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themselves and their posterity to God (xxix.) ;-promises of

THE SECOND Class. pardon to the repentant (xxx. 1–14.) ;-good and evil set before them. (xxx. 15—20.)

The Ceremonial Law may be fitly reduced to the following

Heads ; viz.
Part IV. The Personal History of Moses, until his Death ;

containing,
Sect. 1. His appointment of Joshua to be his successor (xxxi. Of the matter and structure of the $ 25

, 26, 27.

of the holy place, 148.);-and his delivery of a copy of the law to the priests, to be deposited in the ark, and publicly read every seventh of the instruments of the same; viz. year (xxxi. 9—14.) ;-a solemn charge given to Joshua, The altar of barnt-offering, &c. (xxxi. 15—27.)

The altar of incense, . SECT. 2. The people convened to hear the prophetical and his- The table of show-bread,

The candlestick of pure gold,

25, 26. torical ode of Moses (xxxi. 28—30.), which occupies nearly of the priests and their vestments for the whole of chapter xxxii.

glory and beauty, Sect. 3. His prophetic blessing of the twelve tribes, and their of the priest's office in general,

of the choosing of the Levites, . peculiar felicity and privilege in having Jehovah for their of their office in teaching, God and protector. (xxxiii.)

of their office in blessing, Sect. 4. The death and burial of Moses. (xxxiv.)

of their office in offering, which funcV.“ The book of Deuteronomy and the Epistle to the He

tion largely spreading itself is divideu

into these heads; viz. brews contain the best comment on the nature, design, and what the sacrifices ought to be,

15. 17. use of the law : the former may be considered as an evan- of the continual fire,

6, 7. gelical commentary on the four preceding

books, in which of the manner of the burnt-offerings,

of the peace-offerings, the spiritual reference and signification of the different parts

-of the sacrifices accordof the law are given, and given in such a manner as none ing to their several kinds; viz. could give, who had not a clear discovery of the glory which For sin committed through ignorance

5. was to be revealed. It may be safely asserted that very few for sin committed through ignorance parts of the Old Testament Scriptures can be read with of the fact, greater profit by the genuine Christian than the book of Deu- For sin committed wittingly, yet not teronomy."

The special law of 'sacrifices for sin, .

6, 7. The prophetic ode of Moses is one of the noblest composi- of things belonging to the sacrifices,

2. 6,7 tions in the sacred volume; it contains a justification on the

or the show-bread,

of the lamps, part of God against the Israelites, and an explanation of the of the sweet incense, nature and design of the divine judgments. The exordium, of the use of ordinary oblations, where; Bishop Lowth remarks, is singularly magnificent : the plan

of there were several kinds observed

by the priests; and conduct of the poem is just and natural, and well accom- of ihe consecration of the high-priests modated to the subject, for it is almost in the order of an his- and other priests,

29, 30.

6. 8. torical narration. It embraces a variety of subjects and sen

of the consecrations and Office of the

Levites, timents; it displays the truth and justice of God; his pater- or the dwellings of the Levites, nal love, and his unfailing tenderness to his chosen people; of the anointing the altar, and all the and, on the other hand, their ungrateful and contumacious or the continual daily sacrifices,

29, 30. spirit.-The ardour of the divine indignation, and the heavy ofthe continual sabbath-days' sacrifice, denunciations of vengeance, are afterwards expressed in a

of the solemn sacrifice for feast-days,

which were diverse, and had pecuremarkable personification, which is not to be paralleled from

liar rites, distinguished into these; viz. all the choicest treasures of the muses. The fervour of or trumpets, wrath is however tempered with the mildest beams of lenity of kalends or beginning of months, and mercy, and ends at last in promises and consolation. The of the three most solemn feasts in

23, 34.

16 subject and style of this poem bear so exact a resemblance to

of the feast of passover,

12, 13-25.

23. the prophetic as well as to the lyric compositions of the Hebrews, that it unites all the force, energy, and boldness of the or the feast of tabernacles,

23, 24. latter, with the exquisite variety and grandeur of the former.2 or the feast of blowing the trumpets,

The following useful TABLE or Harmony of the entire of the feast of expiation, Jewish law, digested into proper heads, with references to

Of the first-fruits,

22,23.34. Of tithes,

12.14.36 the several parts of the Pentateuch where the respective laws of fruits growing and not eaten of,

13.22.34. and design of the Mosaic Institutes, and also facilitate his or the sabbatical year, references to every part of them. It is copied from Mr. Wil- of vows in general, son's " Archæological Dictionary,” article Law; where it is what persons ought not to make vows. stated to be s taken from a manuscript in the Library of St. What ihings cannot be vowed, John Baptist's College” (Oxford), given by, Archbishop of the vows of the Nazarites, Laud," and probably either compiled by him or by his direc- of the laws proper for the priests ; viz. tion. It is divided into three classes, exhibiting the Moral, or the high-priest's mourning, Ceremonial, and Political Law.

of his marriage,

of the mourning of the ordinary priests, THE FIRST CLASS.

of their marriage,

of their being forbid the use of wine,&c. The Moral Law written on the Two Tables, containing the

of sanctified meats,
Ten Commandments.

of the office of the Levites; viz.
Teaching,

17.27.31. Offering,

13, 4. 18.

