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is not to be despised. (iv. v.) The next of them, not less | justice and, omniscience of God in attestation of his veraintemperate in his reproofs, takes it for granted, that the city. children of Job had only received the reward due their If these circumstances were fairly collected from the geneoffences; and with regard to himself, intimates, that if he be ral tenor and series of the work, as far as we are able to innocent, and will apply with proper humility to the divine trace them through the plainer and more conspicuous pasmercy, he may be restored. (viii.) The third upbraids him sages, it will be no very difficult task to explain and define with arrogance, with vanity, and even with falsehood, because the subject of this part of the poem, which contains the dishe has presumed to defend himself against the unjust accu- pute between Job and his friends. The argument seems sations of his companions, and exhorts him to a sounder chiefly to relate to the piety and integrity of Job, and turns mode of reasoning, and a more holy life. (xi.) They all, upon this point, whether he, who by the divine providence with a manifest though indirect allusion to Job, discourse and visitation is so severely punished and afflicted, ought to very copiously concerning the divine judgments, which are be accounted pious and innocent. This leads into a more always openly displayed against the wicked, and of the cer- extensive field of controversy, into a dispute, indeed, which tain destruction of hypocritical pretenders to virtue and reli- less admits of any definition or limit, concerning the nature gion. In reply to this, Job enumerates his sufferings, and of the divine counsels in the dispensations of happiness and complains bitterly of the inhumanity of his friends, and of misery in this life. The antagonists of Job in this dispute, the severity which he has experienced from the hand of God; observing him exposed to such severe visitations, conceiving he calls to witness both God and man, that he is unjustly that this affliction had not fallen upon him unmeritedly, ac oppressed ; he intimates, that he is weak in comparison with cuse him of hypocrisy, and falsely ascribe to him the guilt of God, that the contention is, consequently, unequal, and that, some atrocious but concealed offence. Job, on the contrary, be his cause ever so righteous, he cannot hope to prevail. conscious of no crime, and wounded by their unjust suspi(vi. vii.). He expostulates with God himself still more cions, defends his own innocence before God with rather vehemently, and with greater freedom, affirming, that he more confidence and ardour than is commendable; and so does not discriminate characters, but equally afflicts the just strenuously contends for his own integrity, that he seems and the unjust. (x.) The expostulations of Job serve only virtually to charge God himself with some degree of injusto irritate still more the resentment of his pretended friends; tice. they reproach him in severer terms with pride, impiety, pas- The argument of Job's friends may, in substance, be comsion, and madness; they repeat the same arguments respecting prised in the following syllogism : the justice of God, the punishment of the wicked, and their certain destruction after a short period of apparent prosperity. God who is just bestows blessings upon the godly, but afflicts the wicked: This sentiment they confidently pronounce to be confirmed Therefore Job is ricked, and deserves the punishment of his sins , and both by their experience and by that of their fathers; and therefore he is bound to repent, that is, to confess and bewail his sins. they maliciously exaggerate the ungrateful topic by the most To the major proposition Job replies, that God afflicts not only splendid imagery and the most forcible language. (xi.) On the wicked, but also the pious, in order that their faith, pathe part of Job, the general scope of the argument is much tience, and other virtues, may be proved, and that the glory the same as before, but the expression is considerably of God may become more conspicuously manifest in their heightened; it consists of appeals to the Almighty, assevera- wonderful deliverances. But overwhelmed with grief and tions of his own innocence, earnest expostulations, complaints the cruel suspicions of his friends, he defends his cause with of the crvel'sy of his friends, melancholy reflections on the hard and sometimes impatient expressions. vanity of human life, and upon his own severe misfortunes, This state of the controversy is clearly explained by what ending in grief and desperation: he affirms, however, that he follows: for when the three friends have ceased to dispute places his ultimate hope and confidence in God; and the with Job, because he seemeth just in his own eyes (xxxii. 1.), more vehemently his adversaries urge that the wicked only that is, because he has uniformly contended that there was are objects of the divine wrath, and obnoxious to punish- no wickedness in himself which could call down the heavy ment, 'so much the more resolutely does Job assert their vengeance of God, Elihu comes forward, justly, offended perpetual impunity, prosperity and happiness, even to the with both parties ; with Job, because he justified himself in end of their existence. The first of his opponents, Eliphaz, preference to God (xxxii. 2. compare xxxv. 2. xl. 8.), that is, incensed by this assertion, descends directly to open crimina- because he defended so veheinently the justice of his own tion and contumely: he accuses the most upright of men of cause, that he seemed in some measure to arraign the justice the most atrocious crimes, of injustice, rapine, and oppression; of God: against the three friends, because though they were inveighs against him as an impious pretender to virtue and unable to answer Job, they ceased not to condemn him (xxxii

