man that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam.'s the deluge, whence it must have been known to Noah; and "It is certain," as Bishop Burnet has well” remarked, “ that in no doubt transmitted by him to his family; and so might be Scripture this general corruption of our nature is often men- communicated to Job and his friends. It occurs in the last tioned:"; and it is not to be supposed that this article of doc- speech of Eliphaz, the most intelligent of the three. trine, however repugnant to the pride of man, should be omitted xxii. 15. Dost (not) thou keep the old way,

Which wicked men have trodden? in the book of Job. Accordingly we find it expressly asserted

16. Who were cut off, before their time, in chap. xiv. 4.; xv. 14–16. and xxxv. 3.

The flood overthrew their foundation : 8. The propitiation of the Creator in the case of human

17. Who said unto GOD, Depart from us :"

And, " What can THE ALMIGHTY do for us?transgressions by sacrifices (i. 5. ; xlii. 8.), and the mediation

18. Yet he filleth their houses with good, and intercession of a righteous person. (xlii. 8, 9.) In his in

Though the counsel of the wicked was far from Him. tercession for his friends, Job is generally regarded as a type of

19. The righteous saw, and were glad.

And the innocent (Noah) deride them: Him“ who ever liveth to make intercession” for transgressors.

20. " Is not their substance cut down? If any evidence were wanting to prove sacrifices of divine insti

And the fire shall consume the remnant of them !" tution, the declaration in xlii. 8. alone would be sufficient.? As if Noah had said, Though this judgment by water,

9. That there will be a day of future resurrection (xiv. however universal, may not so thoroughly purge the earth, 1-11. with verses 12–15. of the same chapter), judgment as that iniquity shall not spring up again, and wicked men (xix. 25—29.), and retribution to all mankind. (xxvii. 8.; xxxi. abound : yet know that a final judgment by fire will utterly 13, 14.)

consume the remnant of such sinners as shall then be found The passage, in which Job expresses his firm faith in a alive, along with the earth itself." Redeemer (xix. 25–29.), has been greatly contested among critics; some of whom refer it simply to his deliverance from his temporal distresses, maintaining that it has no allu

SECTION 11. sion whatever to a future state; while others understand it in the contrary sense, and consider it a noble confession of faith in the Redeemer. The latter opinion has been ably advocated by Pfeiffer, the elder Schultens, Michaelis, Velthu- I. General title of this book. --II. Structure of the Psalms. sen, Rosenmüller, Dr. Good, and the Rev. Drs. Hales and III. Their canonical authority.-IV. Authors to whom they J. P. Smith, and is now generally received. The following are ascribed.-1. Moses.--2. Darid.-3. Asaph.-4. The is Dr. Hales's version of this sublime passage of Job :- sons of Korah.-5. Jeduthun.-6. Heman and Ethan.I know that my REDEEMER (is) living,

7. Solomon.-8. Anonymous psalms.-V. Chronological ar. And that at the last day)

rangement of the Psalms by Calmet.-VI. Collection of the He will arise (in judgment) upon dust [mankind).

Psalms into a volume.-VII. The inscriptions or titles pre-
And after my skin be mangler thus,
Yet ever from my flesh shall I see God:

fixed to the different psalms.-VIII. Probable meaning of Whom I shall see for me (on my side),

the word Selah.-IX. Scope of the book of Psalms. And mine eyes shall behold him not estranged; (Though] my reins be (now) consumed within me.

X. Rules for better understanding them.-XI. A iable of

the psalons classed according to their several subjects. But ye should say, "Why persecute we him (further] ?" Since the strength of the argument is found in me,

I. This book is entitled in the Hebrew Dibuan 70D (SCPH'R Fear ye for yourselves, from the face of the sword; For [divine) wrath (punisheth) iniquities (with) the sword;

tehillim), that is the Book of Hymns or Praises ; because the That ye may know there is a judginent.8

greater part of them treat of the praises of God, while the

remainder consist either of the complaints of an afflicted soul, ! As obedim, servants; malachim, angels; melizim, intercessors; me or of penitential effusions, or of the prayers of a heart overmitim, destinies or destroyers ; alep, the miliad or thousand; kedosim, whelmed with grief. In the Roman edition of the SepBANCTI, the heavenly SAINTS or hosts generally Good's Introd. Diss. to his tuagint Version printed in 1587, which professes to follow translation, compared with p. Ixxiv. of his Dissertation, and his notes on the Vatican manuscript, this book is simply denominated the passages cited.