Other promiscuous ceremonial laws; viz The first Table, which includes

of uncleanness in general, The First Commandment,

20. 13.

or uncleanness in meats; viz. 1,5,6,7,8. Of blood,

Gen. ix. The Second Commandment,

10,11,12, or fat,

of dead carcasses, The Third Commandment,

Other meats and diverse living creaThe Fourth Commandment, 31. 35.

of uncleanness in the issue of seed The second Table, including

and blood, The Fifth Commandment,

In the dead bodies of men, The Sixth Commandment,

In the leprosy,

13, 14, The Seventh Commandinent,

18, 19.
of circumcision,

Gen. xvii.
The Eighth Coinmandment,

of the water of expiation, The Ninth Commandment,

or the mourning of the Israelites,
The Tenth Commandment,
The sum of both tables,

or their garinents and writing the law
privately,

6. 11. 22. 1 Dr. A. Clarke, Pref. to Deut. p. ii. in vol. i. of his Commentary, of young birds noi to be taken with

9 Bishop Lowth's Lectures on Hebrew Poetry, Lect. 28. at the beginning, the dam, Tol. ii. pp. 256, 257. of Dr. Gregory's translationi,

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THE THIRD CLASS.

Exod. Levitic. Namb.

Dent.

chap. chap. chap. chap The Political Law.

Other matrimonial laws,

21. 18. 20.

21,22.24,

25. Exod. Levitic. Numb. Deut. 4th. To the eighth commandment; viz. chap chap. chap. chap Of the punishment of thefts,

5. N. B. The magistrate is the keeper

of sacrilege, :

Joshua vii.

Of not injuring strangers, of the precepts of both Tables, and to

10.

19. have respect to human society ;-there

Of not defrauding hirelings,

24.14,15. fore the political laws of the Israelites

Of just weights,

19

25. are referred to both the Tables, and are

of removing the land-mark,

19. to be reduced to the several precepts

Of lost goods, of

of stray cattle,

22.

19.
The Moral Law.
Of corrupted judgments,

16. 24. Laws referred to the first Table, namely,

Of fire breaking out by chance,

22 1st, to the 1st and 2d command

Of man-stealing,

24. of the fugitive servant,

23. ments; viz. Of idolators and apostates,

20.
13. 17. Of gathering fruits, .

19. 23.

23, 24. Of abolishing idolatry,

7. 12. Of contracts; viz. or diviners and false prophets, . 18. Borrowing,

15. Of covenants with other gods,

23. 31.
7. of the pledge,

24. 20. To the third commandment; viz.

Of usury,

23. of blasphemies, .

24.
of selling,

15. 30. To the fourth commandment; viż.

of the thing lent, or breaking the sabbath,

31. 35.

15.

Of a thing committed to be kept, Political laws referred to the second

Of heirs, .

26,27.33

21. table :

36. Ist, To the fifth commandment, viz.

5th. To the ninth commandment; viz.

5.

Of witnesses, or magistrates and their authority,

17 19. 18. 30.

16, 17.
11.
23. The establishing the political law,

4. of the power of fathers,

21. 20.
21. The establishing the divine law in ge-

16. 11. 29, 20. To the sixth commandment; viz.

neral,

30, 31. Of capital punishments,

21. 24.
From the dignity of the lawgiver, ·

19,20.22 15.

5,6,7,8 Of wilful murder, 21. 24. 35. 19.

10.26,27. Of manslaughter unwittingly commit

From the excellency of the laws,

4. 26. ted, and of the cities of refuge, 35. 19.21.22 From the promises,

15.19.23,
18. 25.

4, 5, 6, 7. of heinous injury, : 24.

24. 25.

110,11,12 of punishments not capital, 25.

4.7. 11. or the law of war, .

20. 23.
From the threatenings,

23.

27,28,29, 3d. To the seventh'commandment; viz.

30. Of unlawful marriages,

18. 20.

7. 22. Of fornication,

19.

23. In studying the Pentateuch, particularly the four last Of whoredom,

21. 5. 22.

books, the “ Lectures” of the Rev. Dr. Graves, and the Of adultery and jealousy,

19. 20. Of copulation against nature,

“ Horæ Mosaicæ” of the Rev. G. S. Faber, will be found

18. 20. Of divorcements, .