. religion, and with a kind of sarcastic benevolence exhorts 3.), that is, they concluded in their own minds that Job was him to penitence. Vehemently affected with this reproof, impious and wicked, while, nevertheless, they had nothing Job, in a still more animated and confident strain, appeals to specific to object against his assertions of his own innocence, the tribunal cf All-seeing Justice, and wishes it were only or upon which they might safely ground their accusation. permitted him to plead his cause in the presence of God The conduct of Elihu evidently corresponds with this himself. He complains still more intemperately of the state of the controversy; he professes, after a slight prefaunequal treatment of Providence; exults in his own integrity, tory mention of himself, to reason with Job, unbiassed and then more tenaciously maintains his former opinion con- equally by favour or resentment. He therefore reproves Job cerning the impunity of the wicked. To this another of the from his own mouth, because he had attributed too much to triumvirate, Bildad, replies, by a masterly though concise himself; because he had affirmed himself to be altogether dissertation on the majesty and sanctity of the Divine Being; free from guilt and depravity; because he had presumed to indirectly rebuking the presumption of Job, who has dared contend with God, and had not scrupled to insinuate, that to question his decrees. In reply to Bildad, Job demonstrates the Deity was hostile to him. He asserts, that it is not nehimself no less expert at wielding the weapons of satire and cessary for God to explain and develope his counsels to ridicule than those of reason and argument; and reverting to men ; that he nevertheless takes many occasions of admoa more serious tone, he displays the infinite power and wis-nishing them, not only by visions and revelations, but even dom of God more copiously and more poetically than the by the visitations of his providence, by sending calamities former speaker. The third of the friends making no return, and diseases upon them, to repress their arrogance and reand the others remaing silent, Job at length opens the true form their obduracy. He next rebukes Job, because he had sentiments of his heart concerning the fate of the wicked; pronounced himself upright, and affirmed that God had acted he allows that their prosperity is unstable, and that they and inimically, if not unjustly, towards him, which he proves to their descendants shall at last experience on a sudden that be no less improper than indecent. In the third place, he God is the avenger of iniquity., In all this, however, he objects to Job, that from the miseries of the good and the contends that the divine counsels do not admit of human prosperity of the wicked, he has falsely and perversely coninvestigation, but that the chief wisdom of man consists included, that there was no advantage to be derived from the the fear of God. He beautifully descants upon his former practice of virtue. On the contrary, he afirms, that when prosperity; and exhibits a striking contrast between it and the afflictions of the just continue, it is because they do not his present affliction and debasement. Lastly, in answer to place a proper confidence in God, ask relief at his hands, the crimination of Eliphaz, and the implications of the others, patiently expect it, nor demean themselves before him with he relates the principal transactions of his past life; he becoming humility and submission. This observation alone, asserts his integrity as displayed in all the duties of life, and in the sight of God and man; and again appeals to the

1 Lowth's Lectures, No. xxxii. vol. ii. pp. 371–378. VOL. II.

2G

he adds very properly, is at once a sufficient reproof of the of the present day has remarked, that here are but few parts contumacy of Job, and a full refutation of the unjust suspi- of the Old Testament which declare more explicitly the cions of his friends. (xxxv. 4.) Lastly, he explains the grand outlines of revealed truth, nay even of evangelical purposes of the Deity, in chastening men, which are in doctrine : so that they, who speak of it as consisting chiefly general to prove and to amend them, to repress their arro- of natural religion, seem entirely to have mistaken its scope. gance, to afford him an opportunity of exemplifying his jus- The book of Job, he continues, is full of caution and encoutice upon the obstinate and rebellious, and of showing favour ragement to the tempted and afflicted, and of warning to to the humble and obedient. He supposes God to have those who hastily judge their brethren. It throws great acted in this manner towards Job : on that account he ex- light upon the doctrine of Providence, and upon the agency horts him to humble himself before his righteous Judge, to and influence of evil spirits under the control of God. In the beware of appearing obstinate or contumacious in his sight, patriarch Job we see an eminent type of the suffering and and of relapsing into a repetition of his sin. He entreats glorified Saviour, and a pattern of the believer's “passing him, from the contemplation of the divine power and ma- through much tribulation to the kingdom of God.” In short, jesty, to endeavour to retain a proper reverence for the Al- the whole is replete with most important instruction: and mighty.. To these frequently intermitted and often repeated among the rest we are reminded of the ill effects of acrimoadmonitions of Elihu, Job makes no return.

nious religious dispute. These four pious men argued togeThe address of God himself follows that of Elihu, in ther, till, becoming angry, they censured and condemned which, disdaining to descend to any particular explication of each other, and uttered many irreverent things concerning his divine counsels, but instancing some of the stupendous the divine character and government; and having lost their effects of his infinite power, he insists upon the same topics temper, they would also have lost their labour, and have been which Elihu had before touched upon. "In the first place, at more variance than ever, if another method had not been having reproved the temerity of Job, he convicts him of ig- taken to decide the controversy.? norance, in being unable to comprehend the works of his “ The character of each person is well sustained through creation, which were obvious to every eye; the nature and the whole book: Job, every where consistent, pious, constructure of the earth, the sea, the light, and the animal scious of his own uprightness, but depressed by misery, kingdom. He then demonstrates his weakness, by chal- weighed down by disease, and irritated by the clamorous lenging him to prove his own power by emulating any single accusations of his friends, is hurried on to make some rash exertion of the divine energy, and then referring him to one assertions. Confident in his own innocence, his appeals to or two of the brute creation, with which he is unable to God are sometimes too bold, and his attacks upon his friend's contend :-how much less, therefore, with the Omnipotent too harsh, but he always ends in complaints, and excuse : Creator and Lord of all things, who is or can be accountable his vehemence on account of the magnitude of his calamitý; to no being whatever ? (xli. 2, 3.),