YAAMOI, the Psalms, and in the Alexandrian manuscript, Ibid. p. lxv.

Job xxxi. 26–28. Dr. Hales, to whose researches we are indebted for preserved in the British Museum, it is entitled ¥AATHPION the sixth article of the patriarchal creed, translates the 28th

MET' DAAI2, the Psalter with Odes or Hymns.10 The Syriac Even this would be a judicial crime,

verse thus :

9 Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book i. pp. 111, 112. For I should have lied unto GOD ABOVE.

10 These Odes or Ilymns, which are thirteen in number, are printed in Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. book i. pp. 105, 106.

Dr. Grabe's edition of the Septuagint: they are thus entitled :Article ix. of the Confession of the Anglican Church.

1. The Ode or Moses in Exodus. (ch. xv. v. 1. et seqq.) & Burnett on Art. ix. p. 139. Having cited several passages at length, he 2. The Ode of Moses in Deuteronomy. (ch. xxxii. v. 1. seqq.) thus concludes: “These, with many other places of Scripture to the same 3. The Prayer of Hannah the Mother of Samuel. (1 Sam. ch. ii. v. 1. seqq.) purpose, when they are joined to the universal experience of all mankind 4. The Prayer of Isaiah (in the margin, of Hezekiah). Isa. ch. xxvi. concerning the corruption of our whole race, lead us to settle this point, v. 9. seqq. that in fact it has overrun our whole kind, the contagion is spread over all." 5. The Prayer of Jonah. (Jon. ch. ii. v. 3. seqq)

* Archbp. Magee has collected all the evidence on this important sub- 6. The Prayer of Habakkuk (Sept. Ambakouin). Hab. ch. iii. v. 2. seqq. ject with great ability. Discourses on the Atonement, vol. ii. part i. pp. 7. The Prayer of Hezekiah. (Isa. ch. xxxviii. v. 10. seqq.) 25–46.

8. The Prayer of Manasseh. (2 Chron. ch. xxxiii. according to some . Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. pp. 83–86. For the very elaborate notes copies, but one of the apocryphal pieces in our Bibles.) with which he has supported and vindicated his translation, we must 9. The Prayer of Azariah. (Dan. ch. iii. v. 26. seqq.) refer the reader to his work. Other illustrations of this

passage may be 10. The Hymn of our Fathers. (Dan. ch. iii. v. 52. seqq.) seen in Pfeiffer's Dubia Vexata Scripturæ, Centuria Ill. No. 39. (Op. 11. The Prayer of Mary, the Mother of God. (Lukech. i. v. 46. seqq.) tom. i. pp. 169-272.); and Dr. Smith's Scripture Testimony to the Messiah, 12. The Prayer of Simeon. (Luke ch. ii. v. 29. seqq.) vol. i. pp. 199-211. In Dr. A. Clarke's Cornmentary, there is a good illus. 13. A Morning Hyron, the first part of which nearly corresponds with the tration of Job xix. 25-29.

sublime hymn in the post-communion service of the church of England, Hebrew alphabetical poems, see New Testament, as well as contrary to the whole current of Vol. I. Part II. Chap. II. & VI. 7. supra. 3 Bishop Horsley's Psalms, vol. i. p. xvi.