21. of great use.

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ON THE HISTORICAL BOOKS.

SECTION 1.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE HISTORICAL BOOKS. This division of the Sacred Writings comprises twelve , of Israel and Judah in the books of Samuel and Kings, and books; viz. from Joshua to Esther inclusive: the first seven also to the books of Gad, Nathan, and Iddo. This conjecof these books are, by the Jews, called the former prophets, ture is further strengthened by the two following circumprobably because they treat of the more ancient periods of stances, namely, first, that the days when the transactions Jewish history,' and because they are most justly supposed took place are sometimes spoken of as being long since past, to be written by prophetical men. The events recorded in and, secondly, that things are so frequently mentioned as rethese books occupy a period of almost one thousand years, maining to this day (as stones, names of places, rights and which commences at the death of Moses, and terminates with possessions, customs and usages) ;' which clauses were the great national reform effected by Nehemiah, after the subsequently added to the history by the inspired collectors return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity.

in order to confirm and illustrate it to those of their own age. It is evident, from an examination of the historical books, The learned commentator Henry, to whom we are indehted that they are collections from the authentic records of the for these hints, thinks it not unlikely that the historical books, Jewish nation; and it should seem, that though the substance to the end of Kings, were compiled by the prophet Jeremiah, of the several histories was written under divine direction, a short time before the captivity; he founds this opinion upon when the events were fresh in memory, and by persons who 1 Sam. xxvii. 6., where it is said of Ziklag, that it "pertainwere evidently contemporary with the transactions which eth to the kings of Judah to this day;" which form of expression, they have narrated, yet that under the same direction they he very justly remarks, commenced after the time of Solowere disposed in the form, in which they have been trans- mon, and consequently terminated at the time of the captivity. mitted to us, by some other person, long afterwards, and pro- The remaining five books, from 1 Chronicles to Esther, he bably, all by the same hand, and about the same time. thinks it still more probable, were compiled by Ezra the Nothing, indeed, is more certain than that very ample me- scribe, some time after the captivity; to whom uninterrupted moirs or records of the Hebrew republic were written from testimony ascribes the completion of the sacred canon. the first commencement of the theocracy, to which the authors But, although we cannot determine with certainty the of these books very frequently refer. Such a practice is ne-authors of the historical books, " yet we may rest assured cessary in a well constituted state: we have evidence from that the Jews, who had already received inspired books the Sacred Writings that it anciently obtained among the from the hands of Moses, would not have admitted any heathen nations (compare Esther ii. 23. and vi. 1.); and others as of equal authority, if they had not been fully conthere is evident proof that it likewise prevailed among the vinced that the writers were supernaturally assisted. "Next Israelites from the very beginning of their polity. (See Exod. xvii. 14.) Hence it is that we find the book of Jasher re- 2 Thus in 1 Sam. ix. 9., "he that is now called a prophet was beforetime ferred to in Josh. x. 13. and 2 Sam. i. 18., and that we also called a seer.”

3 See Josh. iv. 9. vii. 20. viii. 29. x. 27. 1 Sam. vi. 18. find such frequent references to the Chronicles of the Kings

· See Josh. v. 9. vii. 26. Judg. i. 26. xv. 19. xviii. 12. 2 Kings xiv. 7.

3 See Judg. i. 21. and 1 Sam. xxvii. 6. 1 On the Jewish Divisions of the Canon of Scripture, see Vol. I. p. 203. & See 1 Sam. v. 5. and 2 Kings xvii. 41.