His friends, all sincere worshippers of the true God, and The scope of this speech is, to humble Job, and to teach earnest advocates of virtue, agree in the opinion, that divine others by his example to acquiesce in the dispensations of justice invariably punishes the wicked, and rewards th: Jehovah, from an unbounded confidence in his equity, wis- good with present happiness. They endeavour to prove this dom, and goodness :-an end this, which (Bishop Stock by appeals to more ancient revelations, to the opinions of truly remarks) is, indeed, worthy of the interposition of the those who lived in former times, and to experience,--appre. Deity. The method pursued in the speech to accomplish its hensive lest the contrary assertion of Job should injura design, is a series of questions and descriptions, relative to morals and religion. They all speak of angels. Neverthe natural things, admirably fitted to convince this complainant, less, they differ from each other in many other matters and all others, of their incapacity to judge of God's moral Eliphaz is superior to the others in discernment and in deli. administration, and of the danger of striving with their Maker. cacy. He begins by addressing Job mildly, and it is not Nothing, in the whole compass of language, can equal, much until irritated by contradiction, that he reckons him among less surpass, the inimitable grandeur and sublimity of this the wicked.-Bildad, less discerning and less polished, divine address, which extends from chapter xxxviii. to xli. breaks out at first in accusations against Job, and increases

On the conclusion of the speech of Jehovah, Job humbles in vehemence: in the end, however, he is reduced to a mere himself before God, acknowledging his own ignorance and repetition of his former arguments.Zophar is inferior to imbecility, and " repents in dust and ashes.” He then offers his companions in both these respects; at first, his discourse sacrifice for his friends, and is restored to redoubled pros- is characterized by rusticity; his second address adds but perity, honour, and comfort.

little to the first; and in the third dialogue he has no reply From a due consideration of all these circumstances, to make.-Elihu manifests a degree of veneration for Job Bishop Lowth concludes that the principal object of the and his friends, but speaks like an inflated youth, wishing poem is this third and last trial of Job from the injustice and to conceal his self-sufficiency under the appearance of mo unkindness of his accusing friends; the consequence of desty. God is introduced in all his majesty, speaking from which is, in the first place, the anger, indignation, and con- a tempestuous cloud in the style of one, with whose honour tumacy of Job, and afterwards, his composure, submission, it is not consistent to render an account of his government and penitence. The design of the poem is, therefore, to and to settle the agitated question, which is above the reach teach men, that, having a due respect to the corruption, in- of human intellect. He, therefore, merely silences the dis firmity, and ignorance of human nature, as well as to the putants. The feelings of the interlocuters, as is natural, be infinite wisdom and majesty of God, they are to reject all come warm in the progress of the controversy, and each confidence in their own strength, in their own righteousness, speaker returns to the stage, with an increased degree of and to preserve on all occasions an unwavering and unsullied eagerness and impetuosity.3 faith, and to submit with becoming reverence to his decrees. VIII. At the end of the Septuagint version of this book. It is, however, to be carefully observed, that the subject of after the account of Job's death (xlii. 16.), there is the fol the dispute between Job and his friends differs from the sub- lowing addition : Toggut TU DE, TILAV QyLSnoer Tu autoy, usta ject of the poem in general; and that the end of the poetical • Kugies avignoiv." But it is written that he shall rise again part differs from the design of the narrative at large. For, along with those whom the Lord raiseth up.Where it was the bishop remarks, although the design and subject of the so written concerning Job, is not easily to be found, unless poem be exactly as they are above defined, it may, neverthe- in his own celebrated confession, I know that my REDEEMER. less, be granted that the whole history, taken together, con- liveth, &c. (xix. 25—27.) The remark, however, is so far tains an example of patience, together with its reward; and of importance as it proves the popular belief of the doctrine he considers much of the perplexity in which the subject before the coming of Christ,-a belief, to which this inęstihas been involved, as arising principally from this point not mable book, we may rest assured, contributed not a little. having been treated with sufficient distinctness by the To this additional passage there is also annexed in the Seplearned.

tuagint version a subscription or appendix, containing a Moldenhawer and some other critics have considered the brief genealogical account of the patriarch, derived from an passage in Job xix. 25–27. as a prediction of the Messiah. old Syriac version, and identifying him with Jobab, king It cannot, however, be clearly shown that this book contains any prophecies, strictly so called; because the passages

> Scott's Preface to Job.

> Prof. Turner's translation of Jahn's Introduction, p. 463. which might be adduced as prophetical may also be consi- • Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book i. p. 102. dered as a profession of faith in a promised Redeemer, and This subscription is also found in the Arabic version, where it is less concerning a future resurrection. 'A learned commentator ing version is given from the Septuagint in Bishop Walton's Polyglott, vol. of the Edomites, and, consequently, making him nearly 8. He could only affirm his integrity, but could give no special contemporary with Moses. This subscription was received satisfactory reason why God should afflict him in a manner so and credited by the pseudo-Aristeas, Philo, and Polyhistor; very extraordinary, and beyond all preceding cases that were it was also believed in the time of Origen, and is preserved ever known in the world. This very much perplexed and emby Theodotion at the end of his version of the book of Job. barrassed his mind, and laid him under a great disadvantage in

circumstantial, and in the old Latin Vulgate translation of Job. The follow.

iii. p. 86. :-"This is translated out of a book in the Syrian language; for 1 Lowth's Lectures, No. xxxii. vol. ii. pp. 378-382.

he dwelt in the land of Ausitis, on the confines of Idumea and Arabia.