Version, in Bishop Walton's Polyglott, denominates it the be any foundation. Altogether they embrace a period of about
Book of Psalms of David, the King and Prophet; and the nine hundred years.
Arabic Version commences with the first Book of Psalms of The earliest composer of sacred hymns unquestionably
David the Prophet, King of the Sons of Israel.

was Moses (Exod. xv.); the next who are mentioned in the II. Augusti, De Wette, and some other German critics, Scriptures, are Deborah (Judg. v.) and Hannah (1 Sam. ii.): have termed the Book of Psalms the Hebrew Anthology, but it was David himself, an admirable composer and perthat is, a collection of the lyric, moral, historical, and elegiac former in music (1 Sam. xvi. 18. Amos vi. 5.), who gave a poetry of the Hebrews. This book presents every possible regular and noble form to the musical part of the Jewish variety of Hebrew poetry: All the Psalms, indeed, may be service, and carried divine poetry and psalmody to perfectermed poems of the lyric kind, that is, adapted to music, but tion; and therefore he is called the sweet psalmist of Israel. with great variety in the style of composition. Thus some (2 Sam. xxiii. 1.) He, doubtless by divine authority, apare simply odes. "An ode is a dignified sort of song, nar- pointed the singing of psalms by a select company of skilrative of the facts, either of public history, or of private life, ful persons, in the solemn worship of the tabernacle (1 Chron. in a highly adorned and figured style. But the figure in the vi. 31. xvi. 4–8.);? which Solomon continued in the first Psalms is that, which is peculiar to the Hebrew language, in temple (2 Chron. v. 12, 13.), and it was re-established by which the figure gives its meaning with as much perspicuity Ezra, as soon as the foundation of the second temple was as the plainest speech.”'' Others, again, are ethic or didactic, laid. (Ezra iii. 10, 11.) Hence the Jews became well ac

delivering grave maxims of life, or the precepts of religion, quainted with these songs of Sion; and, having committed in solemn, but for the most part simple, strains.". To this them to memory, were celebrated for their melodious singing class we may refer the hundred and nineteenth, and the other among the neighbouring countries. (Psal. cxxxvii. 3.) The alphabetical psalms, which are so called because the initial continuance of this branch of divine worship is confirmed letters of each line or stanza follow the order of the alphabet.? by the practice of our Lord, and the instructions of St. Paul Nearly one-seventh part of the Psalms is composed of elegiac, (Matt. xxvi. 30. Mark xiv. 26. Eph. v. 19. Col. iii. 16. or pathetic compositions on mournful subjects. Some are compared with Rev. v. 9. xiv. 1, 2, 3.); and the practice of enigmatic, delivering the doctrines of religion in enigmata, divine psalmody has subsisted through every succeeding age sentences contrived to strike the imagination forcibly, and yet to our own time, not more to the delight than to the edificaeasy to be understood; while a few may be referred to the tion of the church of Christ. “There are, indeed, at this class of idyls, or short pastoral poems. But the greater part, time” (to use the words of a sensible writer),8 " very few according to Bishop Horsley, is a sort of dramatic ode, con- professing Christians who do not adopt these sacred hymns sisting of dialogues between certain persons sustaining certain in their public and private devotions, either by reading them, characters. "In these dialogue-psalms the persons are fre- composing them as anthems, or singing poetical translations, quently the psalmist himself, or the chorus of priests and and imitations of them. In this particular there ever has Levites, or the leader of the Levitical band, opening the ode existed, and there still exists, a wonderful communion of with a proem declarative of the subject, and very often closing saints. The language, in which Moses, and David, and the whole with a solemn admonition drawn from what the Solomon, Heman, Asaph, and Jeduthun, worshipped God, other persons say. The other persons are, Jehovah, some- is applicable to Christian believers. They worship the same times as one, sometimes as another of the three persons; God, through the same adorable Redeemer; they give thanks Christ in his incarnate state, sometimes before, sometimes for similar mercies, and mourn under similar trials; they are after his resurrection; the human soul of Christ, as distin- looking for the same blessed hope of their calling, even everguished from the divine essence. Christ, in his incarnate lasting life and salvation, through the prevailing intercession state, is personated sometimes as a priest, sometimes as a of the Messiah. The ancient believers, indeed, worshipped king, sometimes as a conqueror; and in those psalms in him as about to appear; we adore him as having actually which he is introduced as a conqueror, the resemblance is appeared, and put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. They very remarkable between this conqueror in the book of saw, as through a glass, darkly: but we face to face.” Psalms, and the warrior on the white horse in the book of IV. The Jewish writers ascribe the book of Psalms to ten Revelations, who goes forth with a crown on his head and a different authors, viz. Adam, to whom they ascribe the bow in his hand, conquering and to conquer. And the con- ninety-second psalm; Melchizedec; Abraham, whom they quest in the Psalms is followed, like the conquest in the Re- call Éthan, and give to him the eighty-ninth psalm ; Moses, velations, by the marriage of the conqueror. These are cir- Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, and the three sons of Korah : and cumstances of similitude, which, to any one versed in the they make David to be merely the collector of them into one prophetic style, prove beyond a doubt that the mystical con- volume or book. But this opinion is evidently fabulous: for, queror is the same personage in both.”'3