10 the testimony of Christ and his apostles, which corrobo- | denominated, because it contains a narration of the achieverates all our reasoning respecting the inspiration of the old ments of Joshua the son of Nun, who had been the minister Testament (and, when distinct arguments for any particular of Moses, and succeeded him in the command of the chilbook cannot be found, supplies their place), we must de-dren of Israel ; but by whom this book was written is a pend, in the case before us, upon the testimony of the Jews. question concerning which learned men are by no means And although the testimony of a nation is far from being, in agreed. every instance, a sufficient reason for believing its sacred '1. From the absence of Chaldee words, and others of a books to be possessed of that divine authority which is later date, some are of opinion, not only that the book is of ascribed to them; yet the testimony of the Jews has a pe- very great antiquity, but also that it was composed by Joshua culiar title to be credited, from the circumstances in which himself. Of this opinion were several of the fathers, and it was delivered. It is the testimony of a people, who, having the talmudical writers, and among the moderns, Gerhard, already in their possession genuine inspired books, were the Diodati, Huet, Alber, Bishops Patrick, Tomline, and Gray, better able to judge of others which advanced a claim to and Dr. A. Clarke, who ground their hypothesis principally inspiration; and who, we have reason to think, far from be- upon the following arguments :ing credulous with respect to such a claim, or disposed pre- (1.) Joshua is said (ch. xxiv. 26.) to have written the cipitately to recognise it, proceeded with deliberation and transactions there recorded " in the book of the law of God,” care in examining all pretensions of this nature, and rejected so that the book which bears his name forms a continuation them when not supported by satisfactory evidence. They of the book of Deuteronomy, the last two chapters of which had been forewarned that false prophets should arise, and de- they think were written by Joshua. But, if we examine liver their own fancies in the name of the Lord; and, while the context of the passage just cited, we shall find that it they were thus put upon their guard, they were furnished refers, not to the entire book, but solely to the renewal of with rules to assist them in distinguishing a true from a the covenant with Jehovah by the Israelites. pretended revelation. (Deut. xviii. 20—22.) We have a (2.) In the passage (ch. xxiv. 29. et seq.) where the death proof that the ancient Jews exercised a spirit of discrimina- and burial of Joshua are related, the style differs from the tion in this matter, at a period indeed later than that to rest of the book, in the same manner as the style of Deut. which we refer, in their conduct with respect to the apocry- xxxiii. and xxxiv. varies, in which the decease and burial of phal books; for, although they were written by men of Moses are recorded; and Joshua is here called, as Moses is their own nation, and assumed the names of the most emi- in Deuteronomy, the serrant of God, which plainly proves nent personages,-Solomon, Daniel, Ezra, and Baruch,

yet that this passage was added by a later hand. they rejected them as human compositions, and left the in- (3.) The author intimates (ch. v. 1.) that he was one of fallible church to mistake them for divine. The testimony, those who passed into Canaan. then, of the Jews, who without a dissenting voice have as- ,(4.) The whole book breathes the spirit of the law of serted the inspiration of the historical books, authorizes us Moses, which is a strong argument in favour of its having, to receive them as a part of the oracles of God, which were been written by Joshua, the particular servant of Moses. committed to their care."ı

The last three of these arguments are by no means destiThe historical books are of very great importance for the tute of weigặt, but they are opposed by others which show right understanding of some other parts of the Old Testa- that the book, as we now have it, is not coeval with the ment: those portions, in particular, which treat on the life transactions it records. Thus, we read in Josh. xv. 63. that and reign of David, furnish a very instructive key to many the children of Judah could not drive out the Jebusites, the of his psalms; and the prophetical books derive much light inhabitants of Jerusalem, “ but the Jebusites dwell with the from these histories. But the attention of the sacred writers children of Judah at Jerusalem to this day.” Now this joint was not wholly confined to the Jewish people: they have occupation of Jerusalem by these two classes of inhabitants given us many valuable, though incidental, notices concern- did not take place till after Joshua's death, when the children ing the state of the surrounding nations; and the value of of Judah took that city (Judg. i. 8.), though the Jebusites these notices is very materially enhanced by the considera- continued to keep possession of the strong hold of Zion, tion, that, until the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, the two whence they were not finally expelled until the reign of latest Jewish historians, little or no dependence can be David. (2 Sam. v. 6—8.) The statement in Josh. iv. 9. placed upon the relations of heathen writers. But these (that the stones set up as a memorial of the passage of the books are to be considered not merely as a history of the Israelites over Jordan are standing to this day) was evidently Jewish church: they also clearly illustrate the proceedings added by some later writer. The same remark will apply of God towards the children of men, and forin a perpetual to Josh. xv. 13–19. compared with Judg. i. 10–15. Josh. comment on the declaration of the royal sage, that " Right- xvi. 10. with Judg, i. 29. and to Josh. xix.. 47. collated with eousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any peo- Judg. xviii. 29. Since, then, it appears from internal eviple.” (Prov. xiv. 31.). While they exhibit a mournful but dence that the book was not written by Joshua himself, the impartial view of the depravity of the human heart, and thus question recurs again, by whom was the book composed or prove that “man is very far gone from original righteous-compiled ? Dr. Lightfoot ascribes it to Phineas; Calvin ness;" they at the same time show " the faithfulness of God thinks their conjecture most probable, who refer the writing to his promises, the certain destruction of his enemies, and of this book, or at least the compilation of the history, to the his willingness to extend mercy to the returning penitent. high-priest Eleazar (whose death is recorded in the very last They manifest, also, the excellency of true religion, and its verse of the book); because it was the high-priest's duty tendency to promote happiness in ihis life, as well as in that not only to teach the people orally, but also by writing to which is to come; and they furnish us with many propheti-instruct posterity in the ways of God. Henry, as we have cal declarations, the striking fulfilment of which is every already seen, ascribes it to Jeremiah; and Moldenhawers way calculated to strengthen our faith in the word of God." and Van Til, to Samuel. But, by whatever prophet or in

spired writer this book was composed, it is evident from comparing Josh. xv. 63. with 2 şam. v. 6–8. that it was written before the seventh year of David's reign, and, conse

quently, could not have been written by Ezra. SECTION II.