This genealogy is received by. Calmet and Herder as the dispute. And for one thing, it is on this account that he is genuine, but it is manifestly spurious; for not only was it so earnest to come to a conference with God, to know his mind never extant in the Hebrew copies, but, even admitting the and meaning (chap. X. 2.); Show me wherefore thou contendgenealogy in question to be prior to the time of our Saviour, est with me À He knew very well he could not absolutely it is too recent to be admitted as evidence in a fact of such justify himself before God. (chap. ix. 2—17.) For he breaks remote antiquity, especially as it is drawn only from conjec-'me with a tempest, he multiplieth my wounds without a cause, ture supported by the slender resemblance between the two or without any apparent reason. (chap. vii. 12. 20.) The whole names Job and Jobab: and when we consider that it is con- twenty-third chapter relates to this point; in which he wishes tradicted by the arguments already adduced to prove that he could come to the dwelling-place of God (ver. 3.), and spread the patriareh lived so many ages anterior to the great legis- his case before him, and argue about it at large (ver. 4.), for he lator of the Hebrews, as well as by the internal evidence had turned his thoughts every way, and could make nothing of derived from the poem itself respecting the rank and condi- it (ver. 8, 9.), only he was sure God knew he was an upright tion of Job, we cannot doubt for a moment that the subscription is both erroneous and spurious.

man. (ver, 10—12.) But (ver. 13.) he is in one 1089, or in IX. Although the preceding view of the scope and argu- mind and designs to himself; and itone can turn, or oblige him

unity, supreme above all others, absolutely entire, keeping his ment will convey to the reader an accurate idea of this very to alter his resolution. All that we can say is, that he doth ancient, but in many passages confessedly obscure poem; yet the following rules contain so many useful hints for the whatever is agreeable to his own wisdom. For (ver. 14.) what right understanding of its contents, that, long as this section he hath resolved to inflict upon me he hath accomplished; and necessarily is, the author is unwilling to omit them.3

many such things he doth, of which he will not give us the

reason. To the same purpose understand chap. xxvii. 244. 14. RULES TO BE OBSERVED IN STUDYING THE BOOK OF JOB. and chap. xxviii. 2. He hath taken away my judgment, i. e.

1. He that would rightly explain this book must, as much as the rule by which I might judge of the reason of my afflictions. he can, imagine himself in the same afflicted condition. This point, in reference to God, Elihu tells him (chap. xxxiii.

2. Every daring thought, or ardent expression, which occurs 13.) he had urged to no purpose, seeing he gives no account in the speeches of this afflicted and exasperated man, is not to of his mutters, or will not reveal to us the secrets of his provibe vindicated; yet, as he was a great man, and a prince, he may dence. be allowed to use bold and animated language.

9. In such a noble performance, if any thing seems to be said 3. We shall certainly judge amiss, if we think every thing not in consistency, or not in character, we should rather suspect wrong which will not suit with the politeness of our manners. our own judgment than the good sense of the author. The fault Allowance must be made for the simplicity of those times. is not in the book, but in our understanding.

4. In judging of Job's character, we must set the noble strains 10. That sense which best agrees with the subject, or the point of his piety against the unguarded expressions of his sorrow. in hand, or which stands in the best connection with the context,

5. It is not his innocence, strictly speaking, which Job insists should always be judged the best sense. on, but his sincerity. (chap. vii. 20, 21.)

X. Nothing, perhaps, has contributed more to render the 6. Except their hard censures of Job, his friends speak well poem of Job obscure, than the common division into chapters and religiously.

and verses; by which, not only the unity of the general sub7. His friends encouraged Job to hope for a temporal deliver-ject, but frequently that of a single paragraph or clause, is ance (chap. v. 18, &c. vii

. 20, &c. xi. 14, &c.); but Job de- broken. The commentators, critics, and analysts, indeed, are spaired of it, and expected his bodily disorder would terminate not agreed as to the exact number of parts of which it conin death (chap. vi. 11, 12. ; vii. 6, 7, 8.21.; xvii. 1. 13, 14, 15.; sists : thus Heidegger and the elder Carpzov institute two xix. 10.); though, in the increasing heat of the dispute, they leading, divisions, with a multitude of subdivisions; Van seem to drop this sentiment in their following answers, as if Til divides it into four leading parts, Moldenhawer into three, they supposed Job to be too bad to hope for any favour from and Mr. Noyes into two, with a number of subordinate God. He hoped, however, that his character would be cleared heads; Dr. Good divides it into six books or parts; and Dr in the day of judgment; though he was greatly concerned that Hales into five parts, independently of the exordium and conit could not be cleared before ; that, after a life led in the most clusion : but as these are requisite to the unity of the book, conspicuous virtues, his reputation, in the opinion of his nearest it does not appear that they should be excluded from the arfriends, would sit under a black cloud, and, with regard to the rangement. The poem, then, may be conveniently divided ignorant and profane, leave an odious reproach upon a profession into six parts: the first of these contains the exordium

or of religion. This touched him to the heart

, exasperated all his narrative part (ch. i. ii.); the second comprises the first desufferings, and made him often wish, that God would bring him bate or dialogue of Job and his friends (iii.-xiv.); the third to his trial here in this life, that his integrity might be vindicated, includes the second series of debate or controversy (xv. xxi.); and that all, friends and enemies, might understand the true end the fourth comprehends the third series of controversy (xxii