1. The ninety-second psalm, which is ascribed to Adam, apIII. The right of the book of Psalms to a place in the pears from its internal structure and style to be of a later sacred canon has never been disputed: they are frequently date, though no author is mentioned in its title or inscripalluded to in the Old Testament, and are often cited by our tion: besides, if Adam had left any sacred odes, it is more Lord and his apostles as the work of the Holy Spirit. They than probable that some notice would have been taken of are generally termed the Psalms of David, that Hebrew them in the book of Genesis, which, however, is totally monarch being their chief author. Origen, Chrysostom, Au- silent concerning any such compositions. 2. That the hungustine, Ambrose, Euthymius, and others of the ancient dred and tenth psalm, which is attributed to Melchizedec, fathers, indeed, were of opinion that he was their sole author : was certainly written by David, is evident, not only from the but they were opposed by Hilary and Athanasius (or the title, which claims him for its author, but also from its style author of the synopsis attributed to him), Jerome, Eusebius, and manner, which correspond with the acknowledged proand other fathers of equal eminence. And indeed this notion ductions of the royal prophet; and especially from the testiis manifestly erroneous; for an attentive examination of the mony of Jesus Christ and his apostle Peter. (Matt. xxii. 43 Psalms will immediately prove them to be the compositions —45. Mark xii. 36. Luke xx. 42. Acts ii. 31.). And, 3. It of various authors, in various ages. some much more ancient is most certain that David was the author of very many than the time of David, some of a much later age; and psalms, not merely of those which have his name in their others were evidently composed during the Babylonish cap- respective titles, but likewise of several others, to which his tivity. Some modern commentators have even referred a few name is not prefixed, especially of psalms ii. and xcv., as to the time of the Maccabees: but for this opinion, as we we are assured by the inspired apostles. (Acts iv. 25, 26. shall show in a subsequent page, there does not appear to Heb. iv. 7.) To make David, therefore, merely the collector

and editor of those divine compositions, is alike contradic1 Bishop Horsley's translation of the Psalms, vol. i. p. xv.

tory to the clearest evidence, derived from the book of Psalms 2 The alphabetical psalıns are xxv. xxxiv. xxxvii, cxi. cxii. cxix. and itself, and from the testimony of the inspired writers of the cxlv. On the peculiar structure of the

antiquity. . Chrysostom in Psal. i. Ambros. Præfat. in Psal. i. Augustin de A careful investigation of these divine odes will enable Civitate Dei, lib. xvii. c. 14. Theodoret, Præf. in Psal. Cassiodorus, Proleg. in Psal. Euthymius, Præf. in Psal. Philastrius, Häeres. 129. Huet. Dem. Ev. tom. i, prop. iv. p: 330.

: On the subject of Jewish psalmody, there is much curious information Hilarii Proleg. in Psal. et comment. in Psal. cxxxi. Athanasii collected in "The Temple Music; or, an Essay concerning the Method Synopsis. Hieronymi Epist. ad Sophronium. Eusebii Cæsariensis Præf. of singing the Psalms of David in the Temple, before the Babylonish in Psalmos, pp. 7, 8. et in Inscrip. Psal. p. 2. et in Psal. xli. lx. lxii. Cal Captivity. By Arthur Bedford. London, 1706." 8vo. met, Præf. Générale sur les Pseaumes. (Com. tom. iv. pp. v. vi.) Huet, 3 The editor of the 4to. Bible of 1810, with the notes of several of the ut supra.

venerable reformers. . See p. 240. infra.