Further, if the book of Judges were not written later than the beginning of Saul's reign, as some eminent, critics are

disposed to think, or later than the seventh year of David's | Author, genuineness, and credibility of this book.—II. Argu- reign, which is the opinion of others, the book of Joshua

ment.- III. Scope and design.-IV. Synopsis of its contents. must necessarily have been written before one or other of „V. Observations on the book of Jusher mentioned in those dates, because the author of the book of Judges not Joshua x. 13.

only repeats some things verbatim from Joshua, and slightly I. The book of Joshua, which in all the copies of the also, in two several instances (Judg. i. 1. and ii. 6—8.),

touches upon others which derive illustration from it;s but Old Testament immediately follows the Pentateuch, is thus · Dick's Essay on the Inspiration of the Scriptures, pp. 184. 186.

3 Calvin, Proleg. in Jos. op. tom. i. in fine. This great reformer, how· Herodotus and Thucydides, the two most ancient profane historians uncertain.

ever, leaves the question undetermined, as being at most conjectural and extant, were contemporary with Ezra and Nehemiah, and could not write 4 See p. 213. supra.

• Introd. ad Libros Biblicos, p. 36. with any certainty of events much before their own time. Bishop Stilling. Heet has admirably proved the obscurity, defects, and uncertainty of all

6 Opus Analyticum, vol. i. p. 410. ancient profane history, in the first book of his Origines Sacræ, pp. 1–65. Josh. xvi. 10.

- Judg. ii. 6-9. is repeated from Josh. xxiv. 28–31. and Judg. i. 29. frora Bth edit. folio.

. Thus Judg. i. 10--15. 20. derives light from Josh, xv.

ON THE BOOK OF JOSHUA.

commences his narrative from the death of Joshua, which mention of Joshua until after his death; whence it is highly was related in the close of the preceding book. If the book probable that the commentary, from which this book was of Joshua had not been previously extant, the author of compiled, was originally written by Joshua himself. Judges would have begun his history from the occupation (2.) This book was received as authentic by the Jews in and division of the land of Canaan, which was suitable to that age when the original commentary was extant, and the his design in writing that book.

author's fidelity could be subjected to the test of examina2. Whoever was the author of the book of Joshua, it is tion; and, manifest, from the following considerations, that it was (3.) Several of the transactions related in the book of compiled from ancient, authentic, and contemporary docu- Joshua are recorded by other sacred writers with little or no ments :

material variations; thus, we find the conquest and division (1.) The example of Moses, who committed to writing of Canaan, mentioned by Asaph (Psal. lxxviii. 53—65.comthe transactions of his own time, leads us to expect that pared with Psal. xliv. 24.); the slaughter of the Canaansome continuation would necessarily be made, not only to ites by David (Psal. Ixviii. 13—15.); the division of the narrate the signal fulfilment of those promises, which had waters of Jordan (Psal. cxiv. 145. Hab. iii. 8.); the been given to the patriarchs, but also to preserve an account terrible tempest of hailstones after the slaughter of the of the division of the land of Canaan among the particular southern Canaanites (Hab. iii. 11–13.) compared with Josh. tribes, as a record for future ages; and thus prevent disputes x. 9–11.); and the setting up of the tabernacle at Shiloh and civil wars, which in process of time might arise between (Josh. xviii. 1.), in the books of Judges (xviii. 31.) and powerful and rival tribes.

Samuel. (1 Sam. i. 3. 9. 24. and iii. 21.3. (2.) This remark is corroborated by express testimony: (4.) Lastly, every thing related in the book of Joshua not for in Josh. xviii. we not only read that the great captain only accurately corresponds with the age in which that hero of the Israelites caused a survey of the land to be made and lived, but is further confirmed by the traditions current among described in a book, but in xxiv. 25. the author relates that heathen nations, some of which have been preserved by anJoshua committed to writing an account of the renewal of cient and profane historians of undoubted character.3. Thus the covenant with God; whence it is justly inferred that the there are ancient monuments extant, which prove that the other transactions of this period were preserved in some Carthaginians were a colony of Tyrians who escaped from authentic and contemporaneous document or commentary. Joshua; as also that the inhabitants of Leptis in Africa came