. or design of God in his sufferings, and the honour of religion

* See Bishop Patrick's Paraphrase on Job x. 2–8. might be secured. (chap. x. 2, 3.) It is good unto thee, that The following Synopsis exhibits the divisions, and subdivisions, adopted thou shouldst-shine upon the counsel of the wicked? who by Mr. Noyes

in his " Amended Version of the Book of Job:" (Cambridge, from my case take occasion to reproach and vilify true religion, North Am. 1827;)

I. Historical Introduction in Prose. Ch. I. II. and to confirm themselves in their wicked and idolatrous prac- II. Controversy in Verse. Ch. III.-- XLII. 7. tices. (chap. viii. 20—22.; xi. 17–20.; xvi. 9—11.)

The Speech of Job, in wbich he curses his birth-day, is succeeded by 1. The first series of Controversy. Ch. IV.-XIV.

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Ch. IV. v. His first name was Jobab; and having married an Arabian woman, he had 2. Answer of Job. Ch. VI. VII. by her a son whose name was Ennon. Now he himself was the son of

3. Speech of Bildad. Ch. VIII. Zave, one of the sons of Esau: so that he was the fifth in descent from 4. Answer of Job. Ch. IX. X. Abraham. Now these were the kings who reigned in Edom, over which 5. Speech of Zophar. Ch. XI. country he also bare rule. The first was Balak the son of Beor, and the 6. Answer of Job. Ch. XI. XIII. XIV. name of his city was Dannaba : and after Balak, Jobab, who is called Job: II. Second series of Controversy. Ch. XV.-XXI. and after him, Ason, who was general over the region of Thæmanitis (Te.

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Ch. XV. man); and after him, Adad, the son of Barad, who smote Madiam in the land of Moab: and the name of his city was Gethaim. And the friends 3. Speech of Bildad. Ch. XVIII. who came to Job were Eliphaz of the sons of Esau king of the Thæma- 4. Answer of Job. Ch. XIX. nites: Baldad, the sovereign of the Saucheans (Shuhites); and Sophar

5. Speech of Zophar. Ch. XX. (Zophar), the king of the Minains” (Naamathites). Calmet's Dictionary, vol. i. art. Job. Herder on Hebrew Poetry in III. Third series

of Controversy. Ch. XXII.-XXXI. M. R. (O. S.) vol. Lxxx. p. 644. * S III. pp. 228, 229. súpra.

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Ch. XXII.

2. Answer of Job. Ch. XXIII. XXIV. 3 These rules are extracted from Dr. John Taylor's Scheme of Scripture 3. Speech of Bildad. Ch. XXV. Divinity, chap. xxiii. in Bishop Watson's Collection of Theological Tracts, 4. Answer of Job. Ch. XXVI.-XXXI. vol. i. pp. 97, 98. Dr. Taylor of Norwich was an eminent divine of the last IV. The Judgment of Elihu respecting the Discussion. Ch. XXXIL century; who was distinguished for his command of temper, benevolent -XXXVII. feeling, and deep acquaintance with the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. V. The Speech of the Deity, which terminates the Discussion. Ch His Scheme of Divinity, it is deeply to be regretted, was Arian, and, there.

XXXVIII.-XLII. 7. fore, cannot be recommended to students, indiscriminately.

II. The Conclusion, in Prose. Ch. XLII. 7. to the end.

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2. Answer of Job. Ch. XVI. XVII.

6. Answer of Job. Ch. XXI.

posed, is not now known: their titles are inscribed to JEDU- Psal. lxxxi. This psalm, which is attributed to Asaph, was THUN, who was one of the three directors of music in the sung in the temple, at the feast of trumpets, held in the national worship, mentioned in 1 Chron. xxv. 1.

beginning of the civil year of the Jews, and also at the 6. To HEMAN the Ezrahite is ascribed the eighty-eighth feast of tabernacles. psalm; and to Ethan the Ezrahite the following psalm. Psal. xci. This moral psalm, though assigned to Moses, was They were both probably descendants from Zerah, who is in all probability composed during or after the captivity. It mentioned in 1 Chron. ii. 6.; but at what time they lived is

treats on the happiness of those who place their whole con uncertain. They are, however, supposed to have flourished fidence in God. during the Babylonish captivity.

Psal. cx. The advent, kingdom, and generation of the Mes 7. It is highly probable that many of the psalms were

siah ; composed by David. composed during the reign of Solomon, who, we learn from

Psal. cxxxix. A psalm of praise to God for his all-seeing 1 Kings iv. 32. " wrote a thousand and five songs," or providence and infinite wisdom. poems.