• Francisci Junii Proleg. ad Librum Psalmorum, $ 2.

us to form a better opinion concerning their respective au-| songs of triumph and thanksgiving fur his victory over sin, thors, whom the modern Jews, and all modern commentators, and death, and hell. In a word, there is not a page in this understand to be Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, book of Psalms, in which the pious reader will not find his Ethan, Jeduthun, and the three sons of Korah. Other authors Saviour, if he reads with a view of finding him.”3 have been conjectured by some eminent critics, whose hypo- From the variety of circumstances and situations in which theses will presently be noticed.

David was placed at different times, and the various affec1. To Moses the Talmudical writers ascribe ten psalms, tions which consequently were called into exercise, we may viz. from xc. to xcix. inclusive. The nineteenth psalm, in readily conceive that his style is exceedingly various. The the Hebrew manuscripts, is inscribed with his name; and remark, indeed, is applicable to the entire book of Psalms, from its general coincidence in style and manner with his but eminently so to the odes of David. Hence it is that sacred hymns in Exod. xv. and Deut. xxxii. it is generally those, which are expressive of the natural character and state considered as the composition of the great lawgiver of the of man, and of sin, seem to bear marks of difficulty, and, as Jews. But Dr. Kennicott and other critics think that it was it were, disgust in their composition. "The sentences are written in a later age, and consequently cannot be of that laboured and move heavily, and cannot be perused with that date which the title imports: because in the time of Moses lively pleasure, which, on the contrary, is received from those most of the persons mentioned in Scripture lived to an age themes of the psalmist which place before us the glorious far exceeding the standard of threescore years and ten or four-attributes of God, and express either His love to man, or the score, which in the ninetieth psalm is assigned as the limit believer's love to Him. These strains flow with vigorous of human life. But this opinion seems founded on the ex- and well adapted expressions, as if the subject was fest to be ceptions from the general rule, rather than on the rule itselt. most delightful, entered on with alacrity, and pursued with The life of Aaron, Moses, Joshua, and Caleb, unquestionably holy joy.": Some of David's psalms possess great subliexceeded the age of fourscore considerably, and ran on from mity, as the twenty-fourth; but softness, tenderness, and a hundred and ten to a hundred and twenty; but all these pathos, are their prevailing characteristics. were probably instances of special favour. The decree 3. With the name of Asaph, a very celebrated Levite, and which abbreviated the life of man, as a general rule, to chief of the choirs of Israel in the time of David (1 Chron. seventy or eighty years, was given as a chastisement upon xvi. 4, 5.), twelve psalms are inscribed, viz. I. Ixxiii.the whole race of Israelites in the wilderness; and, with Ixxxiii. But the seventy-fourth and seventy-ninth psalms these few exceptions, none of them at the date of this psalm evidently cannot be his, because they deplore the overthrow could have reached more than seventy, and few of them so of Jerusalem and the conflagration of the temple, and in high a number. But it does not appear that the term of life point of style approach nearest to the Lamentations of Jerewas lengthened afterwards. Samuel died about seventy miah. Either, therefore, they are erroneously ascribed to years old, David under seventy-one, and Solomon under him, or were composed by another Asaph, who lived during sixty; and the history of the world shows us that the ab- the captivity. The subjects of Asaph's psalms are doctrinal breviation of life in other countries was nearly in the same or preceptive: their stýle, though less sweet than that of proportion.". The other nine psalms, xci. to xcix., are attri- David, is much more vehement, and little inferior to the buted to Moses by the Jews, by virtue of a canon of criticism grandest parts of the prophecies of Isaiah and Habakkuk. which they have established, namely, that all anonymous The fiftieth psalm, in particular, is characterized by such a psalms are to be referred to that author whose name occurred deep vein of thought and lofty tone of sentiment as place in the title last preceding them. But for this rule no foun- him in the number of poets of the highest order. In Asaph dation whatever exists: it is certain that the ninety-ninth the poet and the philosopher were combined. “ He was," psalm could not have been written by Moses, for in the sixth says Eichhorn, “one of those ancient wise men, who felt verse' mention is made of the prophet Samuel, who was not the insufficiency of external religious usages, and urged the born till two hundred and ninety-five or six years after the necessity of cultivating virtue and purity of mind.” It may death of Moses.