(3.) Without some such document the author of this book originally from the Sidonians, who abandoned their country could'not have specified the limits of each tribe with so much on account of the calamities with which it was overwhelmed minuteness, nor have related with accuracy the discourses of The fable of the Phænician Hercules originated in the

history Caleb (Josh. xiv. 6–12.); neither could he have correctly re- of Joshua ; and the overthrow of Og the king of Bashan, Jated the discourses of Phinehas and the delegates who accom- and of the Anakims who were called giants, is considered as panied him, to the tribes beyond Jordan (Josh. xxii. 16–20.), having given rise to the fable of the overthrow of the giants. nor the discourses of the tribes themselves (xxii. 21–30.), The tempest of hailstones mentioned in Josh. x. 11. was nor of Joshua (xxiii. and xxiv.); nor could he have so ar- transformed by the poets into a tempest of stones, with which ranged the whole, as to be in perfect harmony with the law (they pretend) Jupiter overwhelmed the enemies of Hercules of Moses.

in Arim, which is exactly the country where Joshua fought (4.) Without a contemporaneous and authentic document, with the children of Anak. the author would not have expressed himself, as in ch. v. 1., The Samaritans are by some writers supposed to have as if he had been present in the transactions which he has received the book of Joshua, but this opinion appears to have related, nor would he have written, as he has done in vi. 25., originated in mistake. They have indeed two books extant, that "she dwelleth in Israel unto this day ;” and this docu- bearing the name of Joshua, which differ very materially ment he has expressly cited in x. 13, by the title of the from our Hebrew copies. One of these is a chronicle of Book of Jasher," or of the Upright. To these proofs may events from Adam to the year of the Hijra 898, corresponding be added the two following, viz:

with A. D. 1492 ;; and the other is a similar chronicle badly (5.) “ The absence of any traces of disputes or civil wars compiled, from the death of Moses to the death of Alexander among the tribes, concerning their respective boundaries. Severus. It consists of forty-seven chapters, filled with fa

“Some document of acknowledged authority, accurately bulous accounts, written in the Arabic language, but in Sasettling the bounds of the several tribes, must have existed maritan characters.9 from the very partition, by reference to which disputes of IJ. The book of Joshua comprises the history of about this kind might be settled, or the peaceful state of the grow- seventeen years, or, according to some chronologers, of ing tribes would have been entirely without any example in twenty-seven or thirty years : " it is one of the most importhe history of mankind.

tant documents in the old covenant; and it should never be (6.) “Without the existence of contemporaneous and au- separated from the Pentateuch, of which it is at once both thoritative records, the allotment of thirteen cities to the the continuation and the completion.” The Pentateuch conpriests (ch. xxi. 13—19.) would have been nugatory. tains a history of the acts of the great Jewish legislator, and Aaron's family could not have been, at the time of the allot- the laws upon which the Jewish church was to be establish ment, sufficiently numerous to occupy those cities. But it ed: and the book of Joshua relates the history of Israel is altogether unlikely that these, with the adjoining lands, under the command and government of Joshua, the conquest were left entirely unoccupied in expectation of their future of Canaan, and its subsequent division among the Israelites; owners. To afford security, therefore, to the sacerdotal together with the provision made for the settlement and esfamily for their legitimate rights, when they should be in a tablishment of the Jewish church in that country. condition to claim them, some document contemporaneous III. From this view of the argument of Joshua, we may with the appropriation must have existed. Without such a easily perceive that the Scope and Design of the inspired document, innumerable disputes must have arisen, whenever writer of this book were to demonstrate the faithfulness of they attempted to claim their possessions. "2

God, in the perfect accomplishment of all his promises to 3. Equally clear is it that the author of this book has made his extracts from authentic documents with religious 3 See particularly Justin, lib. xxxvi. c. 2. and Tacitus, Hist. lib. v. cc. 2, fidelity, and, consequently, it is worthy of credit : for,

On the falsely alleged contradictions between the sacred and profane (1.) In the first place he has literally copied the speeches historians, see Vol. 1. Part VI. chap. vii. of Caleb, Phinehas, of the tribes beyond Jordan, and of (Bishop Watson's Collection of Theological Tracts, vol. i. p. 351.)

4 Allix's Reflections upon the Books of the Old Testament, chap. ii. Joshua, and in other passages has so closely followed his s Procopius (Vandal. lib. ii. c. 10.) cites a Phænician inscription; conauthority, as to write in v. I. " until we were passed over,” taining a passage which he has translated into Greek, to the following pur and in vi. 25. that Rahab " dwelleth in Israel unto this day.” Soshira) the robler, the son of Nare." Suidas cites the inscription thus : Hence, also, the tribes are not mentioned in the geographical " We are the Canaanites whom Jesus the robber erpelled.". The differ. order in which their respective territories were situate, but ence between these two writers is not material, and may be accounted for according to the order pursued in the original document,- | by the same passage being differently rendered by different translators, or

being quoted from memory,-no unusual occurrence among profane namely, according to the order in which they received their writers. tracts of land by lot. (Josh. xv.-xix.) Lastly, in conformity 6 Polybius, Frag. cxiv. Sallust. Bell. Jugurthin. c. xxii. to his original document, the author has made no honourable pp. 23–282. Amstel. 1680. 8vo. Some learned men have supposed that