There are only two psalms, however, which bear his 2. Psalms composed by David during the Persecution of name, viz. the seventy-second and the hundred and twenty- Saul. These are seventeen ; namely, seventh psalms. The title of the former may be translated

Psal. xi. David, being entreated by his friends to withdraw for as well as of Solomon; and, indeed, it is evident, from

from the court of Saul, professes his confidence in God. considering its style and subject matter, that it could not

Psal. xxxi. David, proscribed by Saul, is forced to withdraw have been composed by him. But, as he was inaugurated from his court. just before David's death, it was in all probability, one of David's latest odes. The hundred and twenty-seventh psalm

Psal. xxxiv. Composed by David, when, at the court of Achish is most likely Solomon's, composed at the time of his nup

king of Gath, he counterfeited madness, and was permitted tials: it strongly and beautifully expresses a sense of depen

to depart. dence upon Jehovah for every blessing, especially a nume

Psal. Ivi. Composed in the cave of Adullam, after David's rous offspring, which we know was an object of the most escape from Achish. ardent desire to the Israelites.

Psal. xvi. David persecuted by Saul, and obliged to take 8. Besides the preceding, there are upwards of thirty

refuge among the Moabites and Philistines. psalms which in the Hebrew Bibles are altogether Anony

Psal. liv. David pursued by Saul in the desert of Ziph, whence MOUS, although the Septuagint version gives names to some

Saul was obliged to withdraw and repel the Philistines. of them, chiefly, it should seem, upon conjecture, for which

David's thanksgiving for his deliverance. there is little or no foundation. Thus the Alexandrian Greek Psal. lii. Composed by David after Saul had sacked the city translators ascribe the hundred and thirty-seventh psalm to of Nob, and put the priests and all their families to the Jeremiah, who could not have written it, for he died before

sword. the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, which

Psal. cix. Composed during Saul's unjust persecution of joyous event is most pleasingly commemorated in that ode. David. The person, against whom this psalm was directed, In like manner, the hundred and forty-sixth and

hundred and was most probably Doeg. Bishop Horsley considers it as a forty-seventh psalms are attributed by them to the prophets prophetic malediction against the Jewish nation. Haggai and Zechariah, for no other reason, it should seem, Psal. xvii. A prayer of David during Saul's bitterest persethan because psalm cxlvi. 7-10. treats of the deliverance cution of him. of the captives and those who were oppressed, and cxlvii. Psal. xxii. David, persecuted by Saul, personates the Messiah, of the restoration of the Jewish church. Psalms ii. and xcv. persecuted and put to death by the Jews. however, as we have already remarked, though anonymous, Psal. xxxv. Composed about the same time, and under the are ascribed by the inspired apostles to David. Some mo- same persecution. dern critics have imagined, that there are a few of the un- Psal. lvii. David, in the cave of En-gedi, implores divine pro titled psalms which were composed so lately as the time of tection, in sure prospect of which he breaks forth into the Maccabees. Thus Rudinger assigns to that period psalms grateful praise. (1 Sam. xxiv. 1.) i. xliv. xlvi. xlix. and cviii., Herman Vonder Hardt, psalm Psal. Iviii. A continuation of the same subject. Complaints cxix.; and Venema, psalms lxxxv. xciii. and cviii.2 This late

against Saul's wicked counsellors. date, however, is impossible, the canon of the Old Testament

Psal. cxlii. David in the cave of En-gedi. Scriptures being closed by Ezra, nearly three centuries be

Psal. cxl. cxli. David, under severe persecution, implores hely fore the time of the Maccabces. But whether David, or

of God. any other prophet, was employed as the instrument of com.

Psal. vii. David violently persecuted by Saul. múnicating to the church such or such a particular psalm is a question, which, if it cannot always be satisfactorily an- 3. Psalms composed by David at the beginning of his Reign swered, needs not disquiet our minds. When we discern, and after the Death of Saul. Of this class there are six in an epistle, the well-known hand of a friend, we are not teen ; viz. solicitous about the pen with which it was written."3

Psal. ii. Written by David, after he had fixed the seat of his V. The following CHRONOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT of the government at Jerusalem, notwithstanding the malignant Psalms, after a careful and judicious examination, has been opposition of his enemies. It is a most noble prediction of adopted by Calmet," who has further specified the probable the kingdom of the Messiah. occasions on which they were composed :

Psal. lxviii

. Composed on occasion of conducting the ark 1. Psalms of which the D.ste is uncertain. These are eight from Kirjath-jearim to Jerusalem. in number; viz.

Psal ix. and xxiv. Sung by David on the removal of the ark Psal. i. This is a preface to the whole book, and is by some

from the house of Obededom to Mount Sion. ascribed to David, by others to Ezra, who is supposed to

Psal. ci. David describes the manner in which he guided his have collected the psalms into a volume.

people in justice and equity. Psal. iv. The expressions of a devout person amid the cor

Psal. xxix. A solemn thanksgiving for the rain that fell after rupt manners of the age. An evening prayer.

David had avenged the Gibeonites on the house of Saul, Psal. viii. The prerogatives of man : and the glory of Jesus by whom they had been unjustly persecuted. 2 Sam. xxi. Christ.

et seq. Psal. xix. A beautiful eulogy on the law of God. A psalm

Psal. xx. Composed by David when he was on the point of of praise to the Creator, arising from a consideration of marching against the Ammonites and Syrians who had his works, as displayed in the creation, in the heavens, and

leagued together against him. 2 Sam. x. in the stars.