be well said of him, as of the scribe in the New Testament, 2. The name of David is prefixed to seventy-one psalms that he was not fur from the kingdom of God.5 in the IIebrew copies, to which the Septuagint version adds 4. Ten psalms, viz. xlii.—xlvii. lxxxiv. Ixxxv. Ixxxvii. eleven others : but it is evident, from the siyle and subject- and lxxxviii: are inscribed, “For the sons of Koran:” but matter of the latter, that many of them cannot be the compo- who these persons were is not altogether certain; and such sition of David, particularly the hundred and second, which is the uncertainty of the prepositional prefix, that the most is in no respect whatever applicable to him, but from its subject- eminent critics have not been able to decide whether these matter must be referred to some pious Jew who composed it psalms were written by them, or were composed for them, after the return from the Babylonish captivity, while the and to be performed by them with music in the temple. temple was in ruins, and the country in a state of desolation. Professor Stuart thinks it probable that they were the deThe hundred and thirty-eighth psalm, also, though attributed scendants of Korah, who perished in the rebellion. (Num. in the Septuagint to David, could not have been written by xvi.). It is certain that all' his children did not perish with him, for reference is made in it to the temple, which was not him (Num. xvi. 11.): it is certain also that some of their deerected till after his death by Solomon. On the contrary, scendants were among those who presided over the tabernacle some of the psalms thus ascribed to David in the Septuagint music. (1 Chron. vi. 22. 37.) In 1 Chron. ix. 19. we find version are unquestionably his, as well as some which are Shallum a descendant of Korah, mentioned as one of the anonymous: of the former class is the ninety-fifth, and of overseers of the tabernacle, and it appears that he belonged the latter the second psalm, both of which are cited as to a family called Korahites. These last are mentioned also David's psalms by the inspired writers of the New Tes- in 1 Chron. xxvi. 1. and 2 Chron. xx. 19. as being among tament. Compare Acts iv. 25—28. xiii. 33. Heb. iii. 7—11. those engaged in sacred music. Hence it would appear, that iv. 7–13.

there were men of eminence among the Korahises in the Many of the psalms, which bear the royal prophet's name, time of David and Solomon; and the probability is, that the were composed on occasion of remarkable circumstances in psalms above enumerated, which bear their names, belong to his life, his dangers, his afflictions, his deliverances. “But them as authors. In style they differ very sensibly from

the of those which relate to the public history of the natural Is- compositions of David ; and they are some of the most ex rael, there are few in which the fortunes of the mystical quisite of all the lyric compositions which the Book of Israel are not adumbrated; and of those which allude to the Psalms contains. The title was, probably, affixed by some life of David, there are none in which the Son of David is editor of a later age, who knew only the general report that not the principal and immediate subject. David's complaints the psalms in question belonged to the sons of Korah, and against his enemies are Messiah's complaints, first of the could obtain nothing certain as to the individuals who were unbelieving Jews, then of the heathen persecutors, and of their respective authors. the apostate faction in later ages. David's afflictions are 5. By whom psalms xxxix. lxii. and lxxvii. were comMessiah's sufferings. David's penitential supplications are Messiah's, under the burden of the imputed guilt of man.

3 Bishop Horsley's Psalms, vol. i. p. x.

* Memorial Sketches of the late Rev. David Brown, p. 93.-a very in David's songs of triumph and thanksgiving are Messiah's structive piece of clerical biography. Mr. B., to whom we are indebted 1 Extract from Dr. Good's (unpublished) Version of the Book of Psalms, their original Hebrew.

for the above remark, was inost accurately intimate with the psalıns in

"He accustomed himself to them," says his in Prosessor Gregory's Memoirs of his Life, p. 316.

biographer, "in the original, as the medium of his most private and *This opinion is very ancient: it was adopted by Origen (Select. in earnest devotions, whether of contrition, supplication, or praise. In all Psalmos, Opp. tom. ii. p. 574. edit. Benedict.), and by Jerome (Epist. cxxxix. affliction, and in all rejoicing, he alike called upon God in the language of ad Cyprianum, p. 388. edit. Plantin.), who says it was derived from a tra- David.” 'Ibid. lition recorded by lullus, patriarch of the Jews. Advers, Ruffin. lib. i. 3 Noyes's translation of the Psalms, p. xiii. cap. 3. p. 235. Rosenmüller, Scholia in Psalmos, tom. i. p. xii.