1 Alix's Reflections, ut supra. Huet, Demonstratio Evangelica, vol. 1. 1 Jahn and Ackermann, Introd. in Libros Sacros Vet. Fæd. part ii. ss the poetical fable of Phäeton was founded on the miracle of the sun standing 25–38.

still (Josh. x. 12–14.); but on a calm investigation of the supposed resem. * For the two preceding remarks, the author is indebted to the Rev. Dr. blance, there does not appear to be any foundation for such an opinion. Turner's and Mr. Whittingham's translation of Jahn's Introduction, p. 227. 8 Jahn and Ackermann, Introd. in Libros, Vet. Fæd. part ii. $ 27. note. New York, 1827.

9 Fabricii Codex Apocryphus Veteris Testamenti, p. 876. et seq.

3.

the patriarchs, Abraham (Gen. xiii. 15.), Isaac (xxvi. 4.), The circumstances observed in the division of the promised land be Jacob (xxxv. 12.), and Joseph (1. 24.), and also to Moses speak a mnost wise and careful provision for a constant and uninterrupted (Exod. 1ii. 8.), that the children of Israel should obtain pos- to preserve and clearly to ascertain the genealogy of Christ, theirs and our session of the land of Canaan. At the same time we behold great Messiah ; "the end of the law for righteousness;" in whom were to the divine power and mercy signally displayed in cherishing, apparent completion of remarkable prophecies relating thereto, to make protecting, and defending his people, amid all the trials and this one of the satisfactory and convincing evidences of his divine mission.a difficulties to which they were exposed; and as the land of

Sect. 4. The dismission from the camp of Israel of the militia Canaan is in the New Testament considered as a type of

of the two tribes and a half who settled on the other side of heaven, the conflicts and trials of the Israelites have been

Jordan, their consequent return, and the transactions resultconsidered as figuratively representing the spiritual conflicts

ing from the altar which they erected on the borders of Jorof believers in every age of the church. Although Joshua,

dan in token of their communion with the children of whose piety, courage, and disinterested integrity are con- Israel. (xxii.) spicuous throughout his whole history, is not expressly mentioned in the New Testament as a type of the Messiah, Part III. The Dying Addresses and Counsels of Joshua, his yet he is universally allowed to have been a very eminent

Death and Burial, &c. one. He bore our Saviour's name; the Alexandrian version, Sect. 1. Joshua's address to the Israelites, in which he giving his name a Greek termination, uniformly calls him reminds them of the signal benefits conferred on them by inocus_Jesus; which appellation is also given to him in God, and urges them to “cleave unto the LORD their God." Acts vii. 45. and Heb. iv. 8. Joshua saved the people of (xxiii.) God (as the Israelites are emphatically styled in the Scrip- Sect. 2. Joshua's dying address to the Israelites, and renewal tures) from the Canaanites: Jesus Christ saves his people of the covenant between them and God. (xxiv. 1--28.) from their sins. (Matt. i 21.)

These valedictory speeches of Joshua to the Israelites, like those of MoA further design of this book is to show the portion which ses, give us an idea of a truly great

man, and of a wise and religious goverwas allotted to each tribe. With this view, the author more nor, the only aim of whose power is the glory of God, and the lasting hap than once

reminds the Israelites that not one thing had failed to be imitated in due proportion by all the princes of the earth. 3 of all the good things which the LORD spake concerning

Sect. 3. The death and burial of Joshua, the burial of Joseph's them; and that “ all had come to pass unto them, and not

bones, and the death of Eleazar the high-priest. (xxiv. one thing had failed thereof." (ch. xxiii. 14. with xxi. 45.).

294-33.) Further, the historian does not notice any subsequent alteration of the division : for the conquest of the cíties of He- It is, however, necessary to remark, that there is some accibron and Debir, mentioned by Caleb in ch. xv. 13—19., dental derangement of the order of the chapters in this book took place under Joshua, and is introduced in Judg. i. 10— occasioned, probably, by the ancient mode of rolling up 15.20., only as a retrospective notice of an event of a preced- manuscripts. If chronologically placed, they should be read ing age. What is said of the tribes of Judah, Ephraim, and thus : first chapter to the ninth verse; then the second chapManasseh (Josh. xv. 63. xvi. 10. xvii. 12.), does not prove ter; then from the tenth verse to the end of the first chapter ; that the book is of recent origin; although, as the passages after which should follow the third and consecutive chapters are not connected with the series of the narration, they may to the eleventh; then the twenty-second chapter, and the possibly be interpolations. Lastly, the places (xv. 9. xviii. twelfth to the twenty-first chapter, inclusive; and, lastly, the 25.), in which Kirjath-jearim is ascribed to the tribe of Judah twenty-third and twenty-fourth chapters. and Gibeon, Beeroth and Kephira to that of Benjamin, al