Psal. xxi. A continuation of the preceding subject. David's

thanksgiving for his victory over the Ammonites. 1 See p. 239. supra.

Psal. vi. xxxviii. and xxxix. Composed by David during sickRosenmüller, Scholia in Psalmos, Prolegom. c. 2. pp. xi.-xix. He ness; although no notice is taken of this sickness in the adopts the untenable hypothesis of Rudinger. 3 Bishop Horne's Commentary on the Psalms, vol. i. Pref. p. v.

history of David, yet it is the opinion of almost every com4 Commentaire Littéral, tom. iv. pp. lxii.xvi. As some of the Psalms

mentator that these psalms refer to some dangerous illness in the Vulgate Latin version, which was used by Calmet, are divided and from which his recovery was long doubtful. numbered in a different manner from that in which they appear in our Bibles, we have adapted the references to the psalms to the authorized

Psal. xl. A psalm of thanksgiving for his recovery fron sick English version.

ness.

of the Edomites, and, conseqrently, making him nearly 8. He could only affirm his integrity, but could give no special contemporary with Moses. This subscription was received satisfactory reason why God should afflict him in a manner so and credited by the pseudo-Aristeas, Philo, and Polyhistor: very extraordinary, and beyond all preceding cases that were it was also believed in the time of Origen, and is preserved ever known in the world. This very much perplexed and emby Theodotion at the end of his version of the book of Job. barrassed his mind, and laid him under a great disadvantage in

This genealogy is received by. Calmet and Herder as the dispute. And for one thing, it is on this account that he is genuine, but it is manifestly spurious; for not only was it so earnest to come to a conference with God, to know his mind never extant in the Hebrew copies, but, even admitting the and meaning (chap. x. 2.); Show me wherefore thou contendgenealogy in question to be prior to the time of our Saviour, est with me ?! He knew very well he could not absolutely it is too recent to be admitted as evidence in a fact of such justify himself before God. (chap. ix. 2–17.) For he breaks remote antiquity, especially as it is drawn only from conjec-'me with a tempest, he multiplieth my wounds without a cause, ture supported by the slender resemblance between the two or without any apparent reason. (chap. vii. 12. 20.) The whole names Job and Jobab: and when we consider that it is con- twenty-third chapter relates to this point; in which he wishes tradicted by the arguments already adduced to prove that he could come to the dwelling-place of God (ver. 3.), and spread the patriarch lived so many ages anterior to the great legis- his case before him, and argue about it at large (ver. 4.), for he lator of the Hebrews, as well as by the internal evidence had turned his thoughts every way, and could make nothing of derived from the poem itself respecting the rank and condi- it (ver. 8, 9.), only he was sure God knew he was an upright tion of Job, we cannot doubt for a moment that the subscription is both erroneous and spurious.

man. (ver. 10–12.) But (ver. 13.) he is in one nosa, or in IX. Although the preceding view of the scope and argu- mind and designs to himself; and none can turn, or oblige him

unity, supreme above all others, absolutely entire, keeping his ment will convey to the reader an accurate idea of this very to alter his resolution. All that we can say is, that he doth ancient, but in many passages confessedly obscure poem; yet the following rules contain so many useful hints for the whatever is agreeable to his own wisdom. For (ver. 14.) what right understanding of its contents, that, long as this section he hath resolved to inflict upon me he hath accomplished; and necessarily is, the author is unwilling to omit them.3

many such things he doth, of which he will not give us the

reason. To the same purpose understand chap. xxvii. 2–4. 14. RULES TO BE OBSERVED IN STUDYING THE BOOK OF JOB. and chap. xxviii. 2. He hath taken away my judgment, i. e.

1. He that would rightly explain this book must, as much as the rule by which I might judge of the reason of my afflictions. he can, imagine himself in the same afflicted condition. This point, in reference to God, Elihu tells him (chap. xxxij.

2. Every daring thought, or ardent expression, which occurs 13.) he had urged to no purpose, seeing he gives no account in the speeches of this afflicted and exasperated man, is not to of his matters, or will not reveal to us the secrets of his provibe vindicated; yet, as he was a great man, and a prince, he may dence. be allowed to use bold and animated language.

9. In such a noble performance, if any thing seems to be said 3. We shall certainly judge amiss, if we think every thing not in consistency, or not in character, we should rather suspect wrong which will not suit with the politeness of our manners. our own judgment than the good sense of the author. The fault Allowance must be made for the simplicity of those times. is not in the book, but in our understanding.

4. In judging of Job's character, we must set the noble strains 10. That sense which best agrees with the subject, or the point of his piety against the unguarded expressions of his sorrow. in hand, or which stands in the best connection with the context,

5. It is not his innocence, strictly speaking, which Job insists should always be judged the best sense. on, but his sincerity. (chap. vii. 20, 21.)