• Stuart's Hebrew Christomathy, p. 206.

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posed, is not now known: their titles are inscribed to JEDU- Psal. Ixxxi. This psalm, which is attributed to Asaph, was Thun, who was one of the three directors of music in the sung in the temple, at the feast of trumpets, held in the national worship, mentioned in 1 Chron. xxv. 1.

beginning of the civil year of the Jews, and also at the 6. To HEMAN the Ezrahite is ascribed the eighty-eighth feast of tabernacles. psalm; and to Ethan the Ezrahite the following psalm. Psal. xci. This moral psalm, though assigned to Moses, was They were both probably descendants from Zerah, who is

in all probability composed during or after the captivity. It mentioned in 1 Chron. ii. 6.; but at what time they lived is treats on the happiness of those who place their whole con uncertain. They are, however, supposed to have flourished fidence in God. during the Babylonish captivity.

Psal. cx. The advent, kingdom, and generation of the Mes 7. It is highly probable that many of the psalms were

siah ; composed by David. composed during the reign of SOLOMOŃ, who, we learn from

Psal. cxxxix. A psalm of praise to God for his all-seeing 1 Kings iv. 32. “ wrote a thousand and five songs,” or

providence and infinite wisdom. poems.

There are only two psalms, however, which bear his 2. Psalms composed by David during the Persecution of name, viz. the seventy-second and the hundred and twenty- Saul. These are seventeen ; namely, seventh psalms. The title of the former may be translated

Psal. xi. David, being entreated by his friends to withdraw for as well as of Solomon; and, indeed, it is evident, from

from the court of Saul, professes his confidence in God. considering its style and subject matter, that it could not have been composed by him. But, as he was inaugurated

Psal. xxxi. David, proscribed by Saul, is forced to withdraw

from his court. just before David's death, it was in all probability, one of David's latest odes. The hundred and twenty-seventh psalm

Psal. xxxiv. Composed by David, when, at the court of Achish is most likely Solomon's, composed at the time of his nup

king of Gath, he counterfeited madness, and was permitted tials: it strongly and beautifully expresses a sense of depen

to depart. dence upon Jehovah for every blessing, especially a nume

Psal. Ivi. Composed in the care of Adullam, after David's rous offspring, which we know was an object of the most

escape from Achish. ardent desire to the Israelites.

Psal. xvi. David persecuted by Saul, and obliged to take 8. Besides the preceding, there are upwards of thirty

refuge among the Moabites and Philistines. psalms which in the Hebrew Bibles are altogether Anony

Psal. liv. David pursued by Saul in the desert of Ziph, whence Mous, although the Septuagint version gives names to some

Saul was obliged to withdraw and repel the Philistines. of them, chiefly, it should seem, upon conjecture, for which

David's thanksgiving for his deliverance. there is little or no foundation. Thus the Alexandrian Greek Psal. lii. Composed by David after Saul had sacked the city translators ascribe the hundred and thirty-seventh psalm to

of Nob, and put the priests and all their families to the Jeremiah, who could not have written it, for he died before