V. A considerable difference of opinion subsists among though they were cities of the Gibeonites, have no relation learned men concerning the book of Jasher, mentioned in to the transaction mentioned in 2 Sam. iv. 2. and xxi. 6., for Josh. x. 13. In addition to the observations already offered, 4 Gibeon was afterwards given (Josh. xxi. 17.) to the priests : we may remark, that Bishop Lowth is of opinion, that it was whence it is evident that these cities were left in possession a poetical book, no longer extant when the author of Joshua of the Gibeonites, who were servants of the sanctuary, and and Samuel lived and wrote.5 merely subjected to the jurisdiction of the tribes to which they are ascribed.

IV. The book of Joshua may be conveniently divided into three parts : viz.

SECTION III.
PART 1, The History of the Occupation of Canaan by the
Israelites (cc. i.-xii.); comprising,

I. Title.-II. Date and author.—III. Scope, chronology, and Sect. 1. The call and confirmation of Joshua to be captain

synopsis of its contents.—IV. Observations on some difficult general of that people. (i.)

passages in this book. Sect. 2. The sending out of the spies to bring an account of the city of Jericho. (ii.)

1. The book of Judges derives its name from its containing Sect. 3. The miraculous passage of the Israelites over Jordan the history of the Israelites from the death of Joshua to the

(iii.), and the setting up of twelve memorial stones. (iv.) time of Eli, under the administration of thirteen Judges, Secr. 4. The circumcision of the Israelites at Gilgal, and whom God raised up on special occasions to deliver his

their celebration of the first passover in the land of Canaan; people from the oppression of their enemies, and to manage the appearance of the “captain of the Lord's host” to and restore their affairs. Concerning their powers and funcJoshua near Jericho. (v.)

2 Pyle's Paraphrase on the Old Testament, vol. ii. p. 3. Secr. 5. The capture of Jericho (vi.) and of Ai. (vii. viii.).

3 Ibid. p. 4.

4 See Vol. I. p. 57. Sect. 6. The politic confederacy of the Gibeonites with the 5. The book of Jasher is twice quoted, first in Josh.

x. 13. where the quo. children of Israel. (ix.)

tation is evidently poetical, and forms exactly three distiches. Sect. 7. The war with the Canaanitish kings, and the miracle

"Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon,

And thou moon, in the valley of Ajalon: of the sun's standing still. (x.)

And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed her course, Sect. 8. The defeat of Jabin and his confederates. (xi.)

Until the people were avenged of their enemies.

And the sun tarried in the midst of the heavens, Secr. 9. A summary recapitulation of the conquests of the And hasted not to go down in a whole day." Israelites both under Moses in the eastern part of Canaan The second passage where the book of Jasher is cited is in 2 Sam. i. 18., (xii. 1–6.), and also under Joshua himself in the western where David's lamentation over Saul is said to be extracted from it. part. (xii. 7--24.)

custom of the Hebrews, in giving titles to their books from the initial word

is well-known: thus Genesis is called Bereshith, &c. They also somePart II. The Division of the conquered Land; containing, times named the book from some remarkable word in the first sentence;

thus the book of Numbers is sometimes called Bemidbar. We also find Sect. 1. A general division of Canaan. (xiii.)

in their writings canticles which had been produced on important occaSect. 2. A particular apportionment of it among the Israelites, sions, introduced by some form of this

kind az jashar (then sang), or ve including

the portion of Caleb (xiv.); the lot of Judah jashar peloni, &c. Thus az jashir Mosheh, then sang Moses" (Exod. (xv.); of Ephraim (xvi.); of Manasseh (xvii.) ; of Benja- and Deborah sang." (Judg. v. 1.) See also the inscription of Psal. xviii.) min (xviii.) ; and of the six tribes of Simeon, Zebulun, Issa- Thus the book of Jasher is supposed to have been some collection of char, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, and of Joshua himself. (xix.)

sacred songs, composed at different times and on different occasions, and to have had this title, because

the book itself and most of the songs began Sect. 3. The appointment of the cities of refuge (xx.) and of in general with this word, ve-jashar. Lowth’s Prælect.

pp. 306, 307, notes ; the Levitical cities. (xxi.)

or Dr. Gregory's translation, vol. ii. pp. 152, 153. notes. The book of Jasher, published at London in 1751, and reprinted at Bristol in 1829, is a shameless

literary forgery. An account of it will be found in the Bibliographical An· Jahn's Introduction by Prof. Turner, p. 221.

pendix to Vol. II.

ON THE BOOK OF JUDGES.

The

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