X. Nothing, perhaps, has contributed more to render the 6. Except their hard censures of Job, his friends speak well poem of Job obscure, than the common division into chapters and religiously.

and verses; by which, not only the unity of the general sub7. His friends encouraged Job to hope for a temporal deliver-ject, but frequently that of a single paragraph or clause, is ance (chap. v. 18, &c. vii

. 20, &c. xi. 14, &c.); but Job de- broken.' The commentators, critics, and analysts, indeed, are spaired of it, and expected his bodily disorder would terminate not agreed as to the exact number of parts of which it conin death (chap. vi. 11, 12.; vii. 6, 7, 8.21.; xvii. 1. 13, 14, 15.; sists: thus Heidegger and the elder Carpzov institute two xix. 10.); though, in the increasing heat of the dispute, they leading divisions, with a multitude of subdivisions; Van seem to drop this sentiment in their following answers, as if Til divides it into four leading parts, Moldenhawer into three, they supposed Job to be too bad to hope for any favour from and Mr. Noyes into two, with a number of subordinate God. He hoped, however, that his character would be cleared heads ; Dr. Good divides it into six books or parts; and Dr in the day of judgment; though he was greatly concerned that Hales into five parts, independently of the exordium and conit could not be cleared before ; that, after a life led in the most clusion : but as these are requisite to the unity of the book, conspicuous virtues, his reputation, in the opinion of his nearest it does not appear that they should be excluded from the arfriends, would sit under a black cloud, and, with regard to the rangement. The poem, then, may be conveniently divided ignorant and profane, leave an odious reproach upon a profession into six parts: the first of these contains the exordium or of religion. This touched him to the heart

, exasperated all his parrative part (ch. i. ii.); the second comprises the first desufferings, and made him often wish, that God would bring him bate or dialogue of Job and his friends (iii.—xiv.); the third to his trial here in this life, that his integrity might be vindicated, includes the second series of debate or controversy (xv.—xxi.); and that all, friends and enemies, might understand the true end the fourth comprehends the third series of controversy (xxii. or design of God in his sufferings, and the honour of religion

See Bishop Patrick's Paraphrase on Job x. 2–8. might be secured. (chap. x. 2, 3.) It is good unto thee, that The following Synopsis exhibits the divisions, and subdivisions, adopted thou shouldlst-shine upon the counsel of the wicked? who by Mr. Noyes in his “Amended Version of the Book of Job:" (Cambridge, from my case take occasion to reproach and vilify true religion, North Am. 1827.),

1. Historical Introduction in Prose. Ch. I. II. and to confirm themselves in their wicked and idolatrous prac- 11. Controversy in Verse. Ch. III. — XLII. 7. tices. (chap. viii. 20—22.; xi. 17–20.; xvi. 9—11.)

The Speech of Job, in wbich he curses his birth-day, is succeeded by
I. The first series of Controversy. Ch. 1V.-XIV.

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Ch. IV. v. His first name was Jobab; and having married an Arabian woman, he had 2. Answer of Job. Ch. VI. VII. by her a son whose name was Ennon. Now he himself was the son of 3. Speech of Bildad. Ch. VIII. Zave, one of the sons of Esau : so that he was the fifth in descent from 4. Answer of Job. Ch. IX. X. Abraham. Now these were the kings who reigned in Edom, over which 5. Speech of Zophar. Ch. XI. country he also bare rule. The first was Balak the son of Beor, and the

Answer of Job. Ch. XII. XIII. name of his city was Dannaba : and after Balak, Jobab, who is called Job: II. Second series of Controversy. Ch. XV.-XXI. and after him, Ason, who was general over the region of Thæmanitis (Te. 1. Speech of Eliphaz. Ch. XV. man); and after him, Adad, the son of Barad, who smote Madiam in the 2. Answer of Job. Ch. XVI. XVII. land of Moab: and the name of his city was Gethaim. And the friends

3. Speech of Bildad. Ch. XVIII. who came to Job were Eliphaz of the sons of Esau king of the Thæma. 4. Answer of Job. Ch. XIX. nites: Baldad, the sovereign of the Saucheans (Shuhites); and Sophar (Zophar), the king of the Minains” (Naamnathites).

5. Speech of Zophar. Ch. XX.

6. Answer of Job. Ch. XXI. Calmet's Dictionary, vol. i. art. Job. Herder on Hebrew Poetry in III. Third series of Controversy. Ch. XXII.-XXXI. M. R. (O. S.) vol. Ixxx. p. 614. $ ill. pp. 228, 229. supra.

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Ch. XXII.

2. Answer of Job. Ch. XXII. XXIV. 3 These rules are extracted from Dr. John Taylor's Scheme of Scripture 3. Speech of Bildad. Ch. XXV. Divinity, chap. xxiii. in Bishop Watson's Collection of Theological Tracts, 4. Answer of Job. Ch. XXVI.-XXXI. vol. i. pp. 97, 98. Dr. Taylor of Norwich was an eminent divine of the last

IV. The Judgment of Elihu respecting the Discussion. Ch. XXXIL century; who was distinguished for his command of temper, benevolent --XXXVII. feeling, and deep acquaintance with the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. V. The Speech of the Deity, which terminates the Discussion. Ch His Scheme of Divinity, it is deeply to be regretted, was Arian, and, there. XXXVIII.-XLII. 7. fore, cannot be recommended to students, indiscriminately.

II. The Conclusion, in Prose. Ch. XLII. 7. to the end.

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