sword. the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, which Psal. cix. Composed during Saul's unjust persecution of joyous event is most pleasingly commemorated in that ode. David. The person, against whom this psalm was directed, În like manner, the hundred and forty-sixth and hundred and was most probably Doeg. Bishop Horsley considers it as a forty-seventh psalms are attributed by them to the prophets prophetic malediction against the Jewish nation. Haggai and Zechariah, for no other reason, it should seem, Psal. xvii. A prayer of David during Saul's bitterest persethan because psalm cxlvi. 7-10. treats of the deliverance cution of him. of the captives and those who were oppressed, and cxlvii. Psal. xxii. David, persecuted by Saul, personates the Messiah, of the restoration of the Jewish church. Psalms ii. and xcv. persecuted and put to death by the Jews. however, as we have already remarked, though anonymous, Psal. xxxv. Composed about the same time, and under the are ascribed by the inspired apostles to David. Some mo- same persecution. dern critics have imagined, that there are a few of the un- Psal. lvii. David, in the cave of En-gedi, implores divine pro titied psalms which were composed so lately as the time of tection, in sure prospect of which he breaks forth into the Maccabees. Thus Rudinger assigns to that period psalms grateful praise. (1 Sam. xxiv. 1.) i. xliv. xlvi. xlix. and cviii.; Herman Vonder Hardt, psalm Psal. lviii. A continuation of the same subject. Complaints cxix. ; and Venema, psalms lxxxv. xciii. and cviii.2 This late

against Saul's wicked counsellors. date, however, is impossible, the canon of the Old Testament

Psal. cxlii. David in the cave of En-gedi. Scriptures being closed by Ezra, nearly three centuries be- Psal. cxl.cxli. David, under severe persecution, implores hely fore the time of the Maccabces. But whether David, or

of God. any other prophet, was employed as the instrument of com.

Psal. vii. David violently persecuted by Saul. municating to the church such or such a particular psalm is a question, which, if it cannot always be satisfactorily an- 3. Psalms composed by David at the beginning of his Reign swered, needs not disquiet our minds. When we discern, and after the Death of Saul. Of this class there are six in an epistle, the well-known hand of a friend, we are not teen; viz. solicitous about the pen with which it was written.”3

Psal. ii. Written by David, after he had fixed the seat of his V. The following CHRONOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT of the government at Jerusalem, notwithstanding the malignant Psalms, after a careful and judicious examination, has been opposition of his enemies. It is a most noble prediction of adopted by Calmet, who has further specified the probable the kingdom of the Messiah. occasions on which they were composed :

Psal. lxviii

. Composed on occasion of conducting the ark 1. Psalms of which the Dite is uncertain. These are eight from Kirjath-jearim to Jerusalem. in number; viz.

Psal ix. and xxiv. Sung by David on the removal of the ark Psal. i. This is a preface to the whole book, and is by some

from the house of Obededom to Mount Sion. ascribed to David, by others to Ezra, who is supposed to

Psal. ci. David describes the manner in which he guided his have collected the psalms into a volume.

people in justice and equity. Psal. iv. The expressions of a devout person amid the cor

Psal. xxix. A solemn thanksgiving for the rain that fell after rupt manners of the age. An evening prayer.

David had avenged the Gibeonites on the house of Saul, Psal. viii. The prerogatives of man: and the glory of Jesus

by whom they had been unjustly persecuted. 2 Sam. xxi. Christ. Psal. xix. A beautiful eulogy on the law of God. A psalm Psal. xx. Composed by David when he was on the point of

of praise to the Creator, arising from a consideration of marching against the Ammonites and Syrians who had his works, as displayed in the creation, in the heavens, and leagued together against him. 2 Sam. X. in the stars.

Psal. xxi. A continuation of the preceding subject. David's

thanksgiving for his victory over the Ammonites. 1 See p. 239. supra.

Psal. vi. xxxviii. and xxxix. Composed by David during sick. Rosenmüller, Scholia in Psalmos, Prolegom. c. 2. pp. xi.—xix. He ness; although no notice is taken of this sickness in the adopts the untenable hypothesis of Rudinger. 3 Bishop Horne's Commentary on the Psalms, vol. i. Pref. p. v.

history of David, yet it is the opinion of almost every com4 Commentaire Littéral, tom. iv. pp. lxii.-Ixvi. As some of the Psalms

mentator that these psalms refer to some dangerous illness in the Vulgate Latin version, which was used by Calunet, are divided and from which his recovery was long doubtful. numbered in a different manner from that in which they appear in our Bibles, we have adapted the references to the psalms to the authorized

Psal. xl. A psalm of thanksgiving for his recovery fron sick English version.

et seq.